Japan is a sovereign island nation in Eastern Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asia Mainland and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea, the kanji that make up Japans name mean sun origin. 日 can be read as ni and means sun while 本 can be read as hon, or pon, Japan is often referred to by the famous epithet Land of the Rising Sun in reference to its Japanese name. Japan is an archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands. The four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, the country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions. Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one, the population of 127 million is the worlds tenth largest. Japanese people make up 98. 5% of Japans total population, approximately 9.1 million people live in the city of Tokyo, the capital of Japan. Archaeological research indicates that Japan was inhabited as early as the Upper Paleolithic period, the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions, mainly China, followed by periods of isolation, from the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shoguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a period of isolation in the early 17th century. The Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan is a member of the UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the country has the worlds third-largest economy by nominal GDP and the worlds fourth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It is the worlds fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer, although Japan has officially renounced its right to declare war, it maintains a modern military with the worlds eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a country with a very high standard of living. Its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and the third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, in ancient China, Japan was called Wo 倭.
It was mentioned in the third century Chinese historical text Records of the Three Kingdoms in the section for the Wei kingdom, Wa became disliked because it has the connotation of the character 矮, meaning dwarf. The 倭 kanji has been replaced with the homophone Wa, meaning harmony, the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, which is pronounced Nippon or Nihon and literally means the origin of the sun. The earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, at the start of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan introduced their country as Nihon
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. Historically a merchant city, Osaka has known as the nations kitchen. Some of the earliest signs of habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters. It is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew as rice farming became popular, by the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan. The large numbers of increasingly larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, in 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, and remained so until 745, in 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the heavily fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace.
Oda Nobunaga began a siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which ultimately resulted in the surrender of the monks. Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583, Osaka was long considered Japans primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japans major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and its popular culture was closely related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780 Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki, in 1837 Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the citys unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. Approximately one-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration.
Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century, jippenisha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy almost beyond belief. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, and saw themselves as poor but generous, Edo writers by contrast saw zeeroku as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. The modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping todays Chūō. Later, the city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres, Osaka was the industrial center most clearly defined in the development of capitalism in Japan. It became known as the Manchester of the Orient, the rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves
Ocean Colour Scene
Ocean Colour Scene are an English rock band formed in Moseley, Birmingham, in 1989. They have had five Top 10 albums including a one in 1997. They have achieved seventeen Top 40 singles and six Top 10 singles to date, Ocean Colour Scene were formed after two other local bands called The Boys and Fanatics disbanded. Fanatics released an EP titled Suburban Love Songs, OCS signed to Phfftt Records in 1990. Their first single, was released in September 1990 in the burgeoning UK indie era, the album was largely deemed a failure. Being in dispute with their label, the band were forced back onto the dole, with no direction and being only able to write new music. In 1993, the start of the turnaround occurred, Paul Weller invited the band to support him on some dates of his tour. On the back of these performances, Weller invited Cradock to play on one of his singles, Cradock was asked to play live with Weller on his tour, and the money Cradock made kept the band afloat during this time. The band recorded a demo that was sent to various industry figures, after hearing this tape, Noel Gallagher invited the band to play with Oasis on their 1995 tour.
This support slot brought OCS to the attention of record labels, and eventually in late 1995. With the explosion of the Britpop scene, OCSs music became nationally and internationally known and their second album Moseley Shoals was released to critical acclaim, containing four hit singles and reached No.2 in the UK Albums Chart. They played at one of the concerts at Knebworth House supporting Oasis in August 1996, Marchin Already, the follow-up to Moseley Shoals, went to No.1 in the UK Albums Chart, displacing Oasis Be Here Now at the top of the charts in 1997. In 1998 they headlined their own tour in support of Marchin Already. One from the Modern was released in 1999, and peaked in the UK Albums Chart at No.4, the record spawned three top 40 singles, Profit in Peace, So Low and July. Having undergone line-up changes, the continued to record and perform. Releases in 2001,2003,2005 and 2007 continued the trend of releasing new material every two years,2004 saw the band release their first live album, One For The Road.
