Port Costa, California
Port Costa is a census-designated place in Contra Costa County, United States. The population was 190 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 0.16 square miles, all of it land. Port Costa is surrounded by rolling hills grazed by cattle and managed by East Bay Regional Park District. Carquinez Strait Regional Shoreline stretches from Crockett to Martinez. Big Bull Valley Creek runs along McEwen Road into a historic reservoir just above the town it runs in an underground pipe culvert beneath the town to the Carquinez Strait. Port Costa was founded in 1879 as a landing for the railroad ferry Solano and operated by the Central Pacific Railroad; this put Port Costa on the main route of the transcontinental railroad. The Solano joined by the Contra Costa, carried entire trains across the Carquinez Strait from Benicia to Port Costa, from whence they continued on to the Oakland Pier. For a time, it was the United States' busiest wheat-shipping port and had a reputation as a colorful, sometimes violent community.
After California's wheat output dropped in the early 20th Century and after the Southern Pacific constructed a railroad bridge at Martinez in 1930 to replace the ferry crossing, Port Costa lost population and importance. Bill Rich was raconteur. Since the late 1960s, it has been a small shopping venue for antique hunters and a gathering place for bikers and motorcyclists. Port Costa's first post office was established in 1881. While not incorporated, the town has a mayor, Mitch Polzak, a musician; the 2010 United States Census reported that Port Costa had a population of 190. The population density was 1,200.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Port Costa was 172 White, 2 African American, 2 Native American, 7 Asian, 7 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10 persons; the Census reported. There were 99 households, out of which 15 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 37 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4 had a female householder with no husband present, 5 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 10 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 42 households were made up of individuals and 9 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.92. There were 46 families; the population was spread out with 19 people under the age of 18, 13 people aged 18 to 24, 38 people aged 25 to 44, 80 people aged 45 to 64, 40 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 52.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.2 males. There were 110 housing units at an average density of 694.8 per square mile, of which 99 were occupied, of which 53 were owner-occupied, 46 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 5.4%. 118 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 72 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 232 people, 108 households, 60 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 342.1 people per square mile.
There were 115 housing units at an average density of 169.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.95% White, 0% Black,1.29% Native American, 1.29% Asian, 1.72% from other races, 4.74% from two or more races. 6.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 108 households out of which 20.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 3.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.4% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.80. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 15.5% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 28.0% from 25 to 44, 37.5% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 46 years. For every 100 females, there were 121.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 110.8 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $61,429.
Males had a median income of $40,769 versus $58,000 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $33,563. About 9.7% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.9% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. 100% of the residents speak English
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Cruz. Home to 7.68 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns and associated regional and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes twelve counties, is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 8.75 million people.
The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example half of the region's residents are Hispanic, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 3000 BC. In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento.
A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco ended the U. S.'s war with Japan. Since the Bay Area has experienced numerous political and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $800 billion, home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, supporting a number of endangered species.
The region is known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes; the climate is temperate and very mild, is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. The Bay Area is host to seven professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music and the arts, it is host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area is multifaceted and involves numerous local and regional actors, each with wide-ranging and overlapping responsibilities; the borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not delineated, the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area.
Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U. S. city-region is as definitionally challenged."When the region began to develop during and after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties. Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. Various U. S. Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition.
For example, the Federal Communications Commission which regulates broadcast and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oaklan
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl
The Benicia–Martinez Bridge refers to three parallel bridges which cross the Carquinez Strait just west of Suisun Bay. The original 1.2-mile deck truss bridge opened in 1962 to replace the last automotive ferry service in the San Francisco Bay Area. The 1962 bridge has seven 528-foot spans and 138 feet of vertical clearance, now carrying four lanes of southbound traffic, as well as a path for pedestrians and bicyclists, it was named the George Miller Jr. Memorial Bridge in 1975 after California state legislator George Miller Jr. A 1.7-mile bridge was built alongside and opened on August 25, 2007 with five lanes of northbound traffic. In 2007, it was named the Congressman George Miller Benicia–Martinez Bridge after U. S. Congressman George Miller, Miller Jr.'s son. The cost of the 1962 span was US$25 million and US$1.3 billion for the 2007 span. The bridge is part of Interstate 680, a major transportation link connecting other traveled freeways. Between the two vehicle bridges is a Union Pacific Railroad bridge, the first bridge at this location, built between April 1929 and October 1930 by Southern Pacific.
