The Sukhoi Su-30 is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation. It is a multirole fighter for air-to-air and air-to-surface deep interdiction missions; the Su-30 started out as an internal development project in the Sukhoi Su-27 family by Sukhoi. The design plan was revamped and the name was made official by the Russian Defense Ministry in 1996. Of the Flanker family, the Su-27, Su-30, Su-33, Su-34 and Su-35 have been ordered into limited or serial production by the Defense Ministry; the Su-30 has two distinct version branches, manufactured by competing organisations: KnAAPO and the Irkut Corporation, both of which come under the Sukhoi group's umbrella. KnAAPO manufactures the Su-30MKK and the Su-30MK2, which were designed for and sold to China, Indonesia, Uganda and Vietnam. Due to KnAAPO's involvement from the early stages of developing Su-35, these are a two-seat version of the mid-1990s Su-35; the Chinese chose an older but lighter radar so the canards could be omitted in return for increased payload.
It is a fighter with both air supremacy and attack capabilities similar to the U. S. F-15E Strike Eagle. Irkut traditionally served the Soviet Air Defense and, in the early years of Flanker development, was given the responsibility of manufacturing the Su-27UB, the two-seat trainer version; when India showed interests in the Su-30, Irkut offered the multirole Su-30MKI, which originated as the Su-27UB modified with avionics appropriate for fighters. Along with its ground-attack capabilities, the series adds features for the air-superiority role, such as canards, thrust-vectoring, a long-range phased-array radar, its derivatives include the Su-30MKM, MKA, SM for Malaysia and Russia, respectively. The Russian Air Force has ordered the Su-30SM version. While the original Su-27 had good range, it still did not have enough range for the Soviet Air Defense Forces; the Air Defense Forces needed to cover the vast expanse of the Soviet Union. Hence, development began in 1986 on the Su-27PU, an improved-capability variant of the Su-27 capable of serving as a long-range interceptor or airborne command post.
The two-seat Su-27UB combat trainer was selected as the basis for the Su-27PU, because it had the performance of a single-seat Su-27 with seating for two crew members. A "proof-of-concept" demonstrator flew 6 June 1987, this success led to the kick-off of development work on two Su-27PU prototypes; the first Su-27PU flew at Irkutsk on 31 December 1989, the first of three pre-production models flew on 14 April 1992. The Su-30 is a multirole fighter, it has a two-seat cockpit with an airbrake behind the canopy. The integrated aerodynamic configuration, combined with the thrust vectoring control ability, results in high manoeuvrability and unique takeoff and landing characteristics. Equipped with a digital fly-by-wire system, the Su-30 is able to perform some advanced manoeuvres, including the Pugachev's Cobra and the tailslide; these manoeuvers decelerate the aircraft, causing a pursuing fighter to overshoot, as well as breaking a Doppler radar-lock, as the relative speed of the aircraft drops below the threshold where the signal registers to the radar.
The aircraft's powerplant incorporates two Saturn AL-31F afterburning low-bypass turbofan engines, fed through intake ramps. Two AL-31Fs, each rated at 123 kN of full afterburning thrust ensures Mach 2 in level flight, 1,350 km/h speed at low altitude, a 230 m/s climbing rate. With a normal fuel reserve of 5,270 kg, the Su-30MK is capable of performing a 4.5-hour combat mission with a range of 3,000 km. An aerial refueling system increases the range to 5,200 km or flight duration up to 10 hours at cruise altitudes; the aircraft features autopilot ability at all flight stages including low-altitude flight in terrain-following radar mode, individual and group combat employment against air and ground/sea-surface targets. Automatic control system interconnected with the navigation system ensures route flight, target approach, recovery to airfield and landing approach in automatic mode. In 1994–1996, an initial batch of five original Su-30 fighters, contracted for the Russian Defence Ministry, were delivered to 54th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment based at Savasleyka air base.
