Hugo Lafayette Black was an American politician and jurist who served in the United States Senate from 1927 to 1937, as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1937 to 1971. A member of the Democratic Party and a devoted New Dealer, Black endorsed Franklin D. Roosevelt in both the 1932 and 1936 presidential elections. Having gained a reputation in the Senate as a reformer, Black was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Roosevelt and confirmed by the Senate by a vote of 63 to 16, he was the first of nine Roosevelt nominees to the Court, he outlasted all except for William O. Douglas; the fifth longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history, Black was one of the most influential Supreme Court justices in the 20th century. He is noted for his advocacy of a textualist reading of the United States Constitution and of the position that the liberties guaranteed in the Bill of Rights were imposed on the states by the Fourteenth Amendment. During his political career, Black was regarded as a staunch supporter of liberal policies and civil liberties.
However, Black wrote the majority opinion in Korematsu v. United States, during World War II, which upheld the Japanese-American internment that had taken place. Black consistently opposed the doctrine of substantive due process and believed that there was no basis in the words of the Constitution for a right to privacy, voting against finding one in Griswold v. Connecticut. Before he became a senator, Black espoused anti-Catholic views and was a member of the Ku Klux Klan in Alabama, but he resigned in 1925. Years he said: "Before becoming a Senator I dropped the Klan. I have had nothing to do with it since that time. I abandoned it. I discontinued any association with the organization." Hugo LaFayette Black was the youngest of the eight children of William Lafayette Black and Martha Black. He was born on February 27, 1886, in a small wooden farmhouse in Ashland, Alabama, a poor, isolated rural Clay County town in the Appalachian foothills; because his brother Orlando had become a medical doctor, Hugo decided at first to follow in his footsteps.
At age seventeen, he enrolled at Birmingham Medical School. But Orlando suggested. After graduating in June 1906, he established a legal practice, his practice was not successful there, so Black moved to the growing city of Birmingham in 1907, where he specialized in labor law and personal injury cases. Consequent to his defense of an African American, forced into a form of commercial slavery after incarceration, Black was befriended by A. O. Lane, a judge connected with the case; when Lane was elected to the Birmingham City Commission in 1911, he asked Black to serve as a police court judge – his only judicial experience prior to the Supreme Court. In 1912, Black resigned that seat, he was not done with public service. Three years during World War I, Black resigned in order to join the United States Army reaching the rank of captain, he was not assigned to Europe. He joined the Birmingham Civitan Club during this time serving as president of the group, he remained an active member throughout his life contributing articles to Civitan publications.
On February 23, 1921, he married Josephine Foster, with whom he had three children: Hugo L. Black, II, an attorney. Josephine died in 1951. In 1926, Black sought election to the United States Senate from Alabama, following the retirement of Senator Oscar Underwood. Since the Democratic Party had dominated Alabama politics since disenfranchising most blacks at the turn of the century, Black defeated his Republican opponent, E. H. Dryer, winning 80.9% of the white vote. He was reelected in 1932. Senator Black gained a reputation as a tenacious investigator. In 1934, he chaired the committee that looked into the contracts awarded to air mail carriers under Postmaster General Walter Folger Brown, an inquiry which led to the Air Mail scandal. In order to correct what he termed abuses of "fraud and collusion" resulting from the Air Mail Act of 1930, he introduced the Black-McKellar Bill the Air Mail Act of 1934; the following year he participated in a Senate committee's investigation of lobbying practices.
He publicly denounced the "highpowered, telegram-fixing, Washington-visiting" lobbyists, advocated legislation requiring them to publicly register their names and salaries. In 1935, during the Great Depression, Black became chairman of the Senate Committee on Education and Labor, a position he would hold for the remainder of his Senate career. In 1937 he sponsored the Black-Connery Bill, which sought to establish a national minimum wage and a maximum workweek of thirty hours. Although the bill was rejected in the House of Representatives, an amended version of it, which extended Black's original maximum workweek proposal to forty-four hours, was passed in 1938, becoming known as the Fair Labor Standards Act. Black was an ardent supporter of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and
In law, common law is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals. The defining characteristic of "common law" is. In cases where the parties disagree on what the law is, a common law court looks to past precedential decisions of relevant courts, synthesizes the principles of those past cases as applicable to the current facts. If a similar dispute has been resolved in the past, the court is bound to follow the reasoning used in the prior decision. If, the court finds that the current dispute is fundamentally distinct from all previous cases, legislative statutes are either silent or ambiguous on the question, judges have the authority and duty to resolve the issue; the court states an opinion that gives reasons for the decision, those reasons agglomerate with past decisions as precedent to bind future judges and litigants. Common law, as the body of law made by judges, stands in contrast to and on equal footing with statutes which are adopted through the legislative process, regulations which are promulgated by the executive branch.
