A duchy is a country, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. The term is used exclusively in Europe, where in the present day there is no sovereign duchy left; the term "duke" should not be confused with the title Grand Duke, as there exists a significant difference of rank between the two. In common European cultural heritage, a grand duke is the third highest monarchic rank, after emperor and king, its synonym in many Slavic and Baltic European languages is translated as Grand Prince, whereas most Germanic and Romance European languages use expressions corresponding to Grand Duke. Unlike a duke, the sovereign grand duke is considered royalty; the proper form of address for a grand duke is His Royal Highness, whereas for a non-royal duke in the United Kingdom it is His Grace. In contrast to this, the rank of a duke differs from one country to the next. In Germany, for example, a duke is listed in the aristocratic hierarchy below an emperor, grand duke, elector – in that order – whereas in Britain the duke comes third after king/queen and prince.
In all countries, there existed an important difference between "sovereign dukes" and dukes subordinate to a king or emperor. Some historic duchies were sovereign in areas that would become part of nation-states only during the modern era, such as Germany and Italy. In contrast, others were subordinate districts of those kingdoms that had unified either or during the medieval era, such as France, Sicily and the Papal States. In England, the term is used in respect of non-territorial entities. Traditionally, a grand duchy, such as Luxembourg or Tuscany, was independent and sovereign. There were many sovereign or semi-sovereign duchies in the de facto confederate Holy Roman Empire and German-speaking areas. In France, a number of duchies existed in the medieval period including Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine; the medieval German stem duchies were associated with the Frankish Kingdom and corresponded with the areas of settlement of the major Germanic tribes. They formed the nuclei of the major feudal states that comprised the early era of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.
These were Schwaben and Sachsen in pre-Carolingian times, to which Franken and Lothringen were added in post-Carolingian times. As mentioned above, such a duke was styled Herzog. In medieval England, duchies associated with the territories of Lancashire and Cornwall were created, with certain powers and estates of land accruing to their dukes; the Duchy of Lancaster was created in 1351 but became merged with the Crown when, in 1399, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, ascended the throne of England as Henry IV. Nowadays the Duchy of Lancaster always belongs to the sovereign and its revenue is the Privy Purse; the Duchy of Cornwall was created in 1337 and held successively by the Dukes of Cornwall, who were heirs to the throne. Nowadays, the Duchy of Cornwall belongs to the sovereign's heir apparent, if there is one: it reverts to the Crown in the absence of an heir apparent, is automatically conferred to the heir apparent upon birth; these duchies today have lost any non-ceremonial political role, but generate their holders' private income.
During the Wars of the Roses, the Duke of York made a successful entry into the City of York, by claiming no harm and that it was his right to possess "his duchy of York". Any and all feudal duchies that made up the patchwork of England have since been absorbed within the Royal Family. Other than Cornwall and Lancaster, British royal dukedoms are titular and do not include land holdings. Non-royal dukedoms are associated with ducal property, but this is meant as the duke's private property, with no other feudal privileges attached. In more recent times, territorial duchies have become rare. At present all independent duchies have disappeared. Luxembourg, an independent and sovereign nation with a history dating back as far as the 8th century, is the only remaining independent grand duchy, with HRH the Grand Duke Henri I as its head of state since the year 2000. In the middle east the concept of beylik can be seen as equivalent to duchy. For example, the Ottoman Empire, first just the nomadic Kayı tribe among the Ghuzz, settled in Bithynia on the border to the Byzantine Empire, evolved under the Sultanate of Rûm into a border principality.
It became an independent principality. It grew further into its own empire by conquering the nearby Anatolian beyliks remnants of the Sultanate of Rûm. Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Grand Duchy of
Siege of Batavia
Siege of Batavia was a military campaign led by Sultan Agung of Mataram to capture the Dutch port-settlement of Batavia in Java. The first attempt was launched in 1628, the second in 1629, both were unsuccessful. Jan Pieterszoon Coen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies managed to repel the sieges and beat off all of Sultan Agung's attacks. In the Indonesian Archipelago the Dutch East Indies Company first established their base of operation in Amboina. To expand their trading network, the Dutch asked for the permission of the Sultanate of Mataram the rising power in Java, to build lojis along Java's northern coast; the second ruler of Mataram, Raden Mas Jolang, allowed one such settlement to be built in Jepara in 1613 in hope that the company will be a powerful ally against his most powerful enemy, the city state of Surabaya. After the VOC under their most renowned governor general Jan Pieterszoon Coen had wrested the port of Jacatra from Sultanate of Banten in 1619, they established a town that would serve as the Company's headquarter in Asia for the next three centuries.