After the regiment was disbanded in 2002, the aircraft became part of 4th Centre for Combat Employment and Retraining of Personnel in Lipetsk where they were flown by Russian Falcons aerobatic team. No further orders of the variant were made. However, the Russian Defence Ministry was impressed with the export Su-30MKI's performance envelope and ordered a total of 60 Su-30SM fighters, under two contracts signed in March and December 2012, respectively. On 21 September 2012, the Su-30SM performed its maiden flight; the Russian Air Force has received first two serial aircraft on 22 November 2012. By end of 2015, 31st Fighter Aviation Regiment, the last aviation regiment of the Russian Aerospace Forces that operated Soviet-made MiG-29A/UBs was rearmed with about twenty new Su-30SM fighters. All aircraft of the first two contracts were delivered by 2016. Another 36 aircraft were ordered in April 2016, six of which intended for the Russian Naval Aviation; this was to increase the total number to 116.
In October–November 2016, eight new aircraft were handed to Russian Knights aerobatic team, replacing the team's six Su-27 fighters. The airctaft are stationed at Moscow Oblast. During the 2017 MAKS International Aviation and Space Salon, it was announc
St. Louis Cathedral is a Catholic cathedral located in Martinique, an overseas department of France, it was built in the late 19th-century in the Romanesque Revival style and serves as the cathedral of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Fort-de-France. The church is situated in the downtown area of the capital Fort-de-France, at the intersection of rue Victor Schoelcher and rue Blénac; the construction of the cathedral began in the mid-17th century and it opened in 1657. Due to the natural disasters that have plagued Fort-de-France over the years, the current structure dates back to 1895 and was built with an iron frame in order to withstand these calamities, it is the seventh church to be erected on the site. Before the present cathedral was completed in 1895, a total of six churches had been constructed on the site, the first of, built in 1657; these were all destroyed by earthquakes or hurricanes. The loss of significant buildings was not uncommon in Fort-de-France, as devastating natural disasters plagued the region.
The cathedral that preceded the present one was destroyed by fire in July 1890, a disaster that obliterated three-quarters of the town. Pierre-Henri Picq was hired to be the architect. In the mid-1970s, the cathedral underwent an extensive program of refurbishment. Part of this entailed repainting the exterior to brown colour; the renovation was completed in 1978. The cathedral is one of the most famous landmarks in the capital and has been labelled "the religious centrepiece" of Martinique. St. Louis Cathedral was built in a Gothic Revival style with rounded arches in the Neo-Romanesque style; the cathedral's façade features a steeple that rises 187 feet above the city, while its exterior walls are supported by flying buttresses. Located in front of the cathedral is a small square that contains two royal palms which appear to flank the structure; the building is located directly across the square from the consulate of the United States and is one block northwest from the park La Savane. The entire structure has a frame of iron beams which support the walls and steeple making the church a fine example of architecture from the time of the Industrial Revolution.
As a result, the cathedral is referred to in the Caribbean as the "Iron Cathedral" and has been compared to a "Catholic railway station". The interior of the church is noted for its "grand organ", ornate walls, beautiful stained glass windows and balustrade made of iron. Located underneath the choir loft is a crypt containing the tombs of several previous governors of Martinique
The learning environment can refer to an educational approach, cultural context, or physical setting in which teaching and learning occur. The term is used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom", but it refers to the context of educational philosophy or knowledge experienced by the student and may encompass a variety of learning cultures—its presiding ethos and characteristics, how individuals interact, governing structures, philosophy. In a societal sense, learning environment may refer to the culture of the population it serves and of their location. Learning environments are diverse in use, learning styles and educational institution; the culture and context of a place or organization includes such factors as a way of thinking, behaving, or working known as organizational culture. For a learning environment such as an educational institution, it includes such factors as operational characteristics of the instructors, instructional group, or institution; the Japanese word for school, means "learning garden" or "garden of learning".