It is used by Union Pacific and BNSF freight trains and 36 scheduled Amtrak passenger trains each weekday. Passenger trains include the long-distance trains California Zephyr and Coast Starlight and commuter-oriented Capitol Corridor services. Tolls are only collected from northbound traffic at the toll plaza on the south side of the bridge. Since July 2010, the toll rate for passenger cars is $5; this will increase to $6 beginning January 1, 2019. During peak traffic hours, carpool vehicles carrying three or more people or motorcycles pay a discounted toll of $3.00. For vehicles with more than two axles, the toll rate is $6 per axle. Drivers may either use the FasTrak electronic toll collection device. Credit cards are not accepted for payment; the toll plaza has nine lanes with toll booths and another nine lanes with open road tolling in two zones. One ORT zone has four shoulder lanes; the other ORT zone has one carpool travel lane with two shoulder lanes. This bridge is the first open road tolling facility in Northern California and the first bridge with open road tolling in California.
When the Benicia–Martinez Bridge opened in 1962, tolls were $0.25 per car. It was set to $0.35 in 1970 increased to $0.40 in 1976. The basic toll on the seven state-owned bridges, including the Benicia–Martinez Bridge, was raised to $1 by Regional Measure 1, approved by Bay Area voters in 1988. A $1 seismic retrofit surcharge was added in 1998 by the state legislature for eight years, but since extended to December 2037. On March 2, 2004, voters approved Regional Measure 2, raising the toll by another dollar to a total of $3. An additional dollar was added to the toll starting January 1, 2007, to cover cost overruns concerning the replacement of the eastern span; the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, a regional transportation agency, in its capacity as the Bay Area Toll Authority, administers RM1 and RM2 funds, a significant portion of which are allocated to public transit capital improvements and operating subsidies in the transportation corridors served by the bridges. Caltrans administers the "second dollar" seismic surcharge, receives some of the MTC-administered funds to perform other maintenance work on the bridges.
The Bay Area Toll Authority is made up of appointed officials put in place by various city and county governments, is not subject to direct voter oversight. Due to further funding shortages for seismic retrofit projects, the Bay Area Toll Authority again raised tolls on all seven of the state-owned bridges in July 2010; the toll rate for autos on the Benicia–Martinez Bridge was thus increased to $5. In June 2018, Bay Area voters approved Regional Measure 3 to further raise the tolls on all seven of the state-owned bridges to fund $4.5 billion worth of transportation improvements in the area. Under the passed measure, the toll rate for autos on the Benicia–Martinez Bridge will be increased to $6 on January 1, 2019. Union Pacific Railroad's Benicia-Martinez drawbridge is between the two vehicle bridges; the railroad bridge was built between 1928 and 1930 for Southern Pacific Railroad to replace its train ferry between Benicia and Port Costa, California. It is the second-longest railway bridge in North America, the longest railway bridge west of the Mississippi River.
Before the bridge was completed, ferries were used to allow the railway to cross Suisun Bay. The original ferry, built at Oakland, California in 1879 and named the Solano, was the world's largest train ferry. In 1914 the larger Contra Costa was built. In 1926 the ferries carried 93,000 passenger cars and 142,000 freight cars across the Strait. Train ferry service ended in 1930 with the completion of the railroad bridge. Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway and Amtrak run here on trackage rights; the drawbridge has the smallest clearances of the three bridges — lift span horizontal clearance is 291 feet and vertical clearances are 70 feet and 135 feet. In late 2001, construction parallel to the railroad bridge, it measures about 1.7 miles. The new bridge carries five lanes of northbound traffic; the older bridge underwent seismic retrofits and now carries four lanes of southbound traffic and a bicycle/pedestrian lane, part of the San Francisco Bay Trail. The bridge construction included a new toll plaza with nine toll booths, two open roa
Guadalupe River (California)
The Guadalupe River mainstem is an urban, northward flowing 14 miles river in California whose much longer headwater creeks originate in the Santa Cruz Mountains. The river mainstem now begins on the Santa Clara Valley floor when Los Alamitos Creek exits Lake Almaden and joins Guadalupe Creek just downstream of Coleman Road in San Jose, California. From here it flows north through San Jose, where it receives a major tributary; the Guadalupe River serves as the eastern boundary of the City of Santa Clara and the western boundary of Alviso, after coursing through San José, it empties into south San Francisco Bay at the Alviso Slough. The Guadalupe River is the southernmost major U. S. river with a Chinook salmon run. Much of the river is surrounded by parks; the river's Los Alamitos and Guadalupe Creek tributaries are, in turn, fed by smaller streams flowing from Almaden Quicksilver County Park, home to former mercury mines dating back to when the area was governed by Mexico. The Guadalupe River watershed carries precipitation from the slopes of Loma Prieta and Mount Umunhum, the two major peaks of the Sierra Azul, the historical Spanish name for that half of the Santa Cruz Mountains south of California Highway 17.