As part of the Company's security policy the Javanese people were made to feel unwelcome in Batavia, as the Dutch feared an uprising should they formed the majority of the city's population. To meet labor needs, Batavia instead imported large numbers of workers and slaves from other parts of the archipelago, such as the Maluku Islands and Bali. Notable among these attempts were Willem Ysbrandtszoon Bontekoe voyage to bring 1,000 Chinese immigrants to Batavia from Macao. In 1621, another attempt was initiated and 15,000 people were deported from the Banda Islands to Batavia. Having been established for a decade, the first major Dutch settlement and trading post in Java, had begun to draw hostility from the surrounding Javanese kingdoms; the European port and settlement was considered to be a foreign threat by the native polities. The sultans of Banten aspired to retake the port city and to close down a major trading rival; however they could not afford to launch a campaign of a scale capable of retaking the port.
Instead the Bantenese could only launch occasional small scale raids on Dutch interests outside of the city walls. Meanwhile, in the east, Mas Jolang died in 1613 and was succeeded by his son Sultan Agung, to become the greatest of Mataram's rulers. Relationship with the Company became more tense, with Agung early in his reign warning a Dutch embassy that peace with him would be impossible to maintain if they were to try to conquer any part of Java, over which he was determined to become sole ruler. In 1618 a misunderstanding resulted in the VOC's loji in Jepara being burnt by Agung's regent, with three VOC personnel being killed and the rest arrested. Relationship between the two parties remained mixed; the Dutch, declined his request for military support. With the fall of Surabaya to his forces in 1625, Agung saw no further need to tolerate the foreign presence in what he saw as his rightful domain. Agung might have started his plans for the conquest of Batavia as early as 1626. Aside of his aversion of the Dutch, it was a natural stepping stone for the conquest of Banten, the last major independent Javanese state.
As preparation for this he made an alliance with Cirebon although in practice she was treated as a vassal of Mataram. In April 1628 Kyai Rangga Tapa, the regent of Tegal was sent to Batavia to propose a peace treaty with certain conditions on Mataram's behalf; the Dutch however, declined this proposal as well. For Agung, this was the last straw and he put his plan of attacking Batavia into motion, he sent two forces, one by sea under Tumenggung Bahureksa, the regent of Kendal, another overland under Prince Mandudareja. On August 25, 1628, the vanguard of Agung's navy arrived in Batavia; the Mataram naval armada brought extensive amount of supplies, including 150 cattle, 5,900 sacks of sugar, 26,600 coconuts and 12,000 sacks of rice. As a ruse de guerre they asked for permission to land in Batavia to trade, however the size of the Mataram fleet caused the Dutch to be suspicious; the next day the Dutch allowed the cattle to be delivered, with the condition that only one Mataram ship at a time may dock.
One hundred armed guards watched the landing from Batavia Castle. On the third day three more Mataram ships arrived, claiming that they were there to ask for a travel permit to trade with Malacca; the Hoge Regering became alarmed at the sudden increase in Mataram ship arrivals, moved more artillery pieces to Batavia Castle's two northern bastions. In the afternoon twenty more Mataram ships arrived and began to unload their troops north of the castle, causing the alerted Dutch to pull all personnel back into the castle and open fire on the incoming Javanese. To deny shelter for the invading army, Coen had most of Batavia's bamboo shack suburbs burnt. On August 28, 1628, 27 more Mataram ships landed quite far from Batavia. On the south of Batavia the vanguard of the overland Mataram force began to arrive, with 1,000 men starting to apply pressure upon Batavia's southern flank. On August 29 the first of many Mataram attacks was launched against Fort Hollandia, located southeast of the city. One hundred twenty VOC troops under t
Tuban is a town located on the north coast of Java, in Tuban Regency 100 km west of Surabaya, the capital of East Java. Tuban is surrounded by Lamongan in the east, Bojonegoro in the south and Rembang, Central Java in the west; as an ancient town, Tuban is of considerable cultural value. The most prominent feature is the beauty of the scenery such as beaches and forests the teak forest. Tuban was an important port in the Majapahit era and is mentioned in Chinese records from the eleventh century. An ancient anchor from one of Kublai Khan's ships is preserved in the historical museum. Tuban is believed to have been Islamised before its conquest by Demak c. 1527. Following its Islamisation, it remained loyal to Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit in the interior; the grave of Sunan Bonang, a sixteenth-century Islamic missionary - one of the Wali Sanga involved in the initial spread of Islam in Java, is located in Tuban. The site is within a few minutes walk of the alun-alun; this site is an important destination for Muslim pilgrims.