The word school derives from Greek σχολή meaning "leisure" and "that in which leisure is employed", but "a group to whom lectures were given, school". Kindergarten is a German word whose literal meaning is "garden for the children", the term was coined in the metaphorical sense of "place where children can grow in a natural way". Direct instruction is civilization's oldest method of formal, structured education and continues to be a dominant form throughout the world. In its essence, it involves the transfer of information from one who possesses more knowledge to one who has less knowledge, either in general or in relation to a particular subject or idea; the Socratic method was developed over two millennia ago in response to direct instruction in the scholae of Ancient Greece. Its dialectic, questioning form continues to be an important form of learning in western schools of law. Hands-on learning, a form of active and experiential learning, predates language and the ability to convey knowledge by means other than demonstration, has been shown to be one of the more effective means of learning and over the past two decades has been given an important role in education.
The operation of the educational facility can have a determining role of the nature of the learning environment. Characteristics that can determine the nature of the learning environment include: Organization type: state or public school, independent school, parochial school. Curriculum: the subjects comprising a course of study. "Culture" is defined as the beliefs, arts and values of a society, place, or time. This may include community, a nation, or a state. Culture affects the behavior of educators, students and community, it determines curriculum content. A community's socioeconomic status directly influences its ability to support a learning institution. Several of the key trends in educational models throughout the 20th and early 21st century include progressive education, constructivist education, 21st century skills-based education; these can be provided in comprehensive or specialized schools in a variety of organizational models, including departmental, project-based, small learning communities, school-within-a-school.
Each of these can be paired, at least in part, with design-based, virtual school, flipped classroom, blended learning models. Passive learning, a key feature of direct instruction, has at its core the dissemination of nearly all information and knowledge from a single source, the teacher with a textbook providing lessons in lecture-style format; this model has become known as the "sage on the stage". A high degree of learning was by rote memorization; when public education began to proliferate in Europe and North America from the early 19th century, a direct-instruction model became the standard and has continued into the 21st century. Education at the time was designed to provide workers for the emerging factory-based, industrial societies, this educational model and organization of schools became known as the "factory model school", with curriculum, teaching style, assessment h
The Geomagnetic Field Monitoring Program, is a scientific mission of the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission of Pakistan to undertake research in geophysics geomagnetism. The objective of the mission is to provide better understanding of the Earth's magnetic field, of associated hazard mitigation; the program monitors mathematical variation in the South Asian regional geomagnetic field. Research is conducted in specially established geomagnetic observatories in Karachi. Data collected provides the basis for continuous studies of Earth's magnetic field, is made available to various national and international institutions; the program was established in 1983 at the Sonmiani space facility. The second geomagnetic observatory was established in 2008. Suparco releases a public domain bulletin of geomagnetic data to national and international users, containing research on the effects of solar flares and severe magnetic storms recorded by the observatories. "Space Research in Pakistan 2006-2007".
Cospar-Suparco report. Cospar-Suparco report. Pp. 17–20. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012. "2008-2009 Space Research in Pakistan". SUPARCO. Cospar-Suparco 38h Paper report. Pp. 10–11. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012
Slater is an unincorporated community in Saint Marys Township, Auglaize County, United States. It is located southeast of Wapakoneta and just south of Saint Johns, on Geyer Road between Clay Road and Gutman Road, at 40°31′40″N 84°04′24″W; the Slater Crossing Station was built in 1893 for the Ohio Southern Railroad, the building was moved to a farm south of the Slater railroad crossing and stood until the early 1980s. Although there was never a post office here, Ohio is listed as a shipping and mailing address with the US Express and on the St. Marys Branch of the Toledo and Ohio Central Railroad in 1903
American History X is a 1998 American crime drama film directed by Tony Kaye and written by David McKenna. It stars Edward Norton and Edward Furlong featuring Fairuza Balk, Stacy Keach, Elliott Gould, Avery Brooks, Ethan Suplee and Beverly D'Angelo; the film was released in the United States on October 1998, distributed by New Line Cinema. The film tells the story of two brothers from Venice, Los Angeles who become involved in a white supremacist/neo-Nazi movement; the older brother serves three years in prison for voluntary manslaughter, changes his beliefs, tries to prevent his brother from going down the same path. The film is told in the style of nonlinear narrative. Made on a budget of $20 million, the film grossed $24 million at the worldwide box office; the film was well-received upon release, with general praise going to Norton's performance, which earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. In September 1999, Empire magazine named it the 311th-greatest movie of all time. High-schooler Danny Vinyard antagonizes his Jewish history teacher Mr. Murray by choosing to write a civil rights essay on Mein Kampf.
