Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid known as vitriol, is a mineral acid composed of the elements sulfur and hydrogen, with molecular formula H2SO4. It is a colorless and viscous liquid, soluble in water and is synthesized in reactions that are exothermic, its corrosiveness can be ascribed to its strong acidic nature, and, if at a high concentration, its dehydrating and oxidizing properties. It is hygroscopic absorbing water vapor from the air. Upon contact, sulfuric acid can cause severe chemical burns and secondary thermal burns. Sulfuric acid is a important commodity chemical, a nation's sulfuric acid production is a good indicator of its industrial strength, it is produced with different methods, such as contact process, wet sulfuric acid process, lead chamber process and some other methods. Sulfuric acid is a key substance in the chemical industry, it is most used in fertilizer manufacture, but is important in mineral processing, oil refining, wastewater processing, chemical synthesis. It has a wide range of end applications including in domestic acidic drain cleaners, as an electrolyte in lead-acid batteries, in dehydrating a compound, in various cleaning agents.

Although nearly 100% sulfuric acid solutions can be made, the subsequent loss of SO3 at the boiling point brings the concentration to 98.3% acid. The 98.3% grade is more stable in storage, is the usual form of what is described as "concentrated sulfuric acid". Other concentrations are used for different purposes; some common concentrations are: "Chamber acid" and "tower acid" were the two concentrations of sulfuric acid produced by the lead chamber process, chamber acid being the acid produced in the lead chamber itself and tower acid being the acid recovered from the bottom of the Glover tower. They are now obsolete as commercial concentrations of sulfuric acid, although they may be prepared in the laboratory from concentrated sulfuric acid if needed. In particular, "10M" sulfuric acid is prepared by adding 98% sulfuric acid to an equal volume of water, with good stirring: the temperature of the mixture can rise to 80 °C or higher. Sulfuric acid reacts with its anhydride, SO3, to form H2S2O7, called pyrosulfuric acid, fuming sulfuric acid, Disulfuric acid or oleum or, less Nordhausen acid.

Concentrations of oleum are either expressed in terms of % SO3 or as % H2SO4. Pure H2S2O7 is a solid with melting point of 36 °C. Pure sulfuric acid has a vapor pressure of <0.001 mmHg at 25 °C and 1 mmHg at 145.8 °C, 98% sulfuric acid has a <1 mmHg vapor pressure at 40 °C. Pure sulfuric acid is a viscous clear liquid, like oil, this explains the old name of the acid. Commercial sulfuric acid is sold in several different purity grades. Technical grade H2SO4 is impure and colored, but is suitable for making fertilizer. Pure grades, such as United States Pharmacopeia grade, are used for making pharmaceuticals and dyestuffs. Analytical grades are available. Nine hydrates are known, but four of them were confirmed to be tetrahydrate and octahydrate. Anhydrous H2SO4 is a polar liquid, having a dielectric constant of around 100, it has a high electrical conductivity, caused by dissociation through protonating itself, a process known as autoprotolysis. 2 H2SO4 ⇌ H3SO+4 + HSO−4The equilibrium constant for the autoprotolysis is Kap = = 2.7×10−4The comparable equilibrium constant for water, Kw is 10−14, a factor of 1010 smaller.

In spite of the viscosity of the acid, the effective conductivities of the H3SO+4 and HSO−4 ions are high due to an intramolecular proton-switch mechanism, making sulfuric acid a good conductor of electricity. It is an excellent solvent for many reactions; because the hydration reaction of sulfuric acid is exothermic, dilution should always be performed by adding the acid to the water rather than the water to the acid. Because the reaction is in an equilibrium that favors the rapid protonation of water, addition of acid to the water ensures that the acid is the limiting reagent; this reaction is best thought of as the formation of hydronium ions: H2SO4 + H2O → H3O+ + HSO−4 Ka1 = 2.4×106 HSO−4 + H2O → H3O+ + SO2−4 Ka2 = 1.0×10−2 HSO−4 is the bisulfate anion and SO2−4 is the sulfate anion. Ka1 and Ka2 are the acid dissociation constants; because the hydration of sulfuric acid is thermodynamically favorable and the affinity of it for water is sufficiently strong, sulfuric acid is an excellent dehydrating agent.

