Disc golf is a flying disc sport in which players throw a disc at a target. It is played on a course of 9 or 18 holes. Players complete a hole by throwing a disc from a tee area toward a target, throwing again from the landing position of the disc until the target is reached; the number of throws a player uses to reach each target are tallied, players seek to complete each hole, the course, in the lowest number of total throws. The game is played in about 40 countries and there are over 103,000 active members of the PDGA worldwide. Disc golf was first invented in the early 1900s; the first game was held in Bladworth, Canada in 1926. Ronald Gibson and a group of his Bladworth Elementary School buddies played a game of throwing tin lids into 4 foot wide circles drawn into sandy patches on their school grounds, they called the game Tin Lid Golf and played on a regular basis. However, after they grew older and went their separate ways, the game came to an end, it was not until the 1970s that modern disc golf would be introduced to Canadians at the Canadian Open Frisbee Championships in Toronto and Vancouver, BC.
Modern disc golf started in the early 1960s, but there is debate over who came up with the idea first. The consensus is. Students at Rice University in Houston, for example, held tournaments with trees as targets as early as 1964, in the early 1960s, players in Pendleton King Park in Augusta, Georgia would toss Frisbees into 50-gallon barrel trash cans designated as targets. In 1968 Frisbee Golf was played in Alameda Park in Santa Barbara, California by teenagers in the Anacapa and Sola street areas. Gazebos, water fountains, lamp posts, trees were all part of the course; this took place for several years and an Alameda Park collectors edition disc still exists, though rare, as few were made. Clifford Towne from this group went on to hold a National Time Aloft record. Two early coordinators of the sport are George Sappenfield and Kevin Donnelly, through similar backgrounds and the help of Ed Headrick at Wham-O, were able to individually spread the sport in their California cities. Donnelly began playing a form of Frisbee golf in 1959 called Street Frisbee Golf.
In 1961, while a recreation leader and recreation supervisor for the City of Newport Beach, California, he formulated and began organizing Frisbee golf tournaments at nine of the city's playgrounds he supervised. This culminated in 1965 with a documented, Wham-O sponsored, citywide Frisbee golf tournament spearheaded by "Steady" Ed Headrick at Wham-O; this publicized tournament included hula hoops as holes, with published rules, hole lengths and prizes. In 1965, Sappenfield was a recreation counselor during a summer break from college during which, he set up an object course for his children to play on; when he finished college in 1968, Sappenfield became the Parks and Recreation supervisor for Conejo Recreation and Park District in Thousand Oaks, California. Sappenfield planned a disc golf tournament as part of a recreation project and contacted Wham-O Manufacturing to ask them for help with the event. Wham-O supplied Frisbees for throwing, hula hoops for use as targets. Before 1973 and the invention of the disc golf target called the disc pole hole, there were only a few disc golf object courses in the U.
S. and Canada. Despite having never heard of the International Frisbee Association that Ed Headrick and Wham-O had put together, or seeing a copy of the IFA Newsletter, Jim Palmeri, his brother, a small group of people from Rochester, NY, had been playing disc golf as a competitive sport on a regular basis since August 1970, including tournaments and weekly league play. By 1973, they had promoted two City of Rochester Disc Frisbee Championship events which featured disc golf as the main event. In Canada, beginning in 1970, Ken Westerfield and Jim Kenner played Frisbee golf daily on an 18 object hole course they designed at Queen's Park in downtown Toronto and presented Canada's first disc golf competitions. In California, the Berkeley Frisbee Group established a standardized 18 hole object course on the Berkeley campus in 1970. University of Michigan Nichols Arboretum, Ann Arbor had an object Frisbee golf course designed in the early 1970s. Wham-O's $50,000 Disc Golf Tournament was significant turning point for disc golf.
Held in Huntington Beach, California. The tournament was groundbreaking and foremost because of the cash involved, its massive payout right in the title, but because the competitors had to qualify for an invitation. 72 qualifying events were established around the country, bringing in the best disc golfers from across the United States. "Steady Ed" Headrick and Dave Dunipace are two inventors and players who impacted how disc golf is played. In 1976 Headrick formalized the rules of the sport, founded the Disc Golf Association, the Professional Disc Golf Association, the Recreational Disc Golf Association and invented the first formal disc golf target with chains and a basket. Dave Dunipace invented the modern golf disc in 1983, with the revolutionary change of adding a beveled rim, giving the disc a greater distance and accuracy. Dave was one of the founders of a well-known disc manufacturer. In 1982 Ed Headrick turned over control of the PDGA to the players and Ted Smethers to be run independently and to officiate the standard rules of play for the sport.
"Steady Ed" Headrick began thinking about the sport dur
Snowmaking is the production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun," known as a "snow cannon." Snowmaking is used at ski resorts to supplement natural snow. This allows ski resorts to improve the reliability of their snow cover and to extend their ski seasons from late autumn to early spring. Indoor ski slopes use snowmaking, they can do so year-round as they have a climate-controlled environment. The use of snowmaking machines is becoming common as changing weather patterns and the rising popularity of indoor ski resorts create a demand for snow beyond that, provided by nature. Snowmaking machines have addressed the shortage in the supply of snow, there are significant environmental and cultural costs associated with the artificial production of snow. According to the European Environment Agency, the length of snow seasons in the northern hemisphere has decreased by five days each decade since the 1970s, thus increasing the demand for the production of artificial snow.
Some ski resorts use artificial snow to extend their ski seasons and augment natural snowfall, however there are some resorts that rely entirely upon artificial snow production. Furthermore, artificial snow was used extensively at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang to supplement natural snowfall, provide the best possible conditions for competition; the production of snow requires low temperatures. The threshold temperature for snowmaking increases as humidity decreases. Wet bulb temperature is used as a metric since it takes air temperature and relative humidity into account. Snowmaking is a expensive process in its energy use, thereby limiting its use. Art Hunt, Dave Richey, Wayne Pierce invented the snow cannon in 1950, but secured a patent sometime later. In 1952, Grossinger's Catskill Resort Hotel became the first in the world to use artificial snow. Snowmaking began to be used extensively in the early 1970s. Many ski resorts depend upon snowmaking. Snowmaking has achieved greater efficiency with increasing complexity.
Traditionally, snowmaking quality depended upon the skill of the equipment operator. Computer control supplements that skill with greater precision, such that a snow gun operates only when snowmaking is optimal. All-weather snowmakers have been developed by IDE; the key considerations in snow production are increasing water and energy efficiency and increasing the environmental window in which snow can be made. Snowmaking plants require water pumps and sometimes air compressors when using lances, that are both large and expensive; the energy required to make artificial snow is about 0.6 - 0.7 kW h/m³ for lances and 1 - 2 kW h/m³ for fan guns. The density of artificial snow is between 400 and 500 kg/m³ and the water consumption for producing snow is equal to that number. Snowmaking begins with a water supply such as reservoir. Water is pushed up a pipeline on the mountain using large electric pumps in a pump house; this water is distributed through an intricate series of valves and pipes to any trails that require snowmaking.
Many resorts add a nucleating agent to ensure that as much water as possible freezes and turns into snow. These products are organic or inorganic materials that facilitate the water molecules to form the proper shape to freeze into ice crystals; the products are biodegradable. The next step in the snowmaking process is to add air using an air plant; this plant is a building which contains electric or diesel industrial air compressors the size of a van or truck. However, in some instances air compression is provided using diesel-powered, portable trailer-mounted compressors which can be added to the system. Many fan-type snow guns have on-board electric air compressors, which allows for cheaper, more compact operation. A ski area may have the required high-output water pumps, but not an air pump. Onboard compressors are easier than having a dedicated pumping house; the air is cooled and excess moisture is removed before it is sent out of the plant. Some systems cool the water before it enters the system.
This improves the snowmaking process as the less heat in the air and water, the less heat must be dissipated to the atmosphere to freeze the water. From this plant the air travels up a separate pipeline following the same path as the water pipeline; the water is sometimes mixed with ina proteins from the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. These proteins serve as effective nuclei to initiate the formation of ice crystals at high temperatures, so that the droplets will turn into ice before falling to the ground; the bacterium itself uses these ina proteins. The pipes following the trails are equipped with shelters containing hydrants, electrical power and, communication lines mounted. Whereas shelters for fan guns require only water and maybe communication, lance-shelters need air hydrants as well. Hybrid shelters allow maximum flexibility to connect each snow machine type as they have all supplies available; the typical distance for lance shelters is 100–150 feet, for fan guns 250–300 feet. From these hydrants 1 1⁄2"–2" pressure resistant hoses are connected similar to fire hoses with camlocks to the snow machine.
The infrastructure to support snowmaking may have a negative environmental impact, altering water tables near reservoirs and mineral and nutrient content of the soil under the snow itself. There are many forms of snowmaking guns. For most guns the type or "quality" of snow can be changed by regulating the amount of water in the mixture. For
Robert Trent Jones
Robert Trent Jones Sr. was an English–American golf course architect who designed or re-designed more than 500 golf courses in 45 U. S. states and 35 countries. In reference to this, Jones took pride in saying, "The sun never sets on a Robert Trent Jones golf course." He is confused with the famous amateur golfer Bobby Jones with whom he worked from time to time. Jones received the 1987 Old Tom Morris Award from the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, GCSAA's highest honor. In 1987, he was inducted into the World Golf Hall of Fame. Robert Trent Jones was born on June 1906, in Ince-in-Makerfield, England, to Welsh parents. At age five or six, Jones emigrated with his parents to the United States, where they arrived in East Rochester, New York. Jones worked as a caddie at The Country Club of Rochester and accepted a job as golf professional at Sodus Bay Heights Golf Club in nearby Sodus Point, New York, he met Donald Ross as a youth and, taking up the game, recorded the best score of all the amateur golfers at the 1927 Canadian Open and set a course record at Rochester.
While working as a golf professional, Jones attended Cornell University, undergoing a customized course of study that would allow him to pursue his interest in golf course design, during which time he designed nine holes of the university's golf course, now known as the Robert Trent Jones Golf Course at Cornell University. While at Cornell, Jones joined Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. Jones went into business with Canadian architect Stanley Thompson after concluding his studies at Cornell, with him designed courses in Canada. Following his partnership with Thompson, Jones went into business on his own and began designing local courses in the United States in the 1930s. Many of these, such as the 1936 course at Green Lakes State Park, were built using labor provided by the Works Progress Administration. Shortly after World War II, Jones got his first major assignment designing the Peachtree Golf Club in Atlanta in collaboration with golf legend Bobby Jones. At Bobby Jones' request, Jones redesigned the 16th holes at Augusta National Golf Club.
Despite the similarity of their names, the two men were not related. To make this distinction clear, Robert began using the middle name "Trent" shortly afterward. In 1955, Gene Hamm helped Jones build the Duke University Golf Course in North Carolina, he moved from there to Delaware to continue work with Jones, in 1959 moved back to Raleigh where he began his own design career. During the 1950s, Jones' annual income was reported as being $600,000—according to Golf Digest, no one other than Ben Hogan earned more money from golf at that time. Jones' clients included U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, for a putting green at the White House and a single hole at Camp David, as well as the Rockefeller family, Aga Khan and Hassan II of Morocco, for private courses, he was commissioned in 1990 to design a set of 18 courses in Alabama, the Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail, the largest single golf design contract in history. Jones was married to Ione Jones, who died in 1987 and with whom he had two sons: Robert Jr. and Rees, both of whom became golf course architects.
Jones continued to design golf courses in his years until health problems prompted him to retire to Ft. Lauderdale, where he died on June 14, 2000. List of golf courses designed by Robert Trent Jones Robert Trent Jones Sr. at the World Golf Hall of Fame Robert Trent Jones Society
Killington Ski Resort
Killington Mountain Resort & Ski Area is a ski resort in the northeast United States, near Killington, Vermont. It is the largest ski area in the eastern U. S. and has the largest vertical drop in New England at 3,050 feet. Starting in the 2013–14 ski season, it was given the title "Beast of the East." In 1954, Perry H. Merrill, the Father of Vermont's State Parks and Alpine Ski Areas and Vermont State land lease officer, wanted to see a ski resort developed on Killington Peak, the second highest mountain in Vermont. Preston Leete Smith agreed to work with him to develop this area. Killington opened on December 13, 1958; the resort expanded in the 1960s at a pace "well above industry standards." Many new trails were created and Smith had beginner trails accessible from every lift. In the 1960s, Killington installed snowmaking equipment, invented in the 1950s, but was considered a banana belt luxury. Several low-snow seasons proved their value. Killington introduced the ticket wicket in 1963 to prevent skiers sharing lift tickets, while not damaging ski clothing.
In the summer of 2011, the Killington area was damaged by Tropical Storm Irene in late August, which caused flooding and damage along U. S. Route 4, the road leading into Killington; the resort was damaged by excess runoff from Ottauquechee River, which lifted the Superstar Pub off of its foundation, condemning the structure. Killington has since repaired damaged infrastructure, is operating at full or near-full potential. Powdr has announced that it will stop honoring "lifetime" lift passes issued by the previous owners after two years. A class action lawsuit was filed on behalf of about 800 pass holders. Located in central Vermont, Killington has 155 trails, 21 lifts, 1,509 acres extending across six interconnected mountain peaks. A seventh peak, Pico Mountain, was purchased by Killington in 1996, but operates as a separate resort on the same lift tickets. There have been several proposals to connect Killington and Pico with a series of lifts and trails since 1998, however, no plans have been finalized.
The primary mountain is Killington Peak at 4,229 ft, which has the second-highest summit in Vermont and has the second greatest vertical drop in the eastern United States, after Whiteface Mountain in Wilmington, New York at 3,430 ft. The mountains that make up the Killington resort separate the town of Killington from the city of Rutland; the resort offers trails ranging from beginner to expert. Trails include "Outer Limits". Part of the mountain is set aside with five snowboard and alpine parks. Killington has a learning area for first-time skiers, the "Accelerated Learning Area". Killington has one of the east's largest half-pipes located at Bear Mountain for a portion of each winter season. There are boarder cross terrain and at least three to five major trails with jumps. Snowshed, devoted to beginners, is serviced by two lifts, however one runs. Snowshed is an open slope, with a restaurant at the bottom; the adult ski school is located at Snowshed. And the Killington Grand quarter share Hotel is located at the bottom of Snowshed.
Ramshead mountain features beginner and intermediate terrain serviced by an Poma express quad lift, a Poma platter lift for the racing training on Swirl trail. The Ski School for children and teenagers is located at Ramshead base lodge. "Squeeze Play" is an easy gladed trail with wide gaps between a relitavely flat profile. Snowdon Mountain provides a variety of beginner and expert trails. Among the trails are Conclusion, rated double black diamond, Great Northern, a beginner trail. There are two chairlifts (a Heron-Poma triple from K-1 and a Detachable Six-Pack with blue bubble chairs from end of Caper. Killington Peak, the highest of the six mountain peaks, includes the "Canyon Area", near the top, with some of the steepest terrain on the mountain. There are several double black diamond trails there, including Cascade, Double Dipper, the Big Dipper Glade, it is serviced by the Pona of America built K-1 gondola, North ridge triple the Canyon Quad. Two shorter runs here include Reason in North Ridge area.
Easier trails connect this peak to the rest of the mountain. There are lodges with restaurants at both the base of Killington Peak; the peak was once accessible only by the original Killington gondola, which featured three stages, beginning at the bottom of the current Skyeship gondola. It has since been replaced by the two shorter gondolas; the K-1 gondola replaces the earlier Killington peak double chairlift, while the Skyeship gondola took the place of the first two stages of the original in the sama alingment. Skye Peak includes every type of terrain available. Trails include upper Vertigo, the steepest non-gladed trail at Killington, Ovation, a black forming into a double black when it becomes Lower Ovation, one of the steepest trails on the mountain, Superstar, a black diamond, wide and has lots of artificial snowmaking to hold one of the longest skiing seasons in the US closing at the end of May, it is serviced by the Yan built Superstar Express Quad, the 2008 Leitner-Poma Skye Peak Express Quad, the Skyeship Express Gondola, erected in 1994.
Bear Mountain, home to Outer Limits, a steep double black diamond mogul run, home to the Bear mountain Mogul challenge, Devil's Fiddle, another double black diamond. Bear Mountain features terrain parks, including a superpipe, it was once served by two lifts, a quad and triple until 2008 and now is serviced by one quad lift and has a lodge and restaurant. Bear Mountain hosts large-scale c
An elevated passenger ropeway, or chairlift, is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a continuously circulating steel cable loop strung between two end terminals and over intermediate towers, carrying a series of chairs. They are the primary onhill transport at most ski areas, but are found at amusement parks, various tourist attractions, in urban transport. Depending on carrier size and loading efficiency, a passenger ropeway can move up to 4000 people per hour, the fastest lifts achieve operating speeds of up to 12 m/s or 43.2 km/h. The two-person double chair, which for many years was the workhorse of the ski industry, can move 1200 people per hour at rope speeds of up to 2.5 m/s. The four person detachable chairlift can transport 2400 people per hour with an average rope speed of 5 m/s; some bi and tri cable elevated ropeways and reversible tramways achieve much greater operating speeds. A chairlift consists of numerous components to provide safe efficient transport. At American ski areas, chairlifts are referred to with a ski industry vernacular.
A one-person lift is a "single", a two-person lift is a "double", a three-person lift a “triple”, four-person lifts are “quads”, a six-person lift is a "six pack". If the lift is a detachable chairlift, it is referred to as a “high-speed” lift, which results in a “high-speed quad” or “high-speed six pack”. Rope speed the speed in feet per minute or meters per second at which the rope moves interval the spacing between carriers, measured either by distance or time capacity the number of passengers the lift transports per hour efficiency the ratio of loaded carriers during peak operation expressed as a percentage of capacity; because fixed grip lifts move faster than detachables at load and unload, misloads are more frequent on fixed grips, can reduce the efficiency as low as 80%. Fixed grip each carrier is fastened to a fixed point on the rope detachable grip each carrier's grip opens and closes during regular operation allowing detachment from the rope and travel for load and unload. Detachable grips allow a greater rope speed to be used twice that of a fixed grip chair, while having slower loading and unloading sections.
See detachable chairlift. The capacity of a lift is constrained by the motive power, the rope speed, the carrier spacing, the vertical displacement, the number of carriers on the rope. Human passengers can load only so until loading efficiency decreases; the rope is the defining characteristic of an elevated passenger ropeway. The rope stretches and contracts as the tension exerted upon it increases and decreases, it bends and flexes as it passes over sheaves and around the bullwheels; the fibre core contains a lubricant which protects the rope from corrosion and allows for smooth flexing operation. The rope must be lubricated to ensure safe operation and long life. Various techniques are used for constructing the rope. Dozens of wires are wound into a strand. Several strands are wound around a textile core, their twist is oriented in the same or opposite direction as the individual wires. Rope is constructed in a linear fashion, must be spliced together before carriers are affixed. Splicing involves unwinding long sections of either end of the rope, winding each strand from opposing ends around the core.
Sections of rope must be removed. Every lift involves at least two terminals and may have intermediate supporting towers. A bullwheel in each terminal redirects the rope, while sheaves on the towers support the rope well above the ground; the number of towers is engineered based on the length and strength of the rope, worst case environmental conditions, the type of terrain traversed. The bullwheel with the prime mover is called the drive bullwheel. Chairlifts are electrically powered with Diesel or gasoline engine backup, sometimes a hand crank tertiary backup. Drive terminals can be located either at the bottom of an installation; the drive terminal is the location of a lift's primary braking system. The service brake is located on the drive shaft before the gearbox; the emergency brake acts directly on the bullwheel. While not technically a brake, an anti-rollback device acts on the bullwheel; this prevents the disastrous situation of runaway reverse operation. The rope must be tensioned to compensate for sag caused by wind load and passenger weight, variations in rope length due to temperature and to maintain friction between the rope and the drive bullwheel.
Tension is provided either by a counterweight system or by hydraulic or pneumatic rams, which adjust the position of the bullwheel carriage to maintain design tension. For most chairlifts, the tension is measured in tons. Either Diesel engines or electric motors can function as prime movers; the power can range from under 7.5 kW for the smallest of lifts, to more than 750 kW for a long, detachable eight-seat up a steep slope. DC electric motors and DC drives are the most common, though AC motors and AC drives are becoming economically competitive for certain smaller chairlift installations. DC drives are less expensive than AC variable-frequency drives and were used
Mount Ellen (Vermont)
Mount Ellen is a 4,083-foot high mountain in Vermont. It is located in the Green Mountains in Washington County. Mount Ellen is flanked to the south by Cutts Peak, to the north by Stark Mountain; the area is referred to as the Mad River Valley. Mount Ellen, together with Lincoln Peak, are home to the slopes of Sugarbush Resort. Located nearby is Mad River Glen ski area, famous for its historic single chairlift and focus on skiing; the Long Trail, a 272-mile hiking trail running the length of Vermont, traverses the summit ridge of Mount Ellen. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Mount Ellen Peakbagger,com: Mount Ellen Summitpost.org: Mount Ellen
Live Phish Volume 2
Live Phish Vol. 2 was recorded live on July 16, 1994 and was released on September 18, 2001 as part of the Live Phish Series. The show was performed on the side of a ski slope at the Sugarbush Resort in the town of North Fayston, located in Phish's home state of Vermont, it was the final concert of the band's successful 1994 summer tour. Earlier in the year, the band had released its highest selling album to date - Hoist - and the size of the Phish audience had expanded by the summer; the Sugarbush concert, which included overnight camping on the ski slope under the stars, was slated as the grand finale of the tour. The concert's setlist included the standard high-energy favorites from 1994 plus a few surprises, including a rare performance of Mike Gordon's "N02", which appears on the band's 1986 self-titled debut album known as The White Tape. During "Catapult" there is banter between Trey Anastasio and Jon Fishman after the line "there ain't gonna be no wedding" since Anastasio's wedding was set to occur soon.
During the middle of "Harpua", a giant comet could be seen overhead, prompting the band to launch into "Also sprach Zarathustra", better known as the theme to 2001: A Space Odyssey and simply referred to as "2001". Phish play Eumir Deodato's version of the song from the 1979 movie Being There with Peter Sellers. Deodato's version went platinum; this release reached a peak of #93 on the Billboard 200 chart. The album marked the first time that longtime Phish concert staples "The Lizards" and "Harpua" appeared on a commercially released compact disc. Set one:"Golgi Apparatus" - 5:38 "Down with Disease" - 6:01 "NO2" - 1:53 "Stash" - 10:23 "The Lizards" - 9:59 "Cavern" - 4:21 "The Horse" - 1:38 "Silent in the Morning" - 4:52 "Maze" - 10:38 "Sparkle" - 3:43 "Sample in a Jar" - 4:57 Set two:"Run Like an Antelope" - 9:23 "Catapult" - 1:45 "Run Like an Antelope" - 8:07 "Harpua" - 8:14 "2001" - 3:07 "Harpua" - 6:11 "AC/DC Bag" - 7:47 "Scent of a Mule" - 8:03 Set two, continued:"Harry Hood" - 16:08 "Contact" - 6:17 "Chalk Dust Torture" - 9:28Encore:"Suzy Greenberg" - 6:50 Trey Anastasio - guitars, vocals Page McConnell - piano, vocals Mike Gordon - bass, vocals Jon Fishman - drums, vocals Phish.net hosts a detailed setlist archive maintained by fans.
Saturday, 16 July 1994 Summer Stage at Sugarbush, North Fayston, VT SET 1: Golgi Apparatus > Down with Disease -> NO2 > Stash, The Lizards, Cavern > The Horse > Silent in the Morning > Maze > Sparkle > Sample in a Jar SET 2: Run Like an Antelope -> Catapult -> Run Like an Antelope, Harpua -> 2001 > Harpua > AC/DC Bag > Scent of a Mule, Harry Hood, Contact > Chalk Dust Torture ENCORE: Suzy Greenberg Notes: Golgi was preceded by an a cappella line of Back in My Hometown. Down With Disease was unfinished. NO2 featured Fishman on vacuum. Harpua included a narration about the comet. Antelope included a Simpsons Trey running around the stage with a megaphone. Catapult saw Fishman take a verbal jab at Trey and his upcoming wedding before recanting. Chalk Dust included a Barracuda tease