Two of the Guadalupe River's major tributaries, Los Gatos Creek and Guadalupe Creek have their sources in the Sierra Azul Open Space Preserve on the western and eastern flanks of the Sierra Azul. The Guadalupe River was named by the Juan Bautista de Anza Expedition on March 30, 1776, Río de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe, in honor of the Virgin of Guadalupe, the principal patron saint of the expedition. Juan Bautista de Anza camped along the banks of the Guadalupe River at Expedition Camp 97 on March 30, 1776 near the present-day site of Agnews State Hospital; the historic de Anza Expedition explored much of Santa Clara County, traversing western areas en route from Monterey to San Francisco, traveling around the south end of San Francisco Bay and thence through the eastern portions of the county on the return trip after exploration of parts of the East Bay. In 1777, the original Mission Santa Clara de Thamien and el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe were established on the banks of Mission Creek, un tiro de escopeta from its confluence with the Guadalupe River.
Both had to be moved away from the river because of mosquitoes in the summertime and flooding during the winter. Today Santa Clara Mission is 2 miles away from the original location; the Guadalupe River was shorter, originating several miles further north, at the downstream end of a large willow swamp, now Willow Glen. Its main tributary was known as Arroyo Seco de Guadalupe on 1860 maps and as Arroyo Seco de Los Capitancillos on the 1876 Thompson & West maps. On July 9, 2005, the fossilized bones of a juvenile Columbian mammoth were discovered by San Jose resident, Roger Castillo, in the Lower Guadalupe River near the Trimble Road overcrossing. Roger founded the Salmon and Steelhead Restoration Group conservation organization and has served as a Board member of the Guadalupe–Coyote Resource Conservation District; the Pleistocene mammoth was nicknamed "Lupe" by area residents and Lupe's fossils are exhibited at Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose. The Guadalupe River flowed into Guadalupe Slough, 1.0 mile west of its current drainage into Alviso Slough.
To make it easier to get sailboats up the Guadalupe River to the port of Alviso, the river was redirected into the straighter Alviso Slough by the 1870s. Alviso Slough known as Steamboat Slough was straight, while Guadalupe Slough meandered extensively through the marshes. Alviso Slough was not fed by any upland streams, but carried tidewater in and out of the extensive salt marshes; the re-routing of the river to Alviso Slough in the 1870s disconnected it from several tributaries, had the effect of shrinking the Guadalupe River Watershed. San Tomas Aquino Creek and its Saratoga Creek tributary and Calabazas Creek, used to enter the Guadalupe River upstream of Alviso; these tributaries were disconnected from the river and re-routed directly into Guadalupe Slough between 1876 and 1890 according to historic maps. Saratoga Creek had steelhead and coho salmon runs. Large portions of the tributaries of the river were straightened and armored starting in the late 19th century and continuing through the 20th century first by farmers and by the Santa Clara Valley Water District and its predecessor organizations.
They now go dry in the summer months and their lower segments have become denuded ditches requiring continuous maintenance. Mission Creek used to harbor trout and salmon but today it is buried in a culvert; the historic watershed can be viewed in the West 1876 maps. The Guadalupe Watershed today drains an area of 171 square miles. Below its origination at the confluence of Guadalupe Creek and Los Alamitos Creek, the mainstem is joined by three other tributaries: Ross and Los Gatos Creeks; the SCVWD manages water flows and provides flood control on the river, has started to promote watershed stewardship. Six major reservoirs exist in the watershed: Calero Reservoir on Calero Creek, Guadalupe Reservoir on Guadalupe Creek, Almaden Reservoir on Alamitos Creek, Vasona Reservoir, Lexington Reservoir, Lake Elsman on Los Gatos Creek. Ending nine years of study and passionate debate about the future of the San Jose/Alviso waterfront, the Santa Clara Valley Water District in November, 2009 voted to approve a $6 million project to clear bul
The Sacramento River is the principal river of Northern California in the United States, is the largest river in California. Rising in the Klamath Mountains, the river flows south for 400 miles before reaching the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta and San Francisco Bay; the river drains about 26,500 square miles in 19 California counties within the fertile agricultural region bounded by the Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada known as the Sacramento Valley, but extending as far as the volcanic plateaus of Northeastern California. Its watershed has reached as far north as south-central Oregon where the now endorheic Goose Lake experiences southerly outflow into the Pit River, the most northerly tributary of the Sacramento; the Sacramento and its wide natural floodplain were once abundant in fish and other aquatic creatures, notably one of the southernmost large runs of chinook salmon in North America. For about 12,000 years, humans have depended on the vast natural resources of the watershed, which had one of the densest Native American populations in California.
