Sukma Games

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Sukma Games
Logo-sukma.jpg
Sukma Games logo
First event 1986 Sukma Games in Kuala Lumpur
Occur every two years
Last event 2016 Sukma Games in Sarawak
Purpose Multi-sport event for states in Malaysia
Website National Sports Council of Malaysia

The Sukma Games is a sporting event in Malaysia, held once every two years. Sukma is an acronym for Sukan Malaysia; literally Malaysian Games, in other words this event is often viewed as a high-end national level competition and is usually referred to as the "Malaysian Olympics". The first Games was held in 1986 in Kuala Lumpur, the games have been held biannually from 1986 to 2010, annually from 2010 to 2014 and again biannually from 2014 onwards. Participants of the event are picked from a competitive pool of possible strong elite athletes for each respective state and are usually extremely proficient and skilled in their own respective disciplines.[1]

The Sukma Games is the largest and prestige national-level tournament in Malaysia, the tournament is held at every alternate year with Southeast Asian Games to explore new talents of the athletes highly potential to represent the nation at international sporting events.

The games rose from the proposal of the then Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports, Anwar Ibrahim in 1983. At first, the proposal consisted of sports such as tennis, table tennis, cycling, athletics and volleyball, but due to popularity and fame, the sports and number of events increased.[1]

The Sukma Games concept is initiated to shape a united multi-racial society across the nation, the games fulfilled the Malaysia corporation concept where the government, sporting bodies, National Sports Council and non-governmental organizations are involved in managing its sponsorship.

Participating teams[edit]

The participating teams are mainly states and federal territories within Malaysia, some invitational teams had been invited to a few Sukma Games. Eventually, as time passes all invitational teams except Brunei had ceased to participate in any Sukma Games followed by individual federal territories of Malaysia in which the latter had been merged into a single team begins 2006 onwards. Participating contingent with their respective Sukma Games Code are as below.[2]

Notes:

  1. ^ Kuala Lumpur, Labuan and Putrajaya participated as a combined Federal Territory contingent since 2006. Given Putrajaya's small area and population, the Putrajaya contingent was never formed throughout Sukma Games history.
  2. ^ No longer participated in the games (historical team)
  3. ^ Not from within Malaysia.
  4. ^ Malaysian Universities Sports Council (Malay: Majlis Sukan Universiti Malaysia, abbreviated as MASUM)
  5. ^ Malaysian Schools Sports Council (Malay: Majlis Sukan Sekolah-sekolah Malaysia, abbreviated as MSSM)
  6. ^ Royal Malaysian Police (Malay: Polis Diraja Malaysia, abbreviated as PDRM)
  7. ^ Malaysian Armed Forces (Malay: Angkatan Tentera Malaysia, abbreviated as ATM)

Sports[edit]

The list below shows the sports that are played at all the Sukma Games since 1986.

Core sports[edit]

Optional sports[edit]

All-time medal table[edit]

Below shows the all time medal table of Sukma Games from 1986 to 2016. Defunct teams are highlighted in italics.

Sukma Games all-time medal table
 Rank  State Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Selangor (SEL) 753 719 820 2292
2  Sarawak (SAR) 668 612 645 1925
3  Perak (PRK) 406 417 560 1383
4  Pahang (PAH) 384 371 408 1163
5  Penang (PEN) 383 395 520 1298
6  Terengganu (TER) 382 287 324 993
7  Johor (JOH) 324 339 469 1132
8  Sabah (SAB) 278 339 442 1059
9  Kuala Lumpur (KUL) 274 276 279 829
10  Kedah (KED) 254 232 345 831
11  Federal Territory (WIL) 251 278 339 868
12  Negeri Sembilan (NSE) 228 224 303 755
13  Malacca (MEL) 192 193 260 645
14  Kelantan (KEL) 136 143 180 459
15  Perlis (PER) 55 64 140 259
16 Police (POL) 31 36 45 112
17 Malaysia Universities (MSU) 17 17 15 49
18 Armed Forces (ATM) 12 27 39 78
19  Brunei (BRU) 5 14 30 49
20  Labuan (LBN) 2 2 10 14
21 Malaysia Schools (MSM) 2 2 9 13
22  Northern Territory (NTA) 1 0 1 2
Total (22 States) 5038 4987 6183 16208
  • Total medals excluding 4th place

1986 Sukma Games[edit]

[3][4]

Sports
Participating states
Key

  *   Host state (Kuala Lumpur)