African-American principal and outreach worker Dr. Bob Sweeney tells Danny that he will study history through current events under Sweeney's direction or be expelled, calling their class American History X. Danny's first assignment is a paper on his older brother Derek, a former neo-Nazi leader released from prison that day. In the bathroom, Danny finds three African-American students bullying a white student and intervenes disrespecting the black students. Dr. Sweeney meets with police officers being briefed on Derek's release. Years earlier and Derek's father, a firefighter, was shot and killed by black drug dealers while putting out a fire at their home. In a television interview after his father's death, Derek erupts in a racist tirade. High-profile racist Cameron Alexander becomes Derek's mentor and they form their own violent white supremacist gang, the Disciples of Christ, in Venice Beach. A skilled basketball player, Derek is dragged into a game against several Crips, winning control of the local courts.
Derek leads an attack on a supermarket with non-white employees, subjecting them to violence and racial abuse, filmed by Danny on a camcorder. Derek's mother invites Mr. Murray, her boyfriend at the time, to dinner, where a heated argument about Rodney King and the 1992 Los Angeles riots occurs, culminating in Derek assaulting his sister Davina, Murray leaving, Derek's mother kicking him out; that night, a group of Crips attempt to steal his truck. Derek shoots and kills one of them and curb stomps another, is sentenced to three years in the California Institution for Men for voluntary manslaughter. In prison, Derek joins the Aryan Brotherhood and works in the laundry, partnered with Lamont, a black man. Derek is standoffish, but develops a rapport with Lamont over their shared love of basketball. Derek becomes disillusioned by prison gang politics. Turning his back on them, he is raped in the shower by the Aryan Brotherhood. Derek is visited in the hospital wing with whom he pleads for help to get out of prison.
Sweeney warns that Danny has gotten involved with the D. O. C. and is on the same path. Derek ignores the Aryan Brotherhood, Lamont warns that he may be targeted by the black gangs. An attack never comes, Derek spends the remainder of his sentence alone, reading books from Sweeney; the morning of his release, he bids goodbye to Lamont, deducing he was the reason Derek was not attacked. Returning home, Derek finds Danny emulating him, sporting a D. O. C. Tattoo and skinhead hairstyle. Derek tries to persuade him to leave the gang. Derek's best friend Seth a D. O. C. Member disrespects Derek's female family members, while grooming Danny for the gang. At a neo-Nazi party thrown in his honor, Derek tells Cameron that he and Danny will no longer associate with the movement. Cameron, Derek's former girlfriend Stacy, the others turn on Derek, who assaults Cameron for insisting Danny will remain under his influence. Seth holds Derek at gunpoint. Danny attacks Derek in tears, Derek calms him. Afterwards, Derek tells Danny about his experience in prison, which seems to prompt a change in Danny.
The pair remove all racist posters from their shared bedroom. The next morning, Danny completes his paper, reflecting on his reasons for adopting white supremacist values, their flaws, he comments that although Derek's racist views may seem to have arisen from anger over his father's death, Danny believes that the seed for his brother's views was planted years earlier. Derek walks Danny to school. Sweeney and a police officer inform Derek that Cameron are in ICU after an attack. Derek reluctantly agrees to talk with the people. At school, Danny is killed by a black student from the previous day's confrontation. Derek runs to the school and cradles Danny's bloodied corpse, blaming himself for influencing Danny's racist views that led him to a conflict with the black student. In voiceover, Danny reads the final lines of his paper for Dr. Sweeney, quoting the final stanza of Abraham Lincoln's first inaugural address. Shooting took place in California. With some suggestions from New Line, director Tony Kaye made a second shortened cut, which New Line rejec