The river has provided a route for travel since ancient times. Hundreds of tribes sharing regional customs and traditions inhabited the Sacramento Valley, first coming into contact with European explorers in the late 1700s; the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga named the river Rio de los Sacramentos in 1808 shortened and anglicized into Sacramento. In the 19th century, gold was discovered on a tributary of the Sacramento River, starting the California Gold Rush and an enormous population influx to the state. Overland trails such as the California Trail and Siskiyou Trail guided hundreds of thousands of people to the gold fields. By the late part of the century mining had ceased to be a major part of the economy, many immigrants turned to farming and ranching. Many populous communities were established along the Sacramento River, including the state capital of Sacramento. Intensive agriculture and mining contributed to pollution in the Sacramento River, significant changes to the river's hydrology and environment.
Since the 1950s the watershed has been intensely developed for water supply and the generation of hydroelectric power. Today, large dams impound the river and all of its major tributaries; the Sacramento River is used for irrigation and serves much of Central and Southern California through the canals of giant state and federal water projects. While its now providing water to over half of California's population and supporting the most productive agricultural area in the nation, these changes have left the Sacramento modified from its natural state and have caused the decline of its once-abundant fisheries; the Sacramento River originates in the mountains and plateaus of far northern California as three major waterways that flow into Shasta Lake: the Upper Sacramento River, McCloud River and Pit River. The Upper Sacramento begins near Mount Shasta, at the confluence of North and South Forks in the Trinity Mountains of Siskiyou County, it flows east into Lake Siskiyou, before turning south. The river flows through a canyon for about 60 miles, past Dunsmuir and Castella, before emptying into Shasta Lake near Lakehead in Shasta County.
The McCloud River rises on the east slope of Mount Shasta and flows south for 77 miles through the southern Cascade Range parallel to the Upper Sacramento to reach the McCloud Arm of Shasta Lake. The Pit River, by far the largest of the three, begins in Modoc County in the northeastern corner of California. Draining a vast and remote volcanic highlands area, it flows southwest for nearly 300 miles before emptying into Shasta Lake near Montgomery Creek. Goose Lake, straddling the Oregon–California border overflows into the Pit River during wet years, although this has not happened since 1881; the Goose Lake watershed is the only part of the Sacramento River basin extending into another state. Unlike most California rivers, the Pit and the McCloud Rivers are predominantly spring-fed, ensuring a large and consistent flow in the driest of summers. At the lower end of Shasta Lake is Shasta Dam, which impounds the Sacramento River for flood control and hydropower generation. Before the construction of Shasta Dam, the McCloud River emptied into the Pit River, which joined the Sacramento near the former mining town of Kennett, submerged when Shasta Lake was filled.
The Pit River Bridge, which carries Interstate 5 and the Union Pacific Railroad over the reservoir, is structurally the highest double-decked bridge in the United States. The Upper Sacramento River canyon provides the route for I-5 and the railroad between Lakehead and Mount Shasta. Below Shasta Dam, it flows through Keswick Dam, where it receives about 1,200,000 acre feet of water per year diverted from the Trinity River. It swings east through Redding, the largest city of the Shasta Cascade region, turns southeast, entering Tehama County. East of Cottonwood it receives Cottonwood Creek – the largest undammed tributary – from the west Battle Creek a short distance downstream. Below Battle Creek it carves its last gorge, Iron Canyon, emerging from the hills at Red Bluff, where a pumping station removes water for irrigation. Beyond Red Bluff the river reaches the low floodplain of the Sacramento Valley, receiving Mill Creek from the east and Thomes Creek from the west near Los Molinos Deer Creek from the east near Vina.