Stare decisis, the principle that cases should be decided according to consistent principled rules so that similar facts will yield similar results, lies at the heart of all common law systems. The common law—so named because it was "common" to all the king's courts across England—originated in the practices of the courts of the English kings in the centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066; the British Empire spread the English legal system to its historical colonies, many of which retain the common law system today. These "common law systems" are legal systems that give great precedential weight to common law, to the style of reasoning inherited from the English legal system. Today, one-third of the world's population lives in common law jurisdictions or in systems mixed with civil law, including Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Botswana, Cameroon, Cyprus, Fiji, Grenada, Hong Kong, Ireland, Jamaica, Liberia, Malta, Marshall Islands, Namibia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sri Lanka and Tobago, the United Kingdom, the United States, Zimbabwe.
Some of these countries have variants on common law systems. The term common law has many connotations; the first three set out here are the most-common usages within the legal community. Other connotations from past centuries are sometimes seen and are sometimes heard in everyday speech; the first definition of "common law" given in Black's Law Dictionary, 10th edition, 2014, is "The body of law derived from judicial decisions, rather than from statutes or constitutions. This usage is given as the first definition in modern legal dictionaries, is characterized as the “most common” usage among legal professionals, is the usage seen in decisions of courts. In this connotation, "common law" distinguishes the authority. For example, the law in most Anglo-American jurisdictions includes "statutory law" enacted by a legislature, "regulatory law" or “delegated legislation” promulgated by executive branch agencies pursuant to delegation of rule-making authority from the legislature, common law or "case law", i.e. decisions issued by courts.
This first connotation can be further differentiated into pure common law arising from the traditional and inherent authority of courts to define what the law is in the absence of an underlying statute or regulation. Examples include most criminal law and procedural law before the 20th century, today, most contract law and the law of torts. Interstitial common law court decisions that analyze and determine the fine boundaries and distinctions in law promulgated by other bodies; this body of common law, sometimes called "interstitial common law", includes judicial interpretation of the Constitution, of legislative statutes, of agency regulations, the application of law to specific facts. Publication of decisions, indexing, is essential to the development of common law, thus governments and private publishers publish law reports. While all decisions in common law jurisdictions are precedent, some become "leading cases" or "landmark decisions" that are cited often. Black's Law Dictionary 10th Ed. definition 2, differentiates "common law" jurisdictions and legal systems from "civil law" or "code" jurisdictions.
Common law systems place great weight on court decisions, which are considered "law" with the same force of law as statutes—for nearly a millennium, common law courts have had the authority to make law where no legislative statute exists, statutes mean what courts interpret them to mean. By contrast, in civil law jurisdictions, courts lack authority to act. Civil law judges tend to give less weight to judicial precedent, which means that a
Courts of Northern Ireland
The courts of Northern Ireland are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in Northern Ireland: they are constituted and governed by Northern Ireland law. The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another and Northern Ireland a third. There are exceptions to that rule, for example in immigration law, the jurisdiction of the First Tier Tribunal and the Upper Tribunal covers the whole of the United Kingdom, in employment law, there is a single system of Employment Tribunals for England and Wales and Scotland. Additionally, the Military Court Service has jurisdiction over all members of the armed forces of the United Kingdom in relation to offences against military law. To overcome problems resulting from the intimidation of jurors and witnesses, the right to a jury trial in Northern Ireland was suspended for certain terrorist offences in 1972, the so-called "Diplock courts" were introduced to try people charged with paramilitary activities.
