Oman the Sultanate of Oman, is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. Its official religion is Islam. Holding a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, the country shares land borders with the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, Yemen to the southwest, shares marine borders with Iran and Pakistan; the coast is formed by the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The Madha and Musandam exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman forming Musandam's coastal boundaries. From the late 17th century, the Omani Sultanate was a powerful empire, vying with Portugal and the UK for influence in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. At its peak in the 19th century, Omani influence or control extended across the Strait of Hormuz to modern-day Iran and Pakistan, as far south as Zanzibar; when its power declined in the 20th century, the sultanate came under the influence of the United Kingdom.
For over 300 years, the relations built between the two empires were based on mutual benefits. The UK recognized Oman's geographical importance as a trading hub that secured their trade lanes in the Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean and protected their empire in the Indian sub-continent. By contrast, the British strengthened Oman's internal unity and allied the sultanate against external threats. Muscat was the principal trading port of the Persian Gulf region. Muscat was among the most important trading ports of the Indian Ocean; the Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said has been the hereditary leader of the country, an absolute monarchy, since 1970. Sultan Qaboos is the longest-serving current ruler in the Middle East, third-longest current reigning monarch in the world. Oman is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, it has ranking 25th globally. In 2010, the United Nations Development Programme ranked Oman as the most improved nation in the world in terms of development during the preceding 40 years.
A significant portion of its economy involves tourism and trade of fish and certain agricultural produce. Oman is categorized as a high-income economy and ranks as the 70th most peaceful country in the world according to the Global Peace Index. At Aybut Al Auwal, in the Dhofar Governorate of Oman, a site was discovered in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools, belonging to a regionally specific African lithic industry—the late Nubian Complex—known only from the northeast and Horn of Africa. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates place the Arabian Nubian Complex at 106,000 years old; this supports the proposition that early human populations moved from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene. In recent years known from survey finds and Neolithic sites have come to light most on the eastern coast. Main Palaeolithic sites include Saiwan-Ghunaim in the Barr al-Hikman. Archaeological remains are numerous for the Bronze Age Umm an-Nar and Wadi Suq periods.
Sites such as Bat show professional wheel-turned pottery, excellent hand-made stone vessels, a metals industry, monumental architecture. The Early and Late Iron Ages show more differences than similarities to each other. Thereafter, until the coming of the Ibadhidya, little or nothing is known. Sumerian tablets refer to a country called Magan and Akkadian ones Makan, a name which links Oman's ancient copper resources. Mazoon, a Persian name used for the region. Over centuries tribes from the west settled in Oman, making a living by fishing, herding or stock breeding, many present day Omani families trace their ancestral roots to other parts of Arabia; when the emigrants from northern-western and south-western Arabia arrived in Oman, they had to compete with the indigenous population for the best arable land. In the 1970s and 1980s scholars like John C. Wilkinson believed by virtue of oral history that in the 6th century BC, the Achaemenids exerted control over the Omani peninsula, most ruling from a coastal center such as Suhar.
Central Oman has its own indigenous Samad Late Iron Age cultural assemblage named eponymously from Samad al-Shan. In the northern part of the Oman Peninsula the Recent Pre-Islamic Period begins in the 3rd century BC and extends into the 3rd century AD. Whether or not Persians brought south-eastern Arabian under their control is a moot point, since the lack of Persian finds speak against this belief. Four centuries Omanis came in contact with and accepted Islam; the conversion of Oman is ascribed to Amr ibn al-As, sent by the prophet Muhammad during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha. A decade after Vasco da Gama's successful voyage around the Cape of Good Hope and to India in 1497–98, the Portuguese arrived in Oman and occupied Muscat for a 143-year period, from 1507 to 1650, their fortress still remains. In need of an outpost to protect their sea lanes, the Portuguese built up and fortified the city, where remnants of their colonial architectural style still exist. An Ottoman fleet captured Muscat in 1552, during the fight for control of the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean.