Southeast of Corni
Benicia is a waterside city in Solano County, located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. It served as the state capital for nearly thirteen months from 1853 to 1854; the population was 26,997 at the 2010 census. The city is located along the north bank of the Carquinez Strait. Benicia is just east of Vallejo and across the strait from Martinez. Elizabeth Patterson has served as Mayor of Benicia since 2007; the town is divided into four areas: the East Side, the West Side and the industrial park. Most of the town's older homes are on the west sides. Southampton contains single-family housing developments and condominiums, most of which were built between 1970 and 2000; the East Side includes the Benicia Arsenal, a former United States Army armory, bought by the city and is now used for a variety of purposes, most notably as live-work spaces for artists. The Arsenal is home to several historic landmark buildings such as The Clock Tower, the Camel Barn, the Jefferson Street Mansion.
The industrial park lies to the northeast of the residential areas of the city, includes the Valero oil refinery. The Benicia State Recreation Area is on the far west edge of the city; the main retail area in Benicia is First Street, which attracts out-of-town antique and boutique shoppers and those seeking small-town, historic charm. In 1987 Benicia was selected to participate in the California Main Street Program. Connections to Benicia include Interstate 680 from Martinez to the south and Cordelia Junction to the north, Interstate 780, Columbus Parkway, other local roads from Vallejo to the west. Amtrak runs past the city north towards Sacramento, but the nearest train station lies in Martinez across the Carquinez Strait. Railroad tracks carrying Amtrak and Union Pacific Railroad lines cross the strait alongside the Benicia–Martinez Bridge; the City of Benicia was founded on May 19, 1847, by Dr. Robert Semple, Thomas O. Larkin, Comandante General Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, on land sold to them by General Vallejo in December 1846.
It was named for Francisca Benicia Carillo de Vallejo. The General intended that the city be named "Francisca" after his wife, but this name was dropped when the former city of "Yerba Buena" changed its name to "San Francisco". So Sra. Vallejo's second given name was used instead. In his memoirs, William Tecumseh Sherman contended that Benicia was "the best natural site for a commercial city" in the region. Benicia was the third site selected to serve as the California state capital, its newly constructed city hall was California's capitol from February 11, 1853, to February 25, 1854. Soon after the legislature was moved to the courthouse in Sacramento, which has remained the state capital since; the restored capitol is part of the Benicia Capitol State Historic Park, is the only building remaining of the state's early capitols, which were in San Jose and Vallejo. Benicia was the county seat of Solano County until 1858, when, moved to Fairfield; the original campus of Mills College was founded in Benicia in 1852 as the Young Ladies Seminary, was the first women's college west of the Rockies.
Before moving to Oakland in 1871, it was located on West I Street, just north of First Street. On June 5, 1889, the legendary prize fight between James J. Corbett and Joe Choynski was held on a barge off the coast of Benicia; the match lasted 28 rounds, is now commemorated by a plaque near Southampton Bay. From 1860-1861, Benicia was indirectly involved in the Pony Express; when riders missed their connection with a steamer in Sacramento, they would continue on to Benicia and cross over to Martinez via the ferry. One of the earliest companies in California, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, established a major shipyard in Benicia in the 19th century; the prolific shipbuilder Matthew Turner, formed the Matthew Turner Shipyard at Benicia in 1883. Benicia became an important wheat shipping site, it was the site of the United States Army's Benicia Arsenal. In 1879, the Central Pacific Railroad rerouted the Sacramento-Oakland portion of its transcontinental line, establishing a major railroad ferry across the Carquinez Strait from Benicia to Port Costa.
The world's largest ferry, the Solano joined by the larger Contra Costa, carried entire trains across the Carquinez Strait from Benicia to Port Costa, from whence they continued on to the Oakland Pier. In 1901, the world's first long-distance powerline crossing over Carquinez Strait was built. After California's wheat output dropped in the early 20th Century and after the Southern Pacific constructed a railroad bridge at Martinez in 1930 to replace the ferry crossing, Benicia declined until the economic boom of World War II, which doubled the population to about 7,000 residents. A major fire on March 22, 1945, destroyed a half-block of businesses, including the nearly-century-old “old brewery”, the Solano Hotel, with flames threatening the old state capitol, now used as city hall. A roof fire was extinguished and the structure was not badly damaged. Losses were estimated at $125,000. Two developments in the early 1960s would change Benicia: The closing of the Benicia Arsenal in 1960–64, the completion of the Benicia–Martinez Bridge in 1962.
The closing of the Arsenal removed Benicia's traditional economic base, but allowed city leaders to create an industrial park on Arsenal land which provided more revenue for the city than the Army had. The completion of the Benicia-Martinez Bridge made it possible for the city