The album was a compilation of nineteen live tracks taken from various concerts, the band released a live album in December 2006, which was recorded at Birmingham Academy and spread over two discs. People attending the gig were able to purchase the recording straight afterwards, the album had a working title of Rockfield, named after the studios where it was recorded, but it was released as Saturday - both Rockfield and Saturday being tracks thereon
311 is an American rock band from Omaha, Nebraska. The band was formed in 1988 by vocalist and guitarist Nick Hexum, lead guitarist Jim Watson, bassist Aaron P-Nut Wills. in 1992, Doug SA Martinez joined to sing and provide turntables for 311s albums, rounding out the current line-up. The bands name originates from the code for indecent exposure in Omaha, Nebraska. To date,311 has released studio albums, two live albums, four compilation albums, four EPs and four DVDs. After a series of independent releases,311 was signed to Capricorn Records in 1992 and released the albums Music, the bands next three albums—Transistor and From Chaos —were successful, with the first going platinum and the last two going gold. Their 2004 compilation album Greatest Hits 93–03 was certified gold, the bands most recent studio album is 2014s Stereolithic. As of 2011,311 has sold over 8.5 million records in the United States, 311s first independent release was the Downstairs EP, which was recorded in 1989 in Nick Hexums basement.
Unlike many of their releases, it had no cover art and it features the song Feels So Good, which was recreated/remastered in the album Music, and a staple of most of 311s live shows. In 1990,311 produced their second independent release, recorded at IEV Studios in Papillion, Nebraska. Only printed 300 cassettes, Unity had 1000 CDs and 500 cassettes printed and was distributed through consignment, the band began to headline shows in local clubs, such as The Ranch Bowl and Sokol Auditorium. In 1992, S. A. Martinez, who had been making appearances with 311 over the past years as a vocalist, was officially asked to join the band. 311 recorded a demo, called Hydroponic, recorded at Rainbow Recording Studios. Within their first few months,311 was signed to Capricorn Records,311 considers their first show to be held on June 10,1990, opening for Fugazi in Omaha, Nebraska, at the Sokol Auditorium. Their first major record, Music was released in 1993, the single Do You Right received airplay on modern rock stations and reached No.27 on Billboards Modern Rock Tracks chart.
However, the failed to chart at the time. Financing their own tour, the band drove around in an old RV borrowed from Sextons father, after tackling a steep incline while en route to an Omaha show, the RV caught fire. The only door out of the vehicle was surrounded by flames so the band jumped through the fire, All of their equipment and possessions were lost, though no one was seriously injured. The band continued their tour, using borrowed equipment, the following year, they released their second studio album, Grassroots
James Joseph Brown was an American singer, record producer and bandleader. The creator of music and a major figure of 20th century popular music and dance. In a career spanned six decades, he influenced the development of several music genres. Brown began his career as a singer in Toccoa, Georgia. He joined an R&B vocal group, the Gospel Starlighters, in which he was the lead singer. His success peaked in the 1960s with the live album Live at the Apollo and hit singles such as Papas Got a Brand New Bag, I Got You and Its a Mans Mans Mans World. During the late 1960s he moved from a continuum of blues and gospel-based forms, by the early 1970s, Brown had fully established the funk sound after the formation of the J. B. s with records such as Get Up Sex Machine and The Payback. He became noted for songs of social commentary, including the 1968 hit Say It Loud – Im Black, Brown continued to perform and record until his death from congestive heart failure in 2006. Brown recorded 16 singles that reached number one on the Billboard R&B charts and he holds the record for the most singles listed on the Billboard Hot 100 chart which did not reach number one.
Brown has received honors from many institutions, including inductions into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in Joel Whitburns analysis of the Billboard R&B charts from 1942 to 2010, James Brown is ranked as number one in The Top 500 Artists. He is ranked seventh on the music magazine Rolling Stones list of its 100 greatest artists of all time, Rolling Stone has cited Brown as the most sampled artist of all time. Brown was born on May 3,1933, in Barnwell, South Carolina, to 16-year-old Susie and 22-year-old Joseph Joe Gardner Brown, in a small wooden shack. Browns name was supposed to have been Joseph James Brown, Jr. however, his first and he legally changed his name to remove Jr. His parents were black, in his autobiography, Brown stated that he had Chinese and Native American ancestry. The Brown family lived in poverty in Elko, South Carolina. They moved to Augusta, when James was four or five and his family first settled at one of his aunts brothels. They moved into a house shared with another aunt, Browns mother left the family after a contentious marriage and moved to New York.