The Ottoman Turks captured Muscat from the Portuguese in 1581 and held it until 1588. Rebellious tribes drove out the Portuguese, but were themselves pushed out about a century in 1741, by the leader of an Omani tribe, who began the current line of ruling sultans. Except for a brief Persian invasion in the late 1
Sultanate of Mogadishu
The Sultanate of Mogadishu known as the Kingdom of Magadazo, was a medieval Somali trading empire centered in southern Somalia. It rose as one of the preeminent powers in the Horn of Africa during the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, before being served as the capital for the Ajuran Empire during the early 13th century; the Mogadishu Sultanate maintained a vast trading network, dominated the regional gold trade, minted its own currency, left an extensive architectural legacy in present-day southern Somalia. According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, maritime trade connected Somalis in the Mogadishu vicinity with other communities along the Indian Ocean coast as early as the 1st century CE; the ancient trading power of Sarapion has been postulated to be the predecessor of Mogadishu. During the 8th century, Mogadishu was well-suited to become a regional center for commerce; the origins of the name Mogadishu has many theories but it is most derived from a morphology of the Somali words "Muuq" and "Disho" which means "Sight Killer" or "Blinder" referring to the city's blinding beauty.
The Sultanate of Mogadishu was established by a local Somali man called Fakr ad-Din who hails from the Ajuran and was the first Sultan of Mogadishu Sultanate and founder of Garen Dynasty. According to Al-Yaqubi mentioned Muslims were living on the board of southern Somalia, he mentioned Mogadishu in the 9th century calling it a beautiful wealthy city who are inhabited by the people of Bilad Al-Berber a medieval term used by Arabs to describe Somalis. For many years Mogadishu functioned as the pre-eminent city in the بلد البربر, as medieval Arabic-speakers named the Somali coast. Following his visit to the city, the 12th-century Syrian historian Yaqut al-Hamawi wrote a global history of many places he visited Mogadishu and called it the richest and most powerful city in the region and was an Islamic center across the Indian Ocean. Archaeological excavations have recovered many coins from China, Sri Lanka, Vietnam; the majority of the Chinese coins date to the Song Dynasty, although the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty "are represented," according to Richard Pankhurst.
In the early 13th century, Mogadishu along with other coastal and interior Somali cities in southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia came under the Ajuran Sultanate control and experienced another Golden Age. During his travels, Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi noted that Mogadishu city had become the leading Islamic center in the region. By the time of the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta's appearance on the Somali coast in 1331, the city was at the zenith of its prosperity, he described Mogadishu as "an exceedingly large city" with many rich merchants, famous for its high quality fabric that it exported to Egypt, among other places. Battuta added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan, Abu Bakr ibn Sayx'Umar, from Berbera in northern Somalia and spoke both Somali and Arabic with equal fluency; the Sultan had a retinue of wazirs, legal experts, royal eunuchs, other officials at his beck and call. Ibn Khaldun noted in his book that Mogadishu was a massive metropolis city that served as the capital of the Ajuran Kingdom.
He claimed that the city of Mogadishu was a populous city with many wealthy merchants, yet nomad in character. He referred to the characteristics of the inhabitants of Mogadishu as tall swarthy Berbers and called them the people of Al-Somaal; the ruler of the Somali Ajuran Empire sent ambassadors to China to establish diplomatic ties, creating the first recorded African community in China and the most notable Somali ambassador in medieval China was Sa'id of Mogadishu, the first African man to set foot in China. In return, Emperor Yongle, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty, dispatched one of the largest fleets in history to trade with the Somali nation; the fleet, under the leadership of the famed Hui Muslim Zheng He, arrived at[Mogadishu the capital of Ajuran Empire while the city was at its zenith. Along with gold and fabrics, Zheng brought back the first African wildlife to China, which included hippos and gazelles. Vasco Da Gama, who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its centre and many mosques with cylindrical minarets.
