Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Ullapool is a village of around 1,500 inhabitants in Ross and Cromarty, Scottish Highlands, located around 45 miles north-west of Inverness. Despite its small size it is the largest settlement for many miles around and an important port and tourist destination; the North Atlantic Drift passes Ullapool. A few Cordyline australis are grown in the town and are mistaken for palm trees; the town lies on the A835 road from Inverness. The Ullapool River flows through the village. On the east shore of Loch Broom, Ullapool was founded in 1788 as a herring port by the British Fisheries Society, it was designed by Thomas Telford. Before the town was only an insignificant hamlet of just over 20 households; the harbour is still the edge of the town, used as a fishing port, yachting haven, ferry port. Ferries sail to Stornoway in the Outer Hebrides; the village was in Cromartyshire, a county made up of many separate enclaves scattered across northern Ross-shire. Cromartyshire was abolished and combined with surrounding Ross-shire in 1890.
Many of the pivotal discoveries of the Victorian era that contributed to the development of the concept of plate tectonics were made in this area, there are still regular international geological conferences. It is described as the top geological hotspot in Scotland. Parliament granted permission in the 1890s for a railway from Ullapool to the main Highland network at Garve, but the scheme was abandoned due to insufficient funds; the name is derived from the Norse for "Wool farm" or "Ulli's farm". The region surrounding Ullapool is dominated by rugged mountains, by Bheinn Ghobblach to the west, An Teallach to the south-west, Beinn Dearg to the south-east close to the head of Loch Broom, Ben Mhòr na Còigich to the north. An Teallach is a massive mountain which dominates the area and consists of Torridonian sandstone, layered nearly horizontally, it is an easy climb but is several miles from the nearest road, so a long trek is needed before the ascent begins. The walker will be rewarded by magnificent views of the surroundings to the sea and the islands to the west, but to the south, the desolate Whitbread wilderness.
Ullapool has a strong reputation as a centre for the arts and performance. The village has a small museum housed in a Telford Church, An Talla Solais, an arts centre with changing exhibitions and workshops, a swimming pool and fitness centre, several pubs and breakfasts, restaurants and hotels, it is a centre for walkers, wildlife enthusiasts and other holidaymakers and is situated in a spectacular and remote part of the United Kingdom. In May every year there is the three-day Ullapool Book Festival which attracts a diverse range of writers and with work in both Scottish Gaelic and English; the Macphail Centre has a theatre hosting a regular programme of musical and theatrical performances, many by the Scottish national companies but some work from smaller reps and travelling Edinburgh Fringe performers. The number of performances in any week will mean there is overspill to the Village Hall and other venues. In July 2011, the Tall Ships visited Ullapool, a major event for the village and the surrounding area.
Ullapool is home to the shinty team Lochbroom Camanachd. Throughout the year there are many small fèisean and music festivals in the local halls and hotels - in the Ceilidh Place and the Arch Inn; the Ullapool Guitar Festival takes place in early October every year, attracting high-calibre performers at several venues over the weekend. The Loopallu Festival, created by the American rockgrass band Hayseed Dixie and local promoter Robert Hicks in 2005, was well received and has become a major regional annual event, more than doubling the size of the village during the festival. In 2007 it attracted several bands including the Saw Doctors and Franz Ferdinand headlining on the second night. There are fringe events at local bars; the Pigeon Detectives have played the Village Hall. Amy MacDonald in 2008 and Paolo Nutini in 2007 both played the Ceilidh Place. Mumford & Sons have played in Ullapool twice. Ullapool has its own radio station called Lochbroom FM on 102.2 and 96.8 FM and online, with programming provided by Two Lochs Radio in Gairloch.