Diplock courts are common in Northern Ireland for crimes connected to terrorism. Administration of the courts is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Courts and Tribunals Service; the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom was created by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005. It took its duties up on 1 October 2009, it is the highest court of appeal in Northern Ireland, hearing ultimate appeals from all the courts of the United Kingdom, other than Scottish criminal cases. The Supreme Court has taken over the appellate jurisdiction vested in the House of Lords; the Court of Judicature of Northern Ireland is constituted by the Judicature Act 1978. Until 1 October 2009 its name was the Supreme Court of Judicature; the Court of Judicature is the most important superior court of Northern Ireland. It consists of the following courts: The Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland The High Court of Justice in Northern Ireland The Crown CourtThe title of the court was changed on 1 October 2009 when the relevant provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 came into force establishing the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
The Court of Appeal is the highest court of Northern Ireland. Appeal from the Court of Appeal lies to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom; the Court of Appeal hears appeals from the Crown Court, High Court, county courts, courts of summary jurisdiction and tribunals. The High Court of Justice is, like its English equivalent, split into three divisions: Queen's Bench Division, Family Division and Chancery Division; the High Court is located in the Royal Courts of Belfast. The Crown Courts hear more serious criminal cases; these are indictable offences and "either way" offences which are committed for trial in the Crown Courts rather than the magistrates' courts. The County Courts are the main civil courts. While higher-value cases are heard in the High Court, the County Courts hear a wide range of civil actions, consumer claims, appeals from magistrates' courts; the County Courts are called Family Care Centres when hearing proceedings brought under the Children Order 1995 and appeals from the family proceedings courts.
There are seven County Court divisions in Northern Ireland. Below the High Court are several classes of courts. Magistrates' courts hear less-serious criminal cases and conduct preliminary hearings in more serious criminal cases, they are divided into 21 petty sessions districts. The Crown Court hears all serious criminal cases; when sitting as family proceedings courts the magistrates' courts hear proceedings brought under the Children Order 1995. Additionally, there is the Enforcement of Judgments Office, coroners' courts, which investigate the circumstances of sudden, violent or unnatural deaths. List of courts in Northern Ireland List of Lords Justices of Appeal of Northern Ireland List of High Court judges of Northern Ireland List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom Courts of the Republic of Ireland / Judiciary of the Republic of Ireland Courts of England and Wales / Judiciary of England and Wales Courts of Scotland / Judiciary of Scotland Law of the United Kingdom Organisation of justice in Northern Ireland The Court Structure in Northern Ireland Northern Ireland Courts and Tribunals Service official website
Magistrates' Court (Hong Kong)
Magistrates' courts in Hong Kong are presided over by'Permanent','Deputy' and'Special' Magistrates. All must be professionally qualified; the distinction between Permanent and Deputy magistrates is tenure and procedure for appointment. Permanent and Deputy Magistrates are empowered to impose sentences of up to two years' imprisonment and fines of up to HK$100,000 on a wide range of indictable and summary offences. Special Magistrates are assigned cases less serious in nature, such as traffic cases, but they are empowered to impose sentences of imprisonment. Pursuant to a general power of appointment to vacancies or on a temporary basis under section 7 of the District Court Ordinance, Cap. 336, the Chief Justice makes short-term appointments of Permanent Magistrates to sit on the District Court. Existing Magistrates' Courts Former Magistrates' Courts Judiciary of Hong Kong
Sir William Blackstone was an English jurist and Tory politician of the eighteenth century. He is most noted for writing the Commentaries on the Laws of England. Born into a middle-class family in London, Blackstone was educated at Charterhouse School before matriculating at Pembroke College, Oxford in 1738. After switching to and completing a Bachelor of Civil Law degree, he was made a Fellow of All Souls, Oxford on 2 November 1743, admitted to Middle Temple, called to the Bar there in 1746. Following a slow start to his career as a barrister, Blackstone became involved in university administration, becoming accountant and bursar on 28 November 1746 and Senior Bursar in 1750. Blackstone is considered responsible for completing the Codrington Library and Warton Building, simplifying the complex accounting system used by the college. On 3 July 1753 he formally gave up his practice as a barrister and instead embarked on a series of lectures on English law, the first of their kind; these were massively successful, earning him a total of £453, led to the publication of An Analysis of the Laws of England in 1756, which sold out and was used to preface his works.