In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya sailed to Mogadishu with cloths and spices for which they in return received gold and ivory. Barbosa highlighted the abundance of meat, barley and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants. Mogadishu, the center of a thriving weaving industry known as toob benadir, together with Merca and Barawa served as transit stops for Swahili merchants from Mombasa and Malindi and for the gold trade from Kilwa. Jewish merchants from the Hormuz brought their Indian textile and fruit to the Somali coast in exchange for grain and wood; the Portuguese Empire was unsuccessful of conquering Mogadishu where the powerful naval Portuguese commander called João de Sepúvelda and his army fleets was soundly defeated by the powerful Ajuran navy during the Battle of Benadir. According to the 16th-century explorer, Leo Africanus indicates that the native inhabitants of the Mogadishu the capital of Ajuran Sultanate polity were of the same origins as the denizens of the northern people of Zeila the capital of Adal Sultanate
The Warsangali Sultanate was a Somali Sultanate ruling house centered in northeastern of Somalia. In 1884, the United Kingdom established the protectorate of British Somaliland through various treaties with the northern Somali sultanates; the Warsangali clan constituted 20,000 of British Somaliland's total population of 640,000. I. M. Lewis, in his book A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, refers to the Sultan from the colonial literature as a "man of unusual influence", a "man of mercurial image", a "man of unusual strength". Several Somali Sultanates existed in Somalia prior to the European imperialism of the 19th century, but the Warsangali Sultanate was the only one with a robust tax-based centralized administration. Lewis writes: Vestiges of a similar degree of centralized administration on the pattern of a Muslim Sultanate, survive today in the Protectorate among the Warsangali. Prior to 1920, the Garaad had at his command a small standing army with which, with British support, he fought Sayyid Mahamad Abdille Hassan's forces.
But Garaad's powers' are dwindling under modern administration. In his paper The'Mad Mullah' and Northern Somalia, the historian Robert L. Hess touches upon this alliance, writing that "in attempt to break out of Obbian-Mijertein encirclement, the Mullah sought closer alliances with the Warsangali of British Somaliland and Bah Geri of Ethiopia"; the first success in this Anglo-Italian cooperation came in December 1910. In that month, the British Warsangali and the Italian Mijertain peacefully resolved all their outstanding disputes and, convening in Bander Kasim, agreed to act jointly in combating Mohammed Abdullah Hassan and his Dervishes; this accord marked the first real strategic success for the italians and the British in the policy of containing the Mullah. Between 1884 and 1886, the British government thus signed treaties with the Habr Awal, Habr Toljaala, Habr Gerhajis, Eesa and Warsangali Somali clans; the tribes agreed not to "cede, mortgage, or otherwise give for occupation, save to the British Government, any portion of their territory, they were placed under British Protection".
I. M. Lewis cites this brief incident in his book, A Modern History of the Somali: The Warsangali clan within the British protectorate on the eastern coast who under their spirited leader Garaad Mahamud'Ali Shire had now decided to throw in their lot with the Dervishes and in January 1908, fired on a British dhow as it was landing on their coast; this incident has led to a hostile exchange of letters with the consul at Berbera and it was evident that the Dervishes would soon be on the March again. In May 1916 the Dervish were repelled by a British Warship. In September of that year fearing a Dervish invasion, British troops occupied Las Khorey at the insistence of Sultan Mahamud ALi Shire. Mohamoud Ali Shire Mohammed Abdullah Hassan – religious and nationalist leader Yusuf Ali Kenadid – founder of the Sultanate of Hobyo Somali aristocratic and court titles List of Sunni Muslim dynasties Sultanate of Hobyo Majeerteen Sultanate Lewis. I. M. A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in Horn of Africa.
Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1960. Hess. Robert L. "The'Mad Mullah' and Northern Somalia". The Journal of African History, vol 5, no. 3 p. 415–433. Cambridge: Ohio Cambridge University Press, 1964. Speke. John Hanning. "Sultan/Garaad Mohamoud Ali—Hidden Treasure—Royal Reception—Sultan Tries my Abban". What Led to the Discovery of the Source of the Nile. Edinburgh: Edinburgh William Blackwood and Sons 1864. British Empire. Protection treaties with Somaliland tribes. Edinburgh: William Blackwood and sons, 1887. Lewis. I. M. Pastoral Democracy: A Study on Pastoralism and Politics among the Northern Somali Clans. Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1958. Alinur, Said. "Abyssinian Invasion: Reminder of a Seven Century old Animosity". 17 January 2007. Source
The Somali Republic was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Somaliland and the State of Somaliland. A government was formed by Abdullahi Issa Mohamud and Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal and other members of the trusteeship and protectorate administrations, with Haji Bashir Ismail Yusuf as President of the Somali National Assembly and Aden Abdullah Osman Daar as President of the Somali Republic. On 22 July 1960, Daar appointed Abdirashid Ali Shermarke as Prime Minister. On 20 July 1961 and through a popular referendum, the people of Somalia ratified a new constitution, first drafted in 1960; the administration lasted until 1969, when the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in a bloodless putsch and renamed the country the Somali Democratic Republic. Popular demand compelled the leaders of Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland to proceed with plans for immediate unification; the British government acquiesced to the force of Somali nationalist public opinion and agreed to terminate its rule of British Somaliland in 1960 in time for the protectorate to merge with the Trust Territory of Somaliland on the independence date fixed by the UN commission.
In April 1960, leaders of the two territories agreed to form a unitary state. An elected president was to be head of state. Full executive powers would be held by a prime minister answerable to an elected National Assembly of 123 members representing the two territories. Accordingly, British Somaliland united as scheduled with the Trust Territory of Somaliland to establish the Somali Republic. On June 26, 1960, British Somaliland gained independence from Britain as the State of Somaliland. On July 1, 1960, the State of Somaliland unified with the Trust Territory of Somaliland, forming the Somali Republic; the legislature appointed the speaker of SOMALIA ACT OF UNION Hagi Bashir Ismail Yousuf as First President of the Somali National Assembly. The same day Aden Abdullah Osman Daar become President of the Somali Republic. Shermarke formed a coalition government dominated by the Somali Youth League but supported by the two clan-based northern parties, the Somali National League and the United Somali Party.
Osman's appointment as president was ratified a year in a national referendum. During the nine-year period of parliamentary democracy that followed Somali independence, freedom of expression was regarded as being derived from the traditional right of every man to be heard; the national ideal professed by Somalis was one of political and legal equality in which historical Somali values and acquired Western practices appeared to coincide. Politics was viewed as a realm not limited to one profession, clan, or class, but open to all male members of society; as of the municipal elections in 1958, women in Italian Somaliland voted. Suffrage spread to the former British Somaliland in May 1963, when the territorial assembly voted it in at a margin of 52 to 42. Politics was a national past-time, with the populace keeping abreast of political developments through radio. Political engagement exceeded that in many Western democracies. Although unified as a single nation at independence, the south and the north were, from an institutional perspective, two separate countries.
Italy and the United Kingdom had left the two with separate administrative and education systems in which affairs were conducted according to different procedures and in different languages. Police and the exchange rates of their respective currencies differed, their educated elites had divergent interests, economic contacts between the two regions were nonexistent. In 1960 the United Nations created the Consultative Commission for Integration, an international board headed by UN official Paolo Contini, to guide the gradual merger of the new country's legal systems and institutions and to reconcile the differences between them, but many southerners believed that, because of experience gained under the Italian trusteeship, theirs was the better prepared of the two regions for self-government. Northern political and commercial elites were reluctant to recognize that they now had to deal with Mogadishu. At independence, the northern region had two functioning political parties: the SNL, representing the Isaaq clan-family that constituted a numerical majority there.