The Dutch name of the city is'Toeban'. The town's name has been derived from the following story: a mythical pair of birds flying from Majapahit to Demak dropped a precious heirloom stone on the town thereafter named Tuban based on the Javanese phrase "waTU tiBAN atau meTU BANyu", which means "stone fallen from the sky". Another explanation refers to flooding that occurred when the aristocratic Islamic scholar Raden Dandang Wacana entered the Papringan Forest, discovering an old well near the seaside that miraculously contained freshwater; the name has furthermore been derived from "Tubo", meaning poison, in keeping with the name of a Tubanese subdistrict named Jenu to this day, which carries the same meaning. The official history of Tuban began in the Majapahit era in the 13th century. There was once an important ceremony when the king of Majapahit crowned Ronggolawe as the principal of the Tuban region, it was held on 12 November 1293 and that date has become the anniversary of Tuban, making it more ancient than Surabaya.
Tuban's 700th anniversary was celebrated with a grand parade of decorated floats in 1993. The spread of Islam was pioneered by Sunan Bonang and his follower named Sunan Kalijaga, the son of the Tubanese principal in the 13th century. Tuban is famous for hardwood teak production. PT Semen Gresik, a major state-owned cement company, opened the largest cement factory in Indonesia in Tuban in 1994. A petrochemical plant operated by Trans-Pacific Petrochemical Indotama opened in 2006 after several years of delays. In 2010 will be built in Tuban Holcim cement plant & Coal Fired Power Station to be built in Jenu. There are four universities in Tuban, Universitas Sunan Bonang and the established Universitas Ronggolawe, which started as a Teacher Training College named IKIP PGRI TUBAN, STITMA and STIKES NU, inaugurated by Health Minister Hj. Siti Fadilah Supari. Voluntary Service Overseas posted a number of ELT volunteers to train local counterparts from 1989 onwards, followed by teachers from Volunteers in Asia, all warmly received as the only Westerners in town.
Among the town’s secondary schools is Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri Tuban. Tuban is famous for its unique batik, locally known as Batik Gedog. Typical motifs are sea animals in dark colours such as purple. There is a traditional Chinese temple named Klenteng "Kwan Sing Bio" by the beach, visited by many local tourists from Surabaya and environs when Imlek, the Chinese New Year is celebrated. Tuban is known as the "City of a Thousand Caves" since there are so many caves in the area, containing both stalactites and stalagmites. Famous caves such as Goa Akbar and Goa Maharani are located near the city. Besides, there are many recreational sites worth visiting, such as Goa Ngerong, a natural swimming pool called Pemandian Alam Bektiharjo, a waterfall named Air Terjun Nglirip, the beach and pier for young couples, Pantai Boom. Tuban is well known for its beverage'tuak', strong palm wine taken from the Aren tree served in large bamboo mugs called centak; the Tubanese used tuak as a strategic weapon against the colonial invaders, who were unable to fight when inebriated.
Its non-alcoholic variety named Legen is drunk by children. Tuak and a kind of gin named arak are served at traditional dance parties known as Tayuban or Sindiran, at which made-up and padded female entertainers called Waranggono sing satirical songs and dance with paying males till the break of dawn, accompanied by a small gamelan orchestra; the dance movements are a vulgarised version of the Central Javanese palatial dance style known as Srimpi. One of the most notable of these entertainers, Nyi Sumini, was selected as one of five representatives to perform at Jakarta's Taman Mini Indonesia Indah park. One of Indonesia's most famous and prolific pop bands, Koes Plus, hailed from Tuban; the most luxurious hotel in town, the Hotel Mustika was burnt to the ground when riots broke out after one of the candidates accused his opponents of having framed the outcome of the local elections to decide who would become the next regent or Bupati. The first female candidate in Tuban's history, Haeny Relawati and the instigator of the riots has been imprisoned.