On 20 October 1758 Blackstone was confirmed as the first Vinerian Professor of English Law embarking on another series of lectures and publishing a successful second treatise, titled A Discourse on the Study of the Law. With his growing fame, Blackstone returned to the bar and maintained a good practice securing election as Tory Member of Parliament for the rotten borough of Hindon on 30 March 1761. In November 1765 he published the first of four volumes of Commentaries on the Laws of England, considered his magnum opus. After repeated failures, he gained appointment to the judiciary as a Justice of the Court of King's Bench on 16 February 1770, leaving to replace Edward Clive as a Justice of the Common Pleas on 25 June, he remained in this position until his death, on 14 February 1780. Blackstone's legacy and main work of note is his Commentaries. Designed to provide a complete overview of English law, the four-volume treatise was republished in 1770, 1773, 1774, 1775, 1778 and in a posthumous edition in 1783.
Reprints of the first edition, intended for practical use rather than antiquary interest, were published until the 1870s in England and Wales, a working version by Henry John Stephen, first published in 1841, was reprinted until after the Second World War. Legal education in England had stalled. William Searle Holdsworth, one of Blackstone's successors as Vinerian Professor, argued that "If the Commentaries had not been written when they were written, I think it doubtful that the United States, other English speaking countries would have so universally adopted the common law." In the United States, the Commentaries influenced Alexander Hamilton, John Marshall, James Wilson, John Jay, John Adams, James Kent and Abraham Lincoln, remain cited in Supreme Court decisions. William's father, Charles Blackstone, was a silk mercer from Cheapside, the son of a wealthy apothecary, he became firm friends with Thomas Bigg, a surgeon and the son of Lovelace Bigg, a gentleman from Wiltshire. After Bigg's sister Mary came to London, Charles persuaded her to marry him in 1718.
This was not seen as a good match for her, but the couple lived and had four sons, three of whom lived into adulthood. Charles and Henry, both became fellows of New College and took holy orders, their last son, was born on 10 July 1723, five months after Charles' death in February. Although Charles and Mary Blackstone were members of the middle class rather than landed gentry, they were prosperous. Tax records show Charles Blackstone to have been the second most prosperous man in the parish in 1722, death registers show that the family had several servants. This, along with Thomas Bigg's assistance to the family following Charles' death, helps explain the educational upbringing of the children. William Blackstone was sent to Charterhouse School in 1730, nominated by Charles Wither, a relative of Mary Blackstone. William did well there, became head of the school by age 15. However, after Charles' death the family fortunes declined, after Mary died the family's resources went to meet unpaid bills.
William was able to remain at Charterhouse as a "poor scholar", having been named to that position in June 1735 after being nominated by Sir Robert Walpole. Blackstone revelled in Charterhouse's academic curriculum the Latin poetry of Ovid and Virgil, he began to attract note as a poet at school, writing a 30-line set of rhyming couplets to celebrate the wedding of James Hotchkis, the headmaster. He won a silver medal for his Latin verses on John Milton, gave the annual Latin oration in 1738, was noted as having been the favourite student of his masters. On 1 October 1738, taking advantage of a new scholarship available to Charterhouse students, Blackstone matriculated at Pembroke College, Oxford. There are few surviving records of Blackstone's undergraduate term at Oxford, but the curriculum of Pembroke College had been set out in 1624, Prest notes that it was still followed in 1738, so Blackstone would have studied Greek, logic, philosophy, mathematics and poetry. Blackstone was good at Greek and poetry, with his notes on William Shakespeare being included in George Steevens' 1781 edition of Shakespeare's plays.
Many of B
English criminal law
English criminal law concerns offences, their prevention and the consequences, in England and Wales. Criminal conduct is considered to be a wrong against the whole of a community, rather than just the private individuals affected; the state, in addition to certain international organisations, has responsibility for crime prevention, for bringing the culprits to justice, for dealing with convicted offenders. The police, the criminal courts and prisons are all publicly funded services, though the main focus of criminal law concerns the role of the courts, how they apply criminal statutes and common law, why some forms of behaviour are considered criminal; the fundamentals of a crime are a guilty mental state. The traditional view is that moral culpability requires that a defendant should have recognised or intended that they were acting wrongly, although in modern regulation a large number of offences relating to road traffic, environmental damage, financial services and corporations, create strict liability that can be proven by the guilty act.