In a unified Somalia, the Isaaq were a small minority, whereas the northern Daarood joined members of their clan-family from the south in the SYL. The Dir, having few kinsmen in the south, were pulled on the one hand by traditional ties to the Hawiye and on the other hand by common regional sympathies to the Isaaq; the southern opposition party, the Greater Somalia League, pro-Arab and militantly pan-Somalist, attracted the support of the SNL and the USP against the SYL, which had adopted a moderate stand before independence. Northern misgivings about being too harnessed to the south were demonstrated by the voting pattern in the June 1961 referendum on the constitution, in effect Somalia's first national election. Although the draft was overwhelmingly approved in the south, it was supported by less than 50 percent of the northern electorate. Dissatisfaction
Afgooye is a town in the southwestern Somalia Lower Shebelle region of Somalia. It is the center of the Afgooye District, it is situated about 25 kilometres west of the nation's capital. The Shabelle River passes through the middle of the town. During the Middle Ages and much of the surrounding area in southern Somalia was governed by the Ajuran Empire; the town came under the administration of the Silcis Sultanate and Geledi Sultanate in the 1800s. The Istunka martial arts festival, held annually in the town during the Somali new year dates from this period. At the turn of the 20th century, Afgooye was incorporated into Italian Somaliland; the Italians occupied the town in the process abolished the local slave market. There was a station in Afgooye on the Mogadishu-Villabruzzi Railway, which connected the town to the capital Mogadishu. In the 1980s, Afgooye was a common destination for investors from the Gulf states; the Emir of Kuwait reportedly used to visit the town during the holy month of Ramadan.
After the outbreak of the civil war in 1991, parts of the town became a place of refuge for many of southern Somalia's internally displaced people. On May 25, 2012, Somali government forces backed by AMISOM tanks re-captured Afgooye from Al-Shabaab, which had established a base in the area. Afgooye has a population of around 79,400 inhabitants; the broader Afgooye District has a total population of 135,012 residents. Afgooy is inhabited by people from the Somali ethnic group with the main population being the Galadi and Garre clans who are the traditional owners of this city, it is inhabited by a minority of Wacdaan, Silcis and Ajuuraan clans Afgooye is a geodetic datum used in Somalia. Afgooye datum is based on the Greenwich prime meridian. Abdullahi Issa, Prime Minister of the Trust Territory of Somalia Mohamed Osman Jawari, Speaker of the Federal Parliament of Somalia Mustafa Mohamed Moalim, Chief of the Somali Air Force School and Operations Afgooye, Somalia
Dervish movement (Somali)
The Somali Dervish movement was an armed resistance to the colonial powers – the British – in the Horn of Africa, between 1899 and 1920. It was led by the Salihiyya Sufi Muslim poet and militant leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan known as Sayyid Mohamed, who aimed for the removal of the colonial state and foreign infidels, the defeat of the Ethiopian forces supporting the colonial powers, the creation of a Muslim state. Hassan established a ruling council called the Khususi consisting of Islamic clan leaders and elders, added an adviser from the Ottoman Empire named Muhammad Ali and thus created a multiclan nationalist liberation movement in what emerged as Somalia; the Dervish movement attracted between 5,000 and 6,000 youth from different clans over 1899 and 1900, acquired firearms and attacked the Ethiopian army in the Jigjiga region. The Ethiopian army retreated giving the Dervishes their first success; the Dervish movement declared the British colonial administration as their enemy. To end the movement, the British pursued a divide and rule strategy and sought the competing clans as coalition partners against the Dervish movement.
The British provided these clans with supplies, triggering inter-clan warfare. The British launched punitive attacks between 1900 and 1904 to root out the Dervish army; the Dervish movement suffered losses in the field, regrouped into smaller units and resorted to militant guerrilla warfare. Hasan and his loyalist Dervishes moved into the Italian controlled Somaliland in 1905, where Hasan signed the Illig treaty and thereafter strengthened his movement. In 1908, the Dervishes entered the British region again and began inflicting major losses to the colonial powers in the interior regions of the Horn of Africa; the British retreated to the coastal regions, leaving the interior regions to the chaotic clan warfare. The World War I shifted the attention of the colonial forces elsewhere and upon its end, in 1920, the British launched a massive land and sea attack on the Taleh forts strongholds of the Dervish movement; this decimated the Dervishes, though their leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan survived the British attack.
His death in 1921 due to malaria or influenza ended the Dervish movement. The Dervish movement temporarily created a mobile Somali "proto-state" in early 20th-century with fluid boundaries and fluctuating population, it was one of the bloodiest and longest militant movements in sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era, one that overlapped with the World War I. The battles between various sides – those between the Dervish and the British and between the clans – over two decades killed nearly a third of northern Somalia's population and ravaged the local economy. Scholars variously interpret the demise of the militant Dervish movement in Somalia; some consider the "Sufi Islamic" ideology as the driver, others consider economic crisis to the nomadic lifestyle triggered by the occupation and "colonial predation" ideology as the trigger for the Dervish movement, while post-modernists state that both religion and nationalism created the Dervish movement. According to Abdullah A. Mohamoud, the traditional society of Somalia followed a decentralized structure and a nomadic lifestyle dependent on livestock and pastureland.
It was predominantly Muslim. As the European colonial powers expanded their reach in the Horn of Africa, they in cooperation with the Ethiopian army and emperor Menelik, partitioned Somalia and created a centralized form of government; this upset pastureland-based livelihood. The colonial powers were Christians, states Mohamoud, which created additional suspicions amongst the religious elite of the Somalis; the Ethiopian troops were a bane for the Somalis as they were the traditional raiders and plunderers of their grazing herds. The arrival of the colonial powers and the consequent partitioning of the land affected the Somalis where Sufi poets such as Faarax Nuur wrote about the traumatic circumstances inflicted on the Somalis by the British and the Italians; the Dervish movement originated in these circumstances, as a resistance against the colonial designs. The Dervish movement was led by a Sufi poet and religious nationalist leader named Mohammed Abdullah Hassan known as Sayid Maxamad Cabdulle Xasan.
According to Said M. Mohamed, he was born in Sacmadeeqo sometime between 1856 and 1864 to a father, a religious teacher, he studied in Somali Islamic seminaries and went on Hajj to Mecca where he met Shaykh Muhammad Salah of the Salihiya Islamic Tariqah, which states The Encyclopedia Britannica was a "militant and puritanical Sufi order". The preachings of Salah to Hasan had roots in Saudi Wahhabism, it considered it a religious duty "to wage a holy war against all other forms of Islam, the Western and Christian presence in the Muslim world, a religious revival", state Richard Shultz and Andrea Dew; when Hasan returned to the Horn of Africa, the Somali tradition states that he saw Somali children being converted to Christianity by missionaries in the British colony. Hasan began preaching against the British colonization, he was opposed by the British powers who called him the'mad mullah', his Sufi teachings were opposed by the rival Qadiriya Tariqah – another traditional Sufi group of the region, states Said M. Mohamed.
Another version of the early events link the illegal sale of a gun to Hasan by a corrupt Somali officer in 1899, who reported his gun as stolen rather than purchased by Hasan. The British demanded the gun's return, while Hasan replied that the British should leave the country, a sentiment he had claimed in 1897 when he declared himself "the l
The Majeerteen Sultanate known as Majeerteenia and Migiurtinia, was a Somali kingdom centered in the Horn of Africa. Ruled by Boqor Osman Mahamuud during its golden age, the sultanate controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries; the polity had all of the organs of an integrated modern state and maintained a robust trading network. It entered into treaties with foreign powers and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front. Much of the Sultanate's former domain is today coextensive with the autonomous Puntland region in northeastern Somalia. According to the 16th century explorer Leo Africanus, the Adal Sultanate's realm encompassed the geographical area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Guardafui, it was thus flanked to the west by the Abyssinian Empire. After Adal's demise, the Majeerteen Sultanate was established around 1800 by Somalis from the Majeerteen Darod clan, it reached prominence during the 19th century, under the reign of the resourceful Boqor Osman Mahamuud.
Due to consistent ship crashes along the northeastern Cape Guardafui headland, Boqor Osman's kingdom entered into an informal agreement with Britain, wherein the British agreed to pay the King annual subsidies to protect shipwrecked British crews and guard wrecks against plunder. The agreement, remained unratified, as the British feared that doing so would "give other powers a precedent for making agreements with the Somalis, who seemed ready to enter into relations with all comers." Osman Mahamuud's Kingdom was under attack in the mid-19th century due to a power struggle between himself and his ambitious cousin, Yusuf Ali Kenadid. After five years of battle, the young upstart was defeated and forced into exile in Yemen. A decade in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the Arabian Peninsula with a band of Hadhrami musketeers and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance along with aid and weaponry from Boqor Osman, he managed to overpower the local Hawiye clans and establish the separate Sultanate of Hobyo in 1878.
In late 1889, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with Italy, making his kingdom a protectorate known as Italian Somaliland. His nephew and rival Sultan Kenadid had signed a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Sultanate of Hobyo the year before. Both Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid had entered into the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist goals, with Sultan Kenadid looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Boqor Osman over the Majeerteen Sultanate, as well as in a separate conflict with the Omani Sultan of Zanzibar over an area to the north of Warsheikh. In signing the agreements, the rulers hoped to exploit the rival objectives of the European imperial powers so as to more assure the continued independence of their territories; the terms of each treaty specified that Italy was to steer clear of any interference in the sultanates' respective administrations. In return for Italian arms and an annual subsidy, the Sultans conceded to a minimum of oversight and economic concessions.
The Italians agreed to dispatch a few ambassadors to promote both the sultanates' and their own interests. The new protectorates were thereafter managed by Vincenzo Filonardi through a chartered company. An Anglo-Italian border protocol was signed on 5 May 1894, followed by an agreement in 1906 between Cavalier Pestalozza and General Swaine acknowledging that Baran fell under the Majeerteen Sultanate's administration. With the gradual extension into northern Somalia of Italian colonial rule, both Kingdoms were annexed in the early 20th century. However, unlike the southern territories, the northern sultanates were not subject to direct rule due to the earlier treaties they had signed with the Italians; as with the Sultanate of Hobyo, the Majeerteen Sultanate exerted a strong centralized authority during its existence, possessed all of the organs and trappings of an integrated modern state: a functioning bureaucracy, a hereditary nobility, titled aristocrats, a state flag, as well as a professional army.
Both sultanates maintained written records of their activities, which still exist. The Majeerteen Sultanate's main capital was with its seasonal headquarters at Bargal, it had a number of castles and forts in various areas within its realm, including a fortress at Murcanyo. The Majeerteen Sultanate's ruler, commanded more power than was typical of other Somali leaders during the period; as the primus inter pares, Boqor Osman taxed the harvest of aromatic trees and pearl fishing along the seaboard. He retained prior rights on goods obtained from ship wrecks on the coast; the Sultanate exerted authority over the control of woodland and pastureland, imposed both land and stock taxes. In the early 19th century, Somali seamen on the northern coast barred entry to their ports, while engaging in trade with Aden and Mocha in adjacent Yemen using their own vessels. According to official reports from 1924 commissioned by the Regio Governo della Somalia Italiana, the Majeerteen Sultanate maintained robust commercial activities before the Italian occupation of the following year.
The Sultanate exported 1,056,400 Indian Rupees worth of commodities, 60% of which came from the sale of frankincense and other gums. Fish and other sea products sold for a total value of 250,000 IR equivalent to 20% of the Sultanate's aggregate exports; the remaining export proceeds came from livestock, with the export list of 1924 consisting of 16 items. In addition to a strong civil administration, the Majeerteen Sultanate maintained a regular army. Besides protecting the polity from both external and intern