Concentrated sulfuric acid has a powerful dehydrating property, removing water from other chemical compounds including sugar and other carbohydrates and producing carbon and steam. In the laboratory, this is demonstrated by mixing table sugar into sulfuric acid; the sugar changes from white to dark brown and to black as carbon is formed. A rigid column of black, porous carbon will emerge as well; the carbon will smell of caramel due to the heat generated. C 12 H 22 O 11 ⏞ sucrose → H 2 SO 4 12 C +


Daddysmilk is a rock band based in Manchester, England. The founding members are Norwegian, from Bjørndal, a small suburb of Oslo; when based in Norway, the band were known for their live shows in Oslo. The band relocated to England in early 2009. Daddysmilk's has a varied musical spectrum, with influences including modern alternative rock and pop, their music incorporates elements from swing jazz and melodies reminiscent of traditional Norwegian folk music. The band combines riff-based elements and chord-based song structuring, while maintaining a heavy focus on melody and dissonant harmonies, their music has been compared to System of a Down, Queens of the Stone Age and early My Chemical Romance. Kristoffer Ziegler and Marius Markus met at Lofsrud Skole in Oslo. Sootholtet and Markus were classmates and childhood friends with Sarmast, the three started jamming together with several others. Ziegler and Markus didn't know each other until they discovered a mutual liking for Stoner rock and Punk rock.

After a year at boarding school, Ziegler joined the current band as a temporary fill-in, but was given the option to join the band permanently by the current singer. Ziegler and the other members accepted, the band started doing shows in Oslo; the band got second place in the Norwegian Battle of Bands competition that year and was signed by a management company the next year. The band spent two years in the studio, recording for a record label, but when the final product was revealed to them they weren't satisfied with the result; this resulted in a conflict with their management and the band and manager parted ways. Daddysmilk relocated to Manchester, England in late 2008, stating the reason for relocating as being frustration for a lack of a musical scene in Oslo, Norway, a lack of appreciation from the musical establishment in Norway; the band was never featured on Norwegian National Broadcasting's Urørt, a nationwide radio show designed to showcase unsigned talent in Norway. The band was however featured in the popular online game "Ski Challenge 2008" with their song "Bounce".

It was used at promotional television advertisement for the game on Norwegian National Broadcasting. Since moving to Manchester the band have completed their line up by adding guitarist Keith Vass and bass player Stephen Hodkinson, both from Manchester. Daddysmilk gained a moderate fanbase in the Oslo area, as the word spread around their live performances, as well as a increasing online fanbase, their international fanbase has strongest roots in Mexico, Canada and Japan, thanks to good chart positions and good reviews on websites, and Daddysmilk's songs are characterized by an emphasis on dramatic lyrics; the songs portray a conflicting situation, the contrast between positive and negative emotions are used as a hook. List of Norwegian musicians List of bands from Manchester OurStage profile profile MySpace Profile Urørt Profile GarageBand Profile Norwegian Bandindex MusicMight Profile Facebook Profile

Claes Elefalk

Claes Elefalk is a Swedish sports agent at the Creative Artists Agency. Elefalk is a Swedish Sports agent. From the early 1990s, Elefalk worked as an agent at IMG Sweden until 2006, he held a Vice Presidential position within the company before moving to the illustrious Creative Artists Agency and their division CAA Sports. Elefalk works out of Creative Artists's Stockholm location. Elefalk's clients are ice hockey players of Swedish extraction, he represents amongst others NHL hockey players Mats Sundin, Filip Forsberg, Daniel Alfredsson, Adrian Kempe, Daniel Sedin, Henrik Sedin, Carl Söderberg, Adam Larsson, Niklas Kronwall, Mario Kempe, Marcus Johansson, Marcus Kruger, Joakim Nordström, Loui Eriksson, Oscar Möller, Mattias Öhlund, Anton Lander, Evgeni Malkin, Victor Rask, Jonathan Davidsson, Victor Söderström, Oliver Kylington, Lucas Wallmark, Alexander Wennberg, Oscar Klefbom, Olli Määttä, Mario Kempe, Andreas Englund, Carl Hagelin, Carl Gunnarsson, Andreas Jämtin, Kenny Jönsson, Jörgen Jönsson, Niclas Bergfors, Mikael Backlund, Mathias Johansson, Carl Grundström, Fabian Brunnström, Carl Söderberg and Per Ledin.

Elefalk use to represent soccer players Freddie Ljungberg, Pontus Farnerud, Nils-Eric Johansson, Joel Riddez, Jon Lundblad, David Quattlebaum, David Beckham. While at IMG, Elefalk represented Brazilian soccer player and former FC Inter Milan coach Leonardo, Australian soccer player Marko Viduka, Nils-Eric Johansson, Martin Dahlin, Anders Limpar, Pascal Simpson, Magnus Pehrsson, Mattias Jonson and Magnus Hedman. as well as Alpine Skiers Patrik Järbyn and Tobias Hellman