1986 Sukma Games medal table
 Rank  State Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur (KUL) 36 32 22 90
2  Selangor (SEL) 23 14 14 51
3  Sarawak (SAR) 13 8 14 35
4  Perak (PRK) 10 15 17 42
5  Penang (PEN) 9 20 21 50
6  Sabah (SAB) 9 8 8 25
7 Police (POL) 9 4 7 20
8  Johor (JOH) 6 5 6 17
9  Kedah (KED) 5 5 11 21
10 Armed Forces (ATM) 2 8 11 21
11  Malacca (MEL) 2 1 5 8
12  Terengganu (TER) 2 1 4 7
13  Pahang (PAH) 1 4 6 11
14  Negeri Sembilan (NSE) 0 1 4 5
15  Kelantan (KEL) 0 1 1 2
16  Perlis (PER) 0 0 1 1
17 Malaysia Universities (MSU) 0 0 0 0
Total (17 States) 127 127 152 406

1988 Sukma Games[edit]

Sports
Participating states
Key

  *   Host state (Kuala Lumpur)

1988 Sukma Games medal table
 Rank  State Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Selangor (SEL) 26 17 29 72
2  Sarawak (SAR) 24 18 15 57
3  Penang (PEN) 19 14 15 48
4 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur (KUL) 12 12 22 46
5  Negeri Sembilan (NSE) 10 6 5 21
6  Johor (JOH) 9 3 9 21
7  Kedah (KED) 6 6 8 20
8 Police (POL) 6 3 5 14
9  Malacca (MEL) 5 7 4 16
10  Sabah (SAB) 4 12 8 24
11 Malaysia Universities (MSU) 4 4 8 16
12  Perak (PRK) 3 20 21 44
13  Terengganu (TER) 2 2 4 8
14  Kelantan (KEL) 1 3 7 11
15  Pahang (PAH) 1 1 5 7
16  Perlis (PER) 1 0 5 6
17 Armed Forces (ATM) 0 1 1 2
Total (17 States) 133 129 171 433

1990 Sukma Games[edit]

Sports
Participating states
Key

  *   Host state (Sarawak)

1990 Sukma Games medal table
 Rank  State Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Sarawak (SAR)* 44 17 18 79
2  Kuala Lumpur (KUL) 19 20 18 57
3  Penang (PEN) 17 22 24 63
4  Perak (PRK) 12 16 22 50
5  Selangor (SEL) 11 18 34 63
6  Negeri Sembilan (NSE) 7 4 4 15
7  Sabah (SAB) 5 4 10 19
8  Malacca (MEL) 4 6 6 16
9 Police (POL) 4 4 2 10
 Terengganu (TER) 4 4 2 10
11  Kedah (KED) 2 7 6 15
12  Johor (JOH) 2 5 12 19
13  Kelantan (KEL) 2 2 3 7
14  Perlis (PER) 1 0 7 8
15  Pahang (PAH) 0 2 5 7
16 Malaysia Universities (MSU) 0 2 1 3
17 Armed Forces (ATM) 0 1 2 3
Total (17 States) 134 134 176 444

1992 Sukma Games[edit]

Sports
Participating states
Key

  *   Host state (Johor)

1992 Sukma Games medal table
 Rank  State Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Sarawak (SAR) 36 27 26 89
2  Johor (JOH)* 26 21 22 69
3  Selangor (SEL) 23 25 41 89
4  Penang (PEN) 22 28 22 72
5  Kuala Lumpur (KUL) 22 23 32 77
6  Perak (PRK) 18 10 21 49
7  Sabah (SAB) 9 16 13 38
8  Malacca (MEL) 7 6 12 25
9  Kedah (KED) 6 7 8 21
10  Negeri Sembilan (NSE) 6 5 3 14
11 Armed Forces (ATM) 5 5 18 28
12  Pahang (PAH) 5 5 8 18
13 Malaysia Universities (MSU) 4 5 2 11
14  Kelantan (KEL) 3 9 12 24
15  Terengganu (TER) 3 4 10 17
16 Police (POL) 2 1 5 8
17  Perlis (PER) 2 0 0 2
Total (17 States) 199 197 255 651

1994 Sukma Games[edit]

Sports
Participating states
Key

  *   Host state (Perak)