Defences exist to some crimes. A person, accused may in certain circumstances plead they are insane and did not understand what they were doing, that they were not in control of their bodies, they were intoxicated, mistaken about what they were doing, acted in self defence, acted under duress or out of necessity, or were provoked; these are issues to be raised at trial, for which there are detailed rules of evidence and procedure to be followed. England and Wales does not have a Criminal Code, though such an enactment has been recommended and attempted. Many criminal offences are common law offences rather being specified in legislation. In 1980, a Committee of JUSTICE said that, upon conducting a search, they found over 7,200 offences, that they thought that there were many more, they said that "it is now impossible to ascertain the entire content of the criminal law at any given time". In 1989, the Law Commission said that a hypothetical criminal code that contained all existing criminal offences would be "impossibly bulky".
In 2001, Peter Glazebrook said the criminal law was "voluminous and contradictory". In March 2011, there were more than ten thousand offences excluding those created by by-laws. In 1999, P J Richardson said that as the case for a moratorium on legislation in the field of criminal justice was becoming stronger and stronger, governments seemed more determined to bring forward more legislation. Treason Act 1351 and Hanged and quartered. Petty treason and High treason in the United Kingdom Suppression of Heresy Act 1414 and John Wycliffe Carrier's Case YB Pasch 13 Edw. IV, f. 9. Pl. 5, larcenyJesuits, etc. Act 1584 Bushel’s Case 124 E. R. 1006 writ of habeas corpus Habeas Corpus Act 1679 Transportation Act 1717 Black Act 1723 Jacobite rising of 1745 and Transportation Act 1746 and 1768 Murder Act 1751 King v Pear 168 Eng Rep 208, larceny by trick Trial of Lord George Gordon for treason for the Gordon riots Case of the Dean of St Asaph or R v Shipley 4 Doug 73, seditious libel Burning of women in England and Treason Act 1790 Bazeley's Case 2 East P.
C. 571, establishing crime of embezzlementDebtors' prison Offences Against the Person Act 1828 Bloody Code Forfeiture Act 1870Capital punishment in the United Kingdom C UKHL 42 Clingham v RB Kensington and Chelsea UKHL 39 Collins v DPP UKHL 40 JTB UKHL 20 R v K UKHL 41 Norris v United States UKHL 16 R v DPP UKHL 45 R v Rahman UKHL 45 GG plc UKHL 17 R v Rimmington and Goldstein UKHL 63 R v Saik UKHL 18 R v Sheldrake UKHL 43 Hashnan and Harrup 30 EHRR 241 The two basic elements of a crime are the act of doing that, criminal, the intention to carry it out. In Latin this is called the mens rea. In many crimes however, there is no necessity of showing criminal intention, why the term "strict liability" is used. Actus reus is the physical element of committing a crime, it is the application or threat of unlawful force, though exceptionally an omission or failure to act can result in liability. Simple examples might be X pushing Y down a water well; these are the unlawful application or force. Alternatively, one may have a pre-existing duty to another person and by deliberately not performing it, one commits a crime.
For instance, not giving food is an omission rather than an act, but as a parent one has a duty to feed one's children. Pre-existing duties can arise through contract, a voluntary undertaking, a blood relation with whom one lives, through one's official position; as the 19th century English judge, Lord Coleridge CJ wrote, “It would not be correct to say that every moral obligation involves a legal duty. Furthermore, one can become bound by a duty to take reasonable steps to correct a dangerous situation that one creates. In R v Miller a squatter flicked away a still lit cigarette, he failed to take action, after the building had burned down, he was convicted of arson. He failed to correct the dangerous situation he created. In many countries in Europe and North America, Good Samaritan laws exist, which criminalize failure to help someone in distress. On the other hand, it was held in the U. K. that switching off the life support of someone in a persistent vegetative state is an omission to act and not criminal.
Since discontinuation of power is not a voluntary act, not grossly negligent, is in the patient's best interests
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000