Tuban has the largest statue in Southeast Asia of aka Kwan Kong, aka Guan Yu. It is at the Tri Dharma Kwan Sing Kwan Sing Bio Chinese Temple, is 30 metres high; some Islamic peopl
Pasuruan is a city of East Java, Indonesia. It had a population of 186,262 at the 2010 Census, it is surrounded by but administratively separate from Pasuruan Regency. It is located around 65 kilometers of South East from Surabaya. Pasuruan is divided into four districts, tabulated below with their 2010 Census population; the Pasoeroean Stoomtram Maatschappij served from 1896 to 1988 passenger transport as well as goods transport of agricultural products such as sugarcane and tobacco. 1. Http://www.accuweather.com/id/id/pasuruan/203183/daily-weather-forecast/203183?day=2 2. Https://www.meteoblue.com/en/weather/forecast/modelclimate/pasuruan_indonesia_1632033
Adnan Kapau Gani
Adnan Kapau Gani abbreviated as A. K. Gani, was an Indonesian politician. Born in West Sumatra, he spent much of his youth in Java, where he studied medicine and became involved with the nascent nationalist movement before going to South Sumatra to work as a doctor. During the Indonesian National Revolution he served three terms as Minister of Welfare. Afterwards Gani went to Palembang, South Sumatra, where he remained active in politics until his death. In November 2007 Gani was made a National Hero of Indonesia. Gani was born in Palembajan, West Sumatra, west of Bukittinggi, on 16 September 1905; the son of a teacher, he finished his early studies in Bukittinggi in 1923 before going to Batavia, first for his secondary studies and to study medicine. He graduated from STOVIA, a school for prospective doctors, in 1926. From his teens Gani was active in social organisations, he was a member of several groups for native youth, including Jong Sumatera. By the late 1920s he had several enterprises running, including book reseller.
This revenue enabled him to donate funds to the Youth Congress of 1928, where the Youth Pledge was first read and "Indonesia Raya" was first played. In 1931 he joined Partindo, which had split off from the Indonesian National Party shortly after Sukarno's arrest by the colonial government. Gani became acquainted with Sukarno after the latter's release from prison the following year and joined the Indonesian Political Federation with him. Long interested in theatre, in 1941 Gani starred in Union Film's Asmara Moerni after being invited by the film's director, Rd. Ariffien. At the time the country's film industry was beginning to cater to well-educated audiences. Although some of the audience considered Gani's involvement in Asmara Moerni as besmirching the independence movement, Gani considered it necessary to improve how the people viewed local productions; the film, the only one Gani made, was a commercial success. That year Gani received his medical degree. After the Japanese occupied the Indies in 1942, Gani refused to collaborate.
As such, he was held until October of the following year. He spent the rest of the occupation as a private practitioner. After the country's independence and during the ensuing revolution, Gani gained greater political power while serving with the military. From 1945 to 1947 he was the commissioner for the PNI in South Sumatra serving on that party's board, he coordinated military efforts in the province. He considered Palembang a viable economic powerhouse for the newly independent nation, arguing that with oil they could gather international support, he negotiated sales with international interests, including the Dutch-owned Shell while smuggling weapons and military supplies past the Dutch blockade. He had numerous connections in the Chinese community in Singapore, which assisted him in these tasks. From 2 October 1946 until 27 June 1947 Gani served as Minister of Welfare under Sutan Sjahrir in the prime minister's third cabinet. While serving as minister of welfare Gani, with Sjahrir and Mohammad Roem, served as the Indonesian delegation to the third plenary session for the Linggadjati Agreement, becoming a signatory on 25 March 1947.
He worked to establish a national banking network, the BTC, as well as several trade organisations. With Amir Sjarifuddin and Setijadji, Gani was a formateur for the new cabinet, which received its mandate on 3 July, he stayed on as Minister of Welfare while serving as a deputy prime minister under Sjarifuddin. Gani was the first cabinet member arrested during Operation Product, a Dutch assault on Indonesian-held territory in mid-July, but was released, he attended a trade conference in Havana, Cuba. In Sjarifuddin's second cabinet, Gani continued to serve as a deputy prime minister and minister of welfare until the cabinet collapsed on 29 January 1948 owing to dissatisfaction with the Renville Agreement. After the revolution ended in 1949, Gani became the Military Governor of South Sumatra. In 1954, while still involved in politics as minister of transportation in the First Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet, he became the rector of Sriwijaya University in Palembang, he was buried in Siguntang Heroes' Cemetery in Palembang.
Gani was survived by Masturah. On 9 November 2007, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono gave Gani the title National Hero of Indonesia. Footnotes Bibliography
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that there is only one God, that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion with over 1.8 billion followers or 24% of the world's population, most known as Muslims. Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful and has guided humankind through prophets, revealed scriptures and natural signs; the primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the verbatim word of God, the teachings and normative example of Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith, revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham and Jesus. Muslims consider the Quran in its original Arabic to be the final revelation of God. Like other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches a final judgment with the righteous rewarded paradise and unrighteous punished in hell. Religious concepts and practices include the Five Pillars of Islam, which are obligatory acts of worship, following Islamic law, which touches on every aspect of life and society, from banking and welfare to women and the environment.
The cities of Mecca and Jerusalem are home to the three holiest sites in Islam. Aside from the theological narrative, Islam is believed to have originated in the early 7th century CE in Mecca, by the 8th century the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate extended from Iberia in the west to the Indus River in the east; the Islamic Golden Age refers to the period traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 13th century, during the Abbasid Caliphate, when much of the Muslim world was experiencing a scientific and cultural flourishing. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates, such as the Ottoman Empire and conversion to Islam by missionary activities. Most Muslims are of one of two denominations. About 13 % of Muslims live in the largest Muslim-majority country. Sizeable Muslim communities are found in the Americas, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Europe, Mainland Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Russia. Islam is the fastest-growing major religion in the world. Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root S-L-M which forms a large class of words relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace.
In a religious context it means "voluntary submission to God". Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, means "submission" or "surrender". Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the same verb form, means "submitter" or "one who surrenders"; the word sometimes has distinct connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as an internal spiritual state: "Whomsoever God desires to guide, He opens his heart to Islam." Other verses connect Islam and religion together: "Today, I have perfected your religion for you. Still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, ihsān. Islam was called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies; this term has fallen out of use and is sometimes said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims' religion, parallel to Buddha in Buddhism.
Some authors, continue to use the term Muhammadanism as a technical term for the religious system as opposed to the theological concept of Islam that exists within that system. Faith in the Islamic creed is represented as the six articles of faith, notably spelled out in the Hadith of Gabriel. Islam is seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions, its most fundamental concept is a rigorous monotheism, called tawḥīd. God is described in chapter 112 of the Quran as: "He is God, the One and Only. Muslims repudiate polytheism and idolatry, called Shirk, reject the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus. God is described and referred to by certain names or attributes, the most common being Al-Rahmān, meaning "The Compassionate" and Al-Rahīm, meaning "The Merciful". Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, "Be, it is" and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God.
He is viewed as a personal god who responds whenever a person in distress calls him. There are no intermediaries, such as clergy, to contact God who states, "I am nearer to him than jugular vein." God consciousness is referred to as Taqwa. Allāh is the term with no plural or gender used by Muslims and Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews to reference God, while ʾilāh is the term used for a deity or a god in general. Other non-Arab Muslims might use different names as much as Allah, for instance "Tanrı" in Turkish, "Khodā" in Persian or "Ḵẖudā" in Urdu. Belief in angels is fundamental
Sumedang is a town in West Java, Indonesia 46 km northeast of Bandung. It is the capital of Sumedang Regency; the town is just south of the volcanic Mount Tampomas, 1,684 m high and is climbed from Cimalaka District, 7 km from Sumedang. Sumedang is home to several public universities: Padjadjaran University, Bandung Institute of Technology, Institut Pemerintahan Dalam Negeri. Sumedang's museum, Prabu Geusan Ulun, houses a collection of traditional Sundanese weaponry, as well as some crown jewels and other finery, it is on Geusan Ulun Road. The town is famous for Tahu Bungkeng, a local variety of deep fried tofu, first made by a Chinese immigrant, Ong Kino. In the district surrounding the town lies Cadas Pangeran, a section of the trans-Java postal road constructed on the order of Dutch governor Willem Daendels during the first quarter of the 19th century; the section is famous due to difficulty during the construction, which required blasting of a mountainside. Hence "cadas" which means mountain rock in Sundanese.
The section was finished due to cooperation between the governor, regent Kusumadinata known as "pangeran kornel", the people of Sumedang, although with considerable ill-feeling on the part of the regent and the people due to forced labor practice. A statue commemorating this event is erected on the section; the town housed the exiled Indonesian national heroine Cut Nyak Dhien from Aceh during her old age, after she was captured during the Aceh War at the beginning of the 20th century. Her tomb is near the town. "Tahu Bunkeng" is one of the oldest tofu stores in the city of West Java, Indonesia. The authentic "Bunkeng" tofu was first made by a Chinese immigrant by the name of Ong Kino, who came from Anxi County, Quanzhou City, Hokkian Province, the People's Republic of China, in the early 20th century. Ong Kino started making tofu for the consumption of his family members, but afterwards he started to sell the tofu to his neighbours. More people came to like the tofu and a business was established due to this.
In 1917, Ong Kino's only son, Ong Bunkeng, inherited his parent's business. When Prince Soeriatmadja of Sumedang was on a journey to Situraja subdistrict, he stopped by "Tahu Bunkeng" to taste the tofu, he made a remark in Sundanese: “Geuning ngeunah ieu kadaharan teh, moal burung payu geura”. "Tahu Bunkeng" is in Sumedang's city centre on Jalan 11 April No. 53, Tegalkalong. There are several branches in the city on Jalan M. Abdurahman No. 50, Jalan M. Abdurahnam No. 155, Jalan Prabu Gajah Agung. Sumedangkab sumedang.org