1994 Sukma Games medal table
 Rank  State Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Sarawak (SAR) 39 28 30 97
2  Kuala Lumpur (KUL) 31 39 26 96
3  Selangor (SEL) 28 41 33 102
4  Perak (PRK)* 26 26 25 77
5  Pahang (PAH) 21 16 20 57
6  Sabah (SAB) 19 14 14 47
7  Johor (JOH) 17 13 22 52
8  Penang (PEN) 13 12 24 49
9  Kedah (KED) 8 5 20 33
10  Kelantan (KEL) 6 6 10 22
11 Armed Forces (ATM) 5 12 7 24
12  Terengganu (TER) 5 3 7 15
13  Negeri Sembilan (NSE) 4 2 4 10
14  Malacca (MEL) 4 1 10 15
15 Police (POL) 3 8 2 13
16  Perlis (PER) 1 0 8 9
17 Malaysia Universities (MSU) 0 2 1 3
Total (17 States) 230 228 263 721

1996 Sukma Games[edit]

Participating states
Sports
Medal table
Key

  *   Host state (Pahang)

1996 Sukma Games medal table
 Rank  State Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Selangor (SEL) 57 43 44 144
2  Sarawak (SAR) 56 49 52 157
3  Pahang (PAH)* 37 42 44 123
4  Kuala Lumpur (KUL) 34 27 32 93
5  Perak (PRK) 22 25 28 75
6  Sabah (SAB) 20 19 22 61
7  Terengganu (TER) 8 16 15 39
8  Kelantan (KEL) 8 11 11 30
9  Kedah (KED) 8 6 18 32
10  Negeri Sembilan (NSE) 6 4 10 20
11  Penang (PEN) 5 10 10 25
12  Malacca (MEL) 5 9 11 25
13 Malaysia Universities (MSU) 4 0 0 4
14  Johor (JOH) 2 7 17 25
15  Perlis (PER) 2 2 4 8
16 Police (POL) 1 3 8 12
17  Brunei (BRU) 1 1 0 2
18 Malaysia Schools (MSM) 1 0 2 3
19  Labuan (LBN) 0 0 0 0
Total (19 States) 277 274 328 879

Edition[edit]

All states of Malaysia have held their respective Sukma Games, except Kelantan.[5][6][7]

Edition Year Host Main Stadium Start Date End Date Sports Events Contingents Competitors Champion
I 1986 Kuala Lumpur Merdeka Stadium, Kuala Lumpur 19 April 26 April 15 127 17 3849 Kuala Lumpur
II 1988 Kuala Lumpur Stadium Negara, Kuala Lumpur 12 November 19 November 15 133 17 4214 Selangor
III 1990  Sarawak Sarawak State Stadium, Kuching 18 July 27 July 15 134 17 2849 Sarawak
IV 1992  Johor Tan Sri Dato Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium, Johor Bahru 1 July 11 July 21 199 17 4405 Sarawak
V 1994  Perak Perak Stadium, Ipoh 9 June 18 June 23 230 17 4523 Sarawak
VI 1996  Pahang Darul Makmur Stadium, Kuantan 1 June 10 June 23 277 19 5206 Selangor
VII 1998  Selangor Opening ceremony
Shah Alam Stadium
Closing ceremony
Malawati Indoor Stadium
17 April 26 April 25 264 16 3956 Selangor
VIII 2000  Penang Batu Kawan Stadium, Batu Kawan 25 May 4 June 27 332 19 5875 Selangor
IX 2002  Sabah Likas Stadium, Kota Kinabalu 5 September 14 September 27 347 20 5324 Selangor
X 2004  Negeri Sembilan Tuanku Abdul Rahman Stadium, Seremban 28 May 6 June 32 370 17 6000 Selangor
XI 2006  Kedah Darul Aman Stadium, Alor Star 24 May 4 June 31 370 16 4882 Selangor
XII 2008  Terengganu Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium, Kuala Terengganu 31 May 9 June 31 406 15 6000 Terengganu
XIII 2010  Malacca Hang Jebat Stadium, Paya Rumput 10 June 19 June 33 437 15 9237 Terengganu
XIV 2011  Federal Territory KLFA Stadium, Kuala Lumpur 2 June 12 June 24 129 14 3368 Terengganu
XV 2012  Pahang Darul Makmur Stadium, Kuantan 9 July 16 July 24 379 15 5828 Terengganu
XVI 2013  Federal Territory Bukit Jalil National Stadium, Kuala Lumpur 28 June 7 July 23 132 14 3618 Selangor
XVII 2014  Perlis Tuanku Syed Putra Stadium, Kangar 24 May 4 June 24 396 15 7815 Federal Territory
XVIII 2016  Sarawak Sarawak Stadium, Kuching 23 July 31 July 24 382 15 5670 Selangor
XIX 2018  Perak[8] Perak Stadium, Ipoh (Expected) Future event
XX 2020  Johor[8] Tan Sri Dato Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium, Johor Bahru (expected) Future event