Brown spent long stretches of time on his own, hanging out in the streets and he managed to stay in school until the sixth grade
Atmosphere of Earth
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earths gravity. The atmosphere of Earth protects life on Earth by absorbing solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention. By volume, dry air contains 78. 09% nitrogen,20. 95% oxygen,0. 93% argon,0. 04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Air contains an amount of water vapor, on average around 1% at sea level. The atmosphere has a mass of about 5. 15×1018 kg, the atmosphere becomes thinner and thinner with increasing altitude, with no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. The Kármán line, at 100 km, or 1. 57% of Earths radius, is used as the border between the atmosphere and outer space. Atmospheric effects become noticeable during atmospheric reentry of spacecraft at an altitude of around 120 km, several layers can be distinguished in the atmosphere, based on characteristics such as temperature and composition. The study of Earths atmosphere and its processes is called atmospheric science, early pioneers in the field include Léon Teisserenc de Bort and Richard Assmann.
The three major constituents of air, and therefore of Earths atmosphere, are nitrogen, water vapor accounts for roughly 0. 25% of the atmosphere by mass. The remaining gases are often referred to as gases, among which are the greenhouse gases, principally carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide. Filtered air includes trace amounts of other chemical compounds. Various industrial pollutants may be present as gases or aerosols, such as chlorine, fluorine compounds, sulfur compounds such as hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide may be derived from natural sources or from industrial air pollution. In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere, temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude, and may remain relatively constant or even increase with altitude in some regions. In this way, Earths atmosphere can be divided into five main layers, excluding the exosphere, Earth has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere and thermosphere. It extends from the exobase, which is located at the top of the thermosphere at an altitude of about 700 km above sea level, to about 10,000 km where it merges into the solar wind.
This layer is composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen. The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate in and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind, the exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible
Green Day is an American punk rock band formed in 1986 by lead vocalist and guitarist Billie Joe Armstrong and bassist Mike Dirnt. For much of the career, the band has been a trio with drummer Tré Cool. Guitarist Jason White, who has worked with the band as a member since 1999, was an official member from 2012 to 2016. Green Day was originally part of the scene at the DIY924 Gilman Street club in Berkeley. The bands early releases were with the independent record label Lookout, in 1994, its major label debut Dookie became a breakout success and eventually shipped over 10 million copies in the U. S. The bands rock opera, American Idiot, reignited the bands popularity with a younger generation, the bands eighth studio album, 21st Century Breakdown, was released in 2009 and achieved the bands best chart performance to date. 21st Century Breakdown was followed up by a trilogy of albums called ¡Uno, ¡Dos. and ¡Tré. which were released in September and December 2012 respectively. The bands twelfth album, Revolution Radio was released on October 7,2016 and debuted at number one on the Billboard 200.
Green Day has sold more than 85 million records worldwide, in 2010, a stage adaptation of American Idiot debuted on Broadway. The musical was nominated for three Tony Awards, Best Musical, Best Scenic Design and Best Lighting Design, losing only the first, in 2010, Green Day was ranked no.91 in the VH1 list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. On April 18,2015, the band was inducted into the Rock, in 1986, friends Billie Joe Armstrong and Mike Dirnt,14 years old at the time, formed a band called Sweet Children. The groups first live performance took place on October 17,1987, at Rods Hickory Pit in Vallejo, in 1988, Armstrong and Dirnt began working with former Isocracy drummer John Kiffmeyer, known as Al Sobrante. As said in the film Punks Not Dead, Armstrong cites the band Operation Ivy as an influence. In 1988, Larry Livermore, owner of Lookout, saw the band play an early show and signed the group to his label. In 1989, the band recorded its debut extended play,1,000 Hours, before 1,000 Hours was released, the group dropped the name Sweet Children, according to Livermore, this was done to avoid confusion with another local band Sweet Baby.
The band adopted the name Green Day, due to the fondness for cannabis. Released Green Days debut studio album, 39/Smooth in early 1990, Records re-released 39/Smooth under the name 1, 039/Smoothed Out Slappy Hours, and added the songs from the bands first two EPs, and 1,000 Hours. In late 1990, shortly after the bands first nationwide tour, Kiffmeyer left the East Bay area to attend Humboldt State University in Arcata, California
Grandaddy is an American indie rock band from Modesto, formed in 1992. The band consists of Jason Lytle, Kevin Garcia, Aaron Burtch, Jim Fairchild and Tim Dryden. After several self-released records and cassettes, the band signed to Will Records in the US and the V2 subsidiary Big Cat Records in the UK, the bