Urca is a traditional and wealthy residential neighborhood with nearly 7,000 inhabitants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although most of the neighborhood dates from the 1920s, parts of it are much older. What is now called the Forte São João, a military base at the foot of the Sugarloaf Mountain, is where the first Portuguese settlement in Rio was founded by Estácio de Sá on March 1, 1565; the French had arrived 12 years earlier and founded a settlement, called France Antarctique, close to what is now Flamengo and Gloria districts, in downtown Rio. The French, riven by internal disputes between Catholics and Protestants, were massacred by the Portuguese and their Indian allies in attacks organised from here, expelling them from the nearby Villegagnon Island; the street now called Rua São Sebastião, in Urca, which leads from behind the fort to the Urca casino, was a trail from the Portuguese fort skirting the edge of the sea to the mainland along the peninsula that houses the Sugar Loaf and a smaller hill, the Morro da Urca.
Rua São Sebastião thus has some claim to be the oldest street in Rio. Building space in Rio is restricted by the city's geography, which offers formidable physical barriers to urban expansion; the notion of filling in part of the shallow bay around the Morro Vermelho and building a neighborhood on it was mooted periodically in the nineteenth century, in the 1880s a development company was formed for the purpose, Urbanização Carioca, whose acronym Urca gave the neighbourhood its name. But, some historians contest this version, identifying the name Urca stamped in 18th century maps. "Urca", in old Portuguese tradition, designates a large cargo ship. Legal wrangles over financing and land titles delayed work for a generation, but the landfill began shortly after the conclusion of World War I and the first houses were built in 1922; the centrepiece of the new neighbourhood was a cassino conceived as a competitor to the newly installed cassino in the luxury Copacabana Palace hotel, in those days a rather longer and more inconvenient haul from downtown Rio.
The neighbourhood's origin as a 1920s urban development is evident. Photos of the area on the 1930s show lots divided up, a low sea wall, individual houses and the trees so characteristic of the area now mere saplings, it is second only to Santa Tereza as a carioca urban neighbourhood in its pleasantness, architectural unity and lack of the crass development which has scarred so much of the city. Part of this is explained by the neighborhood's insularity; the developers of Urca made their money by dividing up the neighbourhood into lots and selling them to small investors, many of them recent European immigrants Portuguese, of modest means – the richer middle class headed for the more glamorous neighbourhoods of Copacabana and Leme, the other side of Praia Vermelha. The heavy military presence around Urca in the coup-prone 1920s was a disincentive for those with money to afford a beach house elsewhere. Many of the present inhabitants of Urca are the descendants of families who bought houses or plots when the area was developed.
It is easy to see the successive phases of Urca's development strolling around the neighbourhood. Most of the residential houses date from the late 1920s to the late 1940s and are a portfolio of house styles popular at the time: art deco houses and apartment buildings, the faux Spanish colonial style, so popular throughout the Americas in the 1930s and 1940s, but locally called Manuelino style and mock Tudor houses cheerfully aping the English interwar suburbs painted with a un-English flair and color; the seafront Avenida Luis Alves has a number of modest apartment buildings, most from the 1950s and 1960s, but to a far lesser extent than any other neighbourhood in the Zona Sul. The commercial Rua Marechal Cantuária which leads traffic into the heart of Urca is the only street to have suffered significant redevelopment, but then at a low level and little since the 1960s, it is much used by ` novela' producers looking for period settings. The casino flourished and was a fixture of Rio's social scene in the prewar and immediate postwar period.
Urca's most famous resident, Carmen Miranda, was discovered by a Hollywood producer visiting the casino in 1938, where she was a singer. She rented a small house on Rua São Sebastião, on the left walking up from the casino, where a plaque on the wall, the only one in Rio commemorating a famous person's house, remembers the "pequena notável", the "little wonder"; the casino played a minor role in the history of astrophysics. Two scientists in the casino, discussing a model explaining neutrino emission patterns in the cooling of stars, called it after the casino when they noticed how money, like energy pulsing from a dying star, disappeared from the roulette table, but astrophysics notwithstanding, the money ran out in the end. In 1946 a federal ban on casinos put the Cassino da Urca out of business; the building was acquired by TV Tupí, a pioneering Brazilian television station owned by Assis Chateaubriand, the first Brazilian media mogul. TV Tupi built a new frontage for the building onto the beach, increasing its internal space but turning the beautifully curved 1930s exterior into a plain right-angled building.
The TV Tupi studio became best known as the location of the Chacrinha program, a variety program which ran on weekend afternoons from the 1960s to the 1980s, with an enormous national audience. A slot on Chacrinha for any musician, actor or starlet was a sign they had arrived; the ageing inhabitants of Urca were, never at ease with the crowds of
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, used for sugar production. It has stout, fibrous stalks that are rich in the sugar sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes; the plant is two to six metres tall. All sugar cane species can interbreed and the major commercial cultivars are complex hybrids. Sugarcane belongs to the grass family Poaceae, an economically important seed plant family that includes maize, wheat and sorghum, many forage crops. Sucrose and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in the food industry or is fermented to produce ethanol. Sugarcane is the world's largest crop by production quantity, with 1.9 billion tonnes produced in 2016, Brazil accounting for 41% of the world total. In 2012, the Food and Agriculture Organization estimated it was cultivated on about 26 million hectares, in more than 90 countries.
The global demand for sugar is the primary driver of sugarcane agriculture. Cane accounts for 79% of sugar produced. Sugarcane predominantly grows in the subtropical regions. Other than sugar, products derived from sugarcane include falernum, rum, cachaça, ethanol. In some regions, people use sugarcane reeds to make pens, mats and thatch; the young, unexpanded inflorescence of Saccharum edule is eaten raw, steamed, or toasted, prepared in various ways in Southeast Asia, including Fiji and certain island communities of Indonesia. Sugarcane was an ancient crop of the Papuan people, it was introduced to Polynesia, Island Melanesia, Madagascar in prehistoric times via Austronesian sailors. It was introduced to southern China and India by Austronesian traders at around 1200 to 1000 BC; the Persians, followed by the Greeks, encountered the famous "reeds that produce honey without bees" in India between the 6th and 4th centuries BC. They adopted and spread sugarcane agriculture. Merchants began to trade in sugar from India, considered a luxury and an expensive spice.
In the 18th century AD, sugarcane plantations began in Caribbean, South American, Indian Ocean and Pacific island nations and the need for laborers became a major driver of large human migrations, both the voluntary in indentured servants. And the involuntary migrations, in the form of slave labor. Sugarcane is a tropical, perennial grass that forms lateral shoots at the base to produce multiple stems three to four m high and about 5 cm in diameter; the stems grow into cane stalk. A mature stalk is composed of 11–16% fiber, 12–16% soluble sugars, 2–3% nonsugars, 63–73% water. A sugarcane crop is sensitive to the climate, soil type, fertilizers, disease control and the harvest period; the average yield of cane stalk is 60–70 tonnes per hectare per year. However, this figure can vary between 30 and 180 tonnes per hectare depending on knowledge and crop management approach used in sugarcane cultivation. Sugarcane is a cash crop, but it is used as livestock fodder. There are two centers of domestication for sugarcane: one for Saccharum officinarum by Papuans in New Guinea and another for Saccharum sinense by Austronesians in Taiwan and southern China.
Papuans and Austronesians primarily used sugarcane as food for domesticated pigs. The spread of both S. officinarum and S. sinense is linked to the migrations of the Austronesian peoples. Saccharum barberi was only cultivated in India after the introduction of S. officinarum. Saccharum officinarum was first domesticated in New Guinea and the islands east of the Wallace Line by Papuans, where it is the modern center of diversity. Beginning at around 6,000 BP they were selectively bred from the native Saccharum robustum. From New Guinea it spread westwards to Island Southeast Asia after contact with Austronesians, where it hybridized with Saccharum spontaneum; the second domestication center is mainland southern China and Taiwan where S. sinense was a primary cultigen of the Austronesian peoples. Words for sugarcane exist in the Proto-Austronesian languages in Taiwan, reconstructed as *təbuS or **CebuS, which became *tebuh in Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, it was one of the original major crops of the Austronesian peoples from at least 5,500 BP.
Introduction of the sweeter S. officinarum may have replaced it throughout its cultivated range in Island Southeast Asia. From Island Southeast Asia, S. officinarum was spread eastward into Polynesia and Micronesia by Austronesian voyagers as a canoe plant by around 3,500 BP. It was spread westward and northward by around 3,000 BP to China and India by Austronesian traders, where it further hybridized with Saccharum sinense and Saccharum barberi. From there it spread further into the Mediterranean; the earliest known production of crystalline sugar began in northern India. The exact date of the first cane sugar production is unclear; the earliest evidence of sugar production comes from ancient Pali texts. Around the 8th century and Arab traders introduced sugar from medieval India to the other parts of the Abbasid Caliphate in the Mediterranean, Egypt, North Africa, Andalusia. By the 10th century, sources state, it was among the early crops brought to the Americas by the Spanish Andalu
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it
Fred Astaire was an American dancer, actor and television presenter. He is regarded as the most influential dancer in the history of film, his stage and subsequent film and television careers spanned a total of 76 years, during which he starred in more than 10 Broadway and London musicals, made 31 musical films, 4 television specials, issued numerous recordings. As a dancer, he is best remembered for his uncanny sense of rhythm, his perfectionism, his innovation, as the dancing partner and on-screen romantic interest of Ginger Rogers, with whom he co-starred in a series of ten Hollywood musicals. Astaire was named by the American Film Institute as the fifth greatest male star of Classic Hollywood cinema in 100 Years... 100 Stars. Gene Kelly, another renowned star of filmed dance, said that "the history of dance on film begins with Astaire." He asserted that Astaire was "the only one of today's dancers who will be remembered." Beyond film and television, many dancers and choreographers, including Rudolf Nureyev, Sammy Davis Jr. Michael Jackson, Gregory Hines, Mikhail Baryshnikov, George Balanchine, Jerome Robbins, Madhuri Dixit and Bob Fosse, who called Astaire his "idol" acknowledged his influence.
Fred Astaire was born Frederick Emanuel Austerlitz on May 10, 1899 in Omaha, the son of Johanna "Ann" and Frederic "Fritz" Austerlitz. Astaire's mother was born in the United States, to Lutheran German emigrants from East Prussia and Alsace. Astaire's father was born in Linz, Austria, to Jewish parents who had converted to Roman Catholicism. Astaire's father, "Fritz" Austerlitz, arrived in New York City at the age of 25 on October 26, 1893, at Ellis Island.'"Fritz" was hoping to find work in the brewing trade and moved to Omaha, where he landed a job with the Storz Brewing Company. Astaire's mother dreamed of escaping Omaha by virtue of her children's talents, after Astaire's sister, Adele Astaire, revealed herself to be an instinctive dancer and singer early on in her childhood. Johanna planned a "brother and sister act", common in vaudeville at the time, for her two children. Although Fred refused dance lessons at first, he mimicked his older sister's steps and took up piano and clarinet; when their father lost his job, the family moved to New York City in 1905 to launch the show business career of the children who began training at the Alviene Master School of the Theatre and Academy of Cultural Arts.
Despite Adele and Fred's teasing rivalry, they acknowledged their individual strengths, his durability and her greater talent. Fred and Adele's mother suggested they change their name to "Astaire," as she felt "Austerlitz" was reminiscent of the Battle of Austerlitz. Family legend attributes the name to an uncle surnamed "L'Astaire." They were taught dance and singing in preparation for developing an act. Their first act was called Juvenile Artists Presenting an Electric Musical Toe-Dancing Novelty. Fred wore a top hat and tails in a lobster outfit in the second. In an interview, Astaire's daughter, Ava Astaire McKenzie, observed that they put Fred in a top hat to make him look taller; the goofy act debuted in Keyport, New Jersey, in a "tryout theater." The local paper wrote, "the Astaires are the greatest child act in vaudeville."As a result of their father's salesmanship and Adele landed a major contract and played the famed Orpheum Circuit in the Midwest and some Southern cities in the United States.
Soon Adele grew to at least three inches taller than Fred and the pair began to look incongruous. The family decided to take a two-year break from show business to let time take its course and to avoid trouble from the Gerry Society and the child labor laws of the time. In 1912, Fred became an Episcopalian; the career of the Astaire siblings resumed with mixed fortunes, though with increasing skill and polish, as they began to incorporate tap dancing into their routines. Astaire's dancing was inspired by John "Bubbles" Sublett. From vaudeville dancer Aurelio Coccia, they learned the tango and other ballroom dances popularized by Vernon and Irene Castle; some sources state that the Astaire siblings appeared in a 1915 film titled Fanchon, the Cricket, starring Mary Pickford, but the Astaires have denied this. By age 14, Fred had taken on the musical responsibilities for their act, he first met George Gershwin, working as a song plugger for Jerome H. Remick's music publishing company, in 1916. Fred had been hunting for new music and dance ideas.
Their chance meeting was to affect the careers of both artists. Astaire was always on the lookout for new steps on the circuit and was starting to demonstrate his ceaseless quest for novelty and perfection; the Astaires broke into Broadway in 1917 with Over the Top, a patriotic revue, performed for U. S. and Allied troops at this time as well. The Astaires followed up with several more shows, of their work in "The Passing Show of 1918," Heywood Broun wrote: "In an evening in which there was an abundance of good dancing, Fred Astaire stood out... He and his partner, Adele Astaire, made the show pause early in the evening with a beautiful loose-limbed dance."By this time, Astaire's dancing skill was beginning to outshine his sister's, though she still set the tone of their act and her sparkle and humor drew much of the attention, owing in part to Fred's careful preparation and strong supporting choreography. During the 1920s, Fred and Adele appeared on Broadway and on the London stage in shows such as Jerome Kern's The Bunch and Judy and Ira Gershwin's Lady, Be Good, Funny Face and later
Richard Dawson Kiel was an American actor and voice artist. Standing 7 ft 1 1⁄2 in tall, he was known for his role as Jaws in the James Bond franchise, portraying the character in The Spy Who Loved Me and Moonraker, his next-most recognized role is the eloquent Mr. Larson in Happy Gilmore. Other notable films include The Longest Yard, Silver Streak, Force 10 from Navarone, Pale Rider and Tangled. Kiel was born in Michigan, his towering height was a result of a hormonal condition. Before becoming an actor, Kiel worked in numerous jobs, including a nightclub bouncer and a cemetery plot salesman. From 1963 to 1965, Kiel worked as a night-school math instructor in California. Kiel made his acting debut in the Laramie episode "Street of Hate"; this led to him appearing in numerous television shows throughout the 1960s and 1970s such as I Dream of Jeannie, Honey West, Gilligan's Island, The Monkees, Daniel Boone, Emergency!, Starsky & Hutch, Land of the Lost, The Fall Guy, Simon & Simon and "Kolchak: The Night Stalker".
Due to size, Kiel was cast in villainous roles. He appeared as the towering — and lethal — assistant Voltaire to Dr. Miguelito Loveless in first-season episodes of The Wild, Wild West. In the Man from U. N. C. L. E. Episode "The Vulcan Affair", Kiel appeared as a guard in Vulcan's plant and he portrayed Merry in "The Hong Kong Shilling Affair". In 1967 he played a monster in an episode of The Monkees, he appeared in an episode of “Wild, Wild West” titled "The Night of the Simian Terror" as Dimas, the outcast son of a wealthy family, banished because of birth defects that distorted his body and affected his mind. The episode first aired February 16, 1968; this episode is significant because it allowed Kiel the opportunity to act rather than just look intimidating. In 1977 Kiel and Arnold Schwarzenegger were both considered for playing the Hulk in The Incredible Hulk. After Schwarzenegger was turned down due to his height, Kiel started filming the pilot. However, the producers decided they wanted a more muscular Hulk rather than the towering Kiel so he was dismissed.
Kiel said he did not mind losing the part because as he could only see out of one eye, he reacted badly to the contact lenses he had to wear for the role. He found the green makeup unpleasant and difficult to remove, his scenes were reshot with Lou Ferrigno. Kiel broke into films in the early 1960s with Eegah, featured on Elvira's Movie Macabre and Mystery Science Theater 3000, as were The Phantom Planet and The Human Duplicators, he produced, co-wrote, starred in The Giant of Thunder Mountain. He had a brief non-speaking appearance leaving a gym in the Jerry Lewis movie The Nutty Professor; the James Bond-film producers spotted Kiel in Barbary Coast, thought he was ideal for the role of Jaws in The Spy Who Loved Me. He was one of the few Bond-villains to appear in two Bond-films appearing in Moonraker. However, as he suffered from acrophobia, a stunt double was used during the cable car stunt scenes because Kiel refused to be filmed on the top of a cable car more than 2,000 feet above the ground.
He reprised his role of Jaws in the video game called James Bond 007: Everything or Nothing, supplying his voice and likeness. This was his second outing as a metal-toothed villain because he had played Reace in the 1976 comedy-thriller film Silver Streak, a year before being cast in it; the Spy Who Loved Me. Kiel played in the 1985 film Pale Rider. Acting as the main antagonist's henchman, He redeems his character's status by saving the hero from a gunshot to the back. Although earlier roles had offered him little dialogue, his role in Happy Gilmore was quite the opposite; as Mr. Larson, Happy Gilmore's former employer, Kiel exchanges several one-liners with both Adam Sandler's Happy and Christopher McDonald's Shooter. Kiel took a quieter profile after Happy Gilmore's release, but left semi-retirement to record a role for Tangled. In the acclaimed animated Disney film, he portrayed Vlad, a soft-hearted thug who collects ceramic unicorns. Kiel's first marriage was to Faye Daniels in 1960, they divorced in the early 1970s.
He married Diane Rogers. They had nine grandchildren, he co-authored. Kiel was a born-again Christian, his website states. In 1992, Kiel suffered a severe head injury in a car accident, he was subsequently forced to walk with a cane to support himself. Kiel used a scooter or wheelchair. On September 10, 2014, three days short of his 75th birthday, Kiel died at St. Agnes Medical Center in Fresno, California, of a heart attack caused by coronary artery disease. John Aasen Ted Cassidy William Engesser Neil Fingleton André the Giant The Great Khali Rondo Hatton Henry Hite Lock Martin Carel Struycken Richard Kiel on IMDb Richard Kiel at Find a Grave
Morro da Babilônia
The Morro da Babilônia is a favela in the Leme neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro, built on a steep ridge separating Copacabana beach from Botafogo. It is an environmentally protected area. In the 18th century the Portuguese constructed a fortress on the top of the hill to protect the entrance to Guanabara Bay. In the beginning of the 20th century, the engineer Augusto Ferreira Ramos, projected a connection of Babilônia hill with Urca Hill, as part of the festivities of Centenary of Ports Opening; this project never went from paper to reality. In 1930, the hill was mentioned in one of poems in the Libertinagem collection by Manuel Bandeira; the favela was founded at the end of the 19th century, when the army set up observation post on the hill in Leme. Ordinary soldiers built the first shacks to stay on the hill, they were joined by construction workers that built the tunnels between the old city centre and Copacabana and Leme, as well as the tramway in the two neighbourhoods, as part of the once extensive Rio de Janeiro tramway system.
The occupation of the favela took off in the 1930s when construction workers building apartment complexes in the neighbourhood settled in the area. There are two versions about the origin of the name of the favela. One is that the area evoked images of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, with the soldiers who first settled there; the other explanation is that at the nearby tramway station the brewery Brahma had a bar that sold a beer with the name Babilônia. In the 2nd World War the Brazilian Army constructed casemates on the top of the hill to protect the city against eventual attacks. According to a census in 2000 1,426 people lived in the favela which counted 380 shacks. However, according to the dwellers association of Babilônia there are 3,000 inhabitants and 800 dwellings. There are 18 streets. Babilônia has been controlled for years by drug traffickers linked to the Terceiro Comando organization, which imposed its rules by force on the community.
In addition to controlling the illegal drug trade, the gunmen monopolized other services like the supply of cooking-gas cylinders and imposed rules on the population such as the times when they could come and go and the law of silence. In June 2009, police occupied the area without firing a shot; the intention is to make Babilonia into a model community by installing Police Pacification Units. After UPP arrival in 2009 the neighbourhood started to become more and more popular among tourists, which started a proces of gentrification. From the top, from the stone, there is a beautiful view and enough space to sit and watch the view of the Flamengo, on the one hand, the Red Beach and an unusual angle of Sugarloaf on the other. One of the effects that the pacification of favelas had, besides the general improvement of safety in the city, was that the hills became the destination of hikes. Babilonia became one of the so-called Disneyland favelas which were visited by dignitaries and the media to show the improved conditions after the installation of the UPP.
However, conditions worsened over the years and in April 2016 a rival gang from the neighboring favela tried to take control from the group that controls the drugs in Babilônia. Mural Babilônia started to be created in January 2014; the first urban intervention, the main mosaic, covers 140 square meters of a retention wall constructed by the city. It is located at the bottom of Babilônia favela, it was designed and created by plastic artists from Czech Republic, X-Dog and Plebe, with the help of dozens of voluntaries from all around the world. The second intervention brought to life a concrete bench with mosaic finishes, it was created on a spot. Over time other mosaics appeared in the area, improving the visual and confirming Mural Babilônia as a tourist reference point in Zona Sul of Rio de Janeiro. Among them, the lamp posts "Dark girl" and "The Flag" stand out, together with an educational slogan "Education is what you do when no one looks." A stairway basic, was reconstructed and it received a mosaic finish.
In 1959 large tracts of the award-winning French-Brazilian film Orfeu Negro were shot in Babilônia. The film won Golden Palm, in Cannes film festival in the same year and Oscar for the best foreign movie in 1960; the film Tropa de Elite is about the police actions in Babilônia in 1997, before the visit of the pope to Rio de Janeiro, when the elite squad BOPE is assigned to eliminate the risks of the drug dealers in a dangerous slum nearby where the pope intends to be lodged. Babilônia has been home to the Estúdio Vertical film and TV facility since it construction in the late 70s. After a renovation, Estúdio Vertical has reopened and features a purpose-built 8mx6mx4m U-shaped seamless blank cyclorama for photography and multi-camera TV production
In rock climbing and ice climbing, a pitch is a steep section of a route that requires a rope between two belays, as part of a climbing system. Standard climbing ropes are between 50 and 80 metres long, so a pitch is always shorter, between two convenient ledges if possible. In free climbing, pitch refers to classification by climbers of the difficulty of ascent on certain climbing routes. In advanced climbing or mountaineering, another definition of pitch is not restricted by the length of the rope. On easier terrain or when moving the length of a pitch can be extended by means of simul climbing combining several pitches together by means of a running belay. Speed climbers will state that they completed a long route with a reduced number of pitches calling a pitch any time a fixed belay was used or a changeover in the lead occurred; this definition is used loosely, since the length of a pitch is only limited by the nature of the terrain and the confidence of the individual climbing party. Comparative The term'pitch' is used by cavers to refer to a steep or vertical section in a cave that needs ladders or single rope technique to descend and ascend.
As caving rope lengths are not standardized, the length of a pitch is equal to that of the drop. The deepest underground pitch is 603 m in Vrtiglavica Cave in the Julian Slovenia. In some cases, cavers may choose to split one drop into two or more distinct pitches; however in most cases a single rope or ladder is used for the entire drop, so in practical usage'pitch' has become synonymous with the terms'drop','pit' or'shaft'. In England the term "pot" is used to refer to a pitch, although this may refer to the entire cave in northern areas where vertical caves are predominant. While a pitch refers to a drop that can be descended, the term Aven is used to refer to a pitch when discovered from below. If not free-climbable, avens can be ascended by means of a bolt climb, where a caver places an ascending series of bolts in the walls and ascends to the top. A rope can be rigged to the bottom allowing following cavers to pass the obstacle; some avens have been tackled by lifting ladders using long poles.
Narrow avens can be climbed by pushing against opposite walls. Pit cave Grade, a subjective numerical code for athletic difficulty; the world's deepest pitches, by Bob Gulden Caves with the deepest drop, by Jochen Duckeck