List of the Sukma Games' Sportsman and Sportswoman[edit]

[9][10]

Edition Year Sukma Games' Sportsman Sukma Games' Sportswoman
Name Contingent Sport Name Contingent Sport
I 1986
II 1988
III 1990 Gerard Liew  Penang Swimming Tania Hamid Bugo  Sarawak Swimming
IV 1992 Khoo Kah Hock Malaysia MASUM Archery Magdaline Goh  Penang Swimming
Azmi Ibrahim
(Most Promising Sportsman)
 Pahang Athletics Shalin Zulkifli
(Most Promising Sportswoman)
 Selangor Bowling
V 1994 Azmi Ibrahim  Pahang Athletics Yew Chai Peng  Perak Athletics
VI 1996
VII 1998 Chai Song Lip  Sarawak Athletics Ho Hsu Ee  Kuala Lumpur Swimming
VIII 2000 Allen Ong  Perak Swimming Sia Wai Yen  Kuala Lumpur Swimming
IX 2002 Ng Shu Mun  Perak Artistic gymnastics Ngew Sin Mei  Kuala Lumpur Athletics
Petra Nabila Mustafa
(Most Promising Sportswoman)
 Negeri Sembilan Athletics
X 2004 Daniel Bego  Sarawak Swimming Cindy Ong  Perak Swimming
XI 2006 Zulkifli Che Rose  Sarawak Weightlifting Lew Yih Wey  Negeri Sembilan Swimming
XII 2008 Foo Jian Beng  Selangor Swimming Marellyn Liew  Sarawak Swimming
XIII 2010 J. Karthik  Malacca Athletics Chan Kah Yan  Federal Territory Swimming
XIV 2011 Ahmad Shafie Abd Jabar  Johor Canoeing Jupha Somnet  Perlis Cycling
XV 2012 Abdul Mubin Rahim  Terengganu Weightlifting Frenceay Titus  Sabah Weightlifting
XVI 2013 Danniel Iskandar Richard  Selangor Artistic gymnastics Esmelda Arecia Menti Alfred Geling  Sarawak Artistic gymnastics
XVII 2014 Muhammad Irfan Shamshuddin  Negeri Sembilan Athletics Jelinie Empera  Sarawak Weightlifting
XVIII 2016 Khairul Hafiz Jantan  Malacca Athletics Nur Aqilah Yusof  Terengganu Archery

Previously Adopted Systems[edit]

Fourth Place-Points System[edit]

From 1998 to its abolition in 2006, Sukma Games adopted the Fourth Place-Points System to calculate the points collected by athletes for the contingent. Points were calculated based on the number of athletes in an event and teams were sorted in the medal table by the total number of medals and points and not sorted by the number of gold medals, followed by the number of silver medals, and bronze medals, the number of fourth places were also included in the medal table even though fourth place athletes are not among the medalists. The system applied to local contingents from 1998 to 2006 and the Brunei contingent in 2000 but did not applied to the Northern Territory contingent.

The points of the participating teams are calculated with the following method:

Number Of Athletes Gold Silver Bronze Fourth
One and Two 5 3 2 1
Three and Above 8 5 3 2
1998 Sukma Games
State Fourth Points
 Selangor 51 811
 Sarawak 26 523
 Perak 19 322
 Kuala Lumpur 23 297
 Pahang 13 290
 Penang 10 150
 Terengganu 15 158
 Sabah 12 125
 Kelantan 12 126
 Kedah 8 123
 Johor 12 109
 Negeri Sembilan 11 95
 Malacca 6 78
 Perlis 0 19
Malaysia Schools 0 4
 Labuan 0 4
Total 218 3234
2000 Sukma Games
State Fourth Points
 Selangor 46 673
 Sarawak 48 649
 Perak 32 521
 Penang 25 403
 Kuala Lumpur 17 373
 Pahang 25 330
 Johor 8 240
 Kedah 17 204
 Sabah 18 163
 Negeri Sembilan 6 131
 Kelantan 12 137
 Malacca 5 103
 Terengganu 3 68
 Perlis 1 49
Malaysia Universities 1 29
Malaysia Schools 1 16
 Brunei 0 0
Police 0 9
 Labuan 1 1
Total 266 4099
2002 Sukma Games
State Fourth Points
 Selangor 47 655
 Perak 18 526
 Sarawak 43 537
 Kuala Lumpur 13 373
 Sabah 32 419
 Penang 21 388
 Johor 19 339
 Pahang 12 299
 Kedah 14 188
 Negeri Sembilan 4 158
 Malacca 7 157
 Kelantan 10 111
 Perlis 2 44
 Terengganu 0 38
 Labuan 0 20
Police 3 20
Malaysia Universities 2 17
 Brunei 2 N/A
 Northern Territory 1 N/A
Malaysia Schools 5 17
Total 254 4306
2004 Sukma Games
State Fourth Points
 Selangor 35 684
 Sarawak 44 616
 Perak 32 516
 Penang 33 499
 Kuala Lumpur 20 412
 Johor 19 344
 Pahang 16 304
 Malacca 10 242
 Sabah 19 315
 Negeri Sembilan 7 233
 Kedah 15 189
 Terengganu 0 90
 Kelantan 9 80
Police 3 27
 Perlis 3 22
 Labuan 0 14
 Brunei 1 N/A
Total 266 4587
2006 Sukma Games
State Fourth Points
 Selangor 41 629
 Pahang 19 426
 Perak 28 415
 Sarawak 39 507
 Penang 35 480
 Kedah 39 407
 Sabah 19 318
 Federal Territory 27 369
 Kelantan 4 165
 Negeri Sembilan 12 234
 Johor 11 255
 Terengganu 2 181
 Malacca 11 143
Police 5 63
 Brunei 3 N/A
 Perlis 5 19
Total 300 4611

Annual Games System[edit]

On 27 May 2010, the Cabinet Committee for Sports Development (Malay: Jawatankuasa Kabinet Pembangunan Sukan (JKPS)) has decided that it should allow the states to rotate hosting the Sukma Games every even years and the National Sports Council itself every odd year to give chance for every sports competed and help the develop the sports in all directions and 'democratise' all the sports events,[11] hence started the "annual games" system. This, however has caused some states like Sarawak to lament on its so-called bad performance when the optional sports only Sukma Games in the odd years was held, while in fact they excel in the core sports only Sukma Games held by the states in the even years,[12] for example, they fell to the bottom three with only 2 Gold in the 2011 games which involved only optional sports. But in the 2012 Games in Pahang which involved only core sports, they won fourth place among the states competed. By combining the results of the 2011 and 2012 games, Sarawak is in fifth place overall among the participating states, this shows that some states might be weak in certain sports, but they are strong in the others. Besides, the implementation of the system saw the states sports agenda fully packed, and the state athletes and coaches lacked time to rest after a competition. Notably, Brunei did not participate in the optional sports games held in Kuala Lumpur, rather it participated only in the state held Sukma Games held in the even years as usual, the system was adopted from 2010 to 2014, and was abolished via a meeting in 2015.[13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b (in Malay) "Sukan Malaysia (SUKMA)". National Sports Council of Malaysia. Retrieved 27 January 2015. 
  2. ^ "Contingent code". 
  3. ^ Archived National Sports Council Sukma Games Medal Tally
  4. ^ "Gemilang Magazine Sukma Sabah 2002" (PDF). 
  5. ^ "Sukan Malaysia". Perak State Sport Council. 
  6. ^ "Sukan Malaysia". Sabah State Sport Council. 
  7. ^ "List of Champions of Sukma". 
  8. ^ a b (in Malay) "Perak, Johor tuan rumah Sukma 2018, 2020". Sinar Harian. 14 May 2015. 
  9. ^ "Sukma 1992 Closed" (PDF). 
  10. ^ "Sukma 1998 Closed" (PDF). 
  11. ^ "Sukma 2011-an Effort 'Democratising' Sports In The Country". Bernama. Retrieved September 18, 2015. 
  12. ^ "Sarawak in bottom three at Sukma XIV". The Borneo Post. June 14, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Sports Bodies Can Hold Their Own (Competition) After Sukma Cancelled". The Star. February 25, 2015. Retrieved September 17, 2015. 
  14. ^ "2015 Sukma Games Cancelled". Borneo Post. 

External links[edit]