Ullapool has an oceanic climate, with mild temperatures year round, considering its northerly latitude. With an average 1,105 sunshine hours per year, it is cloudier than any major city in Europe. Ullapool is referenced in the multiplayer video game Team Fortress 2 as the hometown of the Demoman and in the name of an in-game melee weapon that the Demoman can choose to have in his loadout. In the various X-men series of Marvel comics, the mutant werewolf Rahne Sinclair is from Ullapool. In 1970 Ross and Cromarty council voted to create a new £460,000 ferry terminal at Ullapool, 43 miles from Stornoway, replacing that at the Kyle of Lochalsh, 71 miles from Stornoway; the ferry terminal is linked to the A835 trunk road with the A893. At the terminal Caledonian MacBrayne operate a roll-on/roll-off carferry to Stornoway on the Isle of Lewis. Morefield Stac Fada Member distinctive geology resulting from the largest bolide impact to strike what are now the British Isles Ullapool Tourist and Business Association official site Ullapool Accommodation updated daily by the accommodation providers Ullapool tourism and business website Loopallu Festival website Biggest UK space impact found — BBC News
Isle Ristol, the innermost of the Summer Isles in Scotland, is a Scottish Wildlife Trust Reserve. Lying 12 miles north of Ullapool in Wester Ross, it is a tidal island, in Loch an Alltain Duibh, separated by a narrow channel from Old Dorney Bay. Access is by boat from Old Dornie. Over fifty higher species have been identified amongst the flora on the Isle Ristol machair, amongst which are moonwort and adder's tongue. Isle Ristol was a site of a British Fishery Society station in the late 18th century
Scotland is a country, part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, by the North Sea to the northeast and by the Irish Sea to the south. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides; the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain; the union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom.
The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland; the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland. The continued existence of legal, educational and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England; the Scottish Parliament, a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs.
Scotland is a member of the British–Irish Council, sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area. "Scotland" comes from the Latin name for the Gaels. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland; the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins. Repeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period, it is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.
At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, the main form of transport was by water. These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, the first villages around 6,000 years ago; the well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation and ritual sites are common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE; the first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands. During the first millennium BCE, the society changed to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.
The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD. After the Roman victory, Roman forts were set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands; the Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire. The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, they introduced Christianity to Scotland. Beginning in the sixth century, the area, now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; these societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries. Operating in the sixth ce
Achiltibuie is a long linear village in Ross and Cromarty, Highland, on the Coigach coast of northwestern Scotland, overlooking Badentarbet Bay to the west. Loch Broom and the Summer Isles lie to the south. Located 10 miles northwest of Ullapool as the crow flies. Achiltibuie is the central community of a series of townships and communities stretching from Culnacraig, through Badenscallie and Polglass and Reiff to Achnahaird; the first post office in the village opened on 28 July 1884. For a time the Summer Isles Smokehouse attracted visitors. In 2013 the community had hopes to re-establish the business; the Hydroponicum, a facility for growing fresh fruit and vegetables indoors using hydroponics, was built in the village in the 1980s by Robert Irvine owner of the Summer Isles Hotel. The Hydroponicum was known for growing exotic fruit such as bananas all year round, it attracted up to 10,000 visitors a year until it was sold in 2007 to a company based in the Isle of Man. New greenhouses have since been built apart from the original hydroponicum buildings, the new owners continue to grow fruit and vegetables for local businesses and residents.
A community buyout attempt in 2011 by the Coigach Community Development Company fell through when the site's sellers pulled out. The building has now been demolished; some of the former staff of the Hydroponicum run a small-scale activity known as The Achiltibuie Garden, situated nearby. Tom Longstaff, mountaineer. Lucy Irvine, lived briefly in the Summer Isles Hotel with her father, who owned it and the Hydroponicum.'Coigach Community Rowing' the crew members of which coastal rowing club are all local, won the World St. Ayles Skiff Rowing Championships in July 2013 and a mixed crew from the club won the Alan Spong Trophy for 1st Mixed crew 4-oar rowing at the Thames Great River Race in September 2013. Coigach Community Rowing hand-built their two St Ayles rowing skiffs, the'Coigach Lass' and the'Lily~Rose' and race under the auspices of the Scottish Coastal Rowing Association, the governing body of St Ayles class coastal rowing around the world; the Roman epic movie The Eagle, based on the 1954 novel The Eagle of the Ninth by Rosemary Sutcliff, was filmed on location in Achiltibuie for a week in October 2009.
The main location was Old Dornie. The Pictish village, constructed at Fox Point was used on most days of the filming. Other sites included Loch Lurgainn; the village and its residents featured in The Wee Mad Road by Barbara Maloney. Achiltibuie is the setting of a humorous German book about Scotland by Reiner Luyken, Schotten dicht published by Ullstein Verlag, Berlin. Luyken was a multiple award-winning foreign correspondent of the German weekly paper Die Zeit until his retirement in 2017, he lives near Achiltibuie since 1978. Achiltibuie Tourist Association Coigach Genealogy
The Wicker Man
The Wicker Man is a 1973 British mystery horror film directed by Robin Hardy. It stars Edward Woodward, Britt Ekland, Diane Cilento, Ingrid Pitt, Christopher Lee; the screenplay by Anthony Shaffer, inspired by David Pinner's 1967 novel Ritual, centres on the visit of Police Sergeant Neil Howie to the isolated island of Summerisle, in search of a missing girl. Howie, a devout Christian, is appalled to find that the inhabitants of the island have abandoned Christianity and now practise a form of Celtic paganism. Paul Giovanni composed the film score; the Wicker Man is well-regarded by critics. Film magazine Cinefantastique described it as "The Citizen Kane of horror movies", in 2004 Total Film magazine named The Wicker Man the sixth greatest British film of all time, it won the 1978 Saturn Award for Best Horror Film, the burning Wicker Man scene was No. 45 on Bravo's 100 Scariest Movie Moments, during the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony the film was included as part of a sequence that celebrated British cinema.
In 2013, a copy of the original U. S. theatrical version was digitally released. In 1989, Shaffer wrote a script treatment for The Loathsome Lambton Worm, a direct sequel with fantasy elements. Hardy had no interest in the project, it was never produced. In 2006, an ill-received American remake was released, from which Hardy and others involved with the original have dissociated themselves. In 2011, a spiritual sequel entitled The Wicker Tree was released to mixed reviews; this film was directed by Hardy, featured Lee in a cameo appearance. Police Sergeant Neil Howie journeys to the remote Hebridean island Summerisle to investigate the disappearance of a young girl, Rowan Morrison, about whom he has received an anonymous letter. Howie, a devout Christian, is disturbed to find the islanders paying homage to the pagan Celtic gods of their ancestors, they copulate in the fields, include children as part of the May Day celebrations, teach children of the phallic association of the maypole, place toads in their mouths to cure sore throats.
The Islanders, including Rowan's own mother, appear to be attempting to thwart his investigation by claiming that Rowan never existed. While staying at the Green Man Inn, Howie notices a series of photographs celebrating the annual harvest, each featuring a young girl as the May Queen; the photograph of the most recent celebration is suspiciously missing. The landlord's beautiful daughter, attempts to seduce Howie, so that he would no longer remain a virgin, but he refuses her advances. Howie enters the local school and enquires about Rowan among the students, but all deny her existence, he finds Rowan's name in it. He questions the school teacher and she tells him about her burial plot. After seeing Rowan's burial plot, Howie meets the island's leader, Lord Summerisle, grandson of a Victorian agronomist, to obtain permission for an exhumation. Lord Summerisle explains that his grandfather developed strains of fruit trees that would prosper in Scotland's climate, encouraged the belief that old gods would use the new strains to bring prosperity to the island.
Over the next several generations, the island's inhabitants embraced pagan religion. Howie finds the missing harvest photograph, showing Rowan standing amidst empty boxes, the harvest had failed, his research reveals that when there is a poor harvest, the islanders make a human sacrifice to ensure that the next harvest will be bountiful. He has been chosen for sacrifice. During the May Day celebration, Howie knocks out and ties up the innkeeper so he can steal his costume and mask and infiltrates the parade; when it seems the villagers are about to sacrifice Rowan, he cuts her free and flees with her into a cave. On exiting it, they are intercepted by the islanders, to whom Rowan returns. Lord Summerisle tells Howie, he fits their gods' four requirements: he came of his own free will, with "the power of a king", is a virgin, is a fool. Defiant, Howie loudly warns Lord Summerisle and the islanders that the fruit-tree strains are failing permanently and that the villagers will turn on him and sacrifice him next summer when the next harvest fails as well.
The villagers force Howie inside a giant wicker man statue, set it ablaze and surround it, singing the Middle English folk song "Sumer Is Icumen In." Inside the wicker man, a terrified Howie recites Psalm 23, prays to Christ. He curses the islanders; the head of the wicker man collapses in flames. In the early 1970s, the actor Christopher Lee was a Hammer Horror regular, best known for his roles in a series of successful films, beginning with The Curse of Frankenstein. Lee wanted to take on more interesting acting roles, he met with screenwriter Anthony Shaffer, they agreed to work together. Film director Robin Hardy and British Lion head Peter Snell became involved in the project. Shaffer had a series of conversations with Hardy, the two decided that it would be fun to make a horror film centering on "old religion", in sharp contrast to the Hammer films they had both seen as horror film fans. Shaffer read the David Pinner novel Ritual, in which a devout Christian policeman is called to investigate what appears to be the ritual murder of a young girl in a rural
Tanera Beag or Tanera Beg is an uninhabited island in the Summer Isles off north west Scotland. It is called "Tanera Beag" to distinguish it from Tanera Mòr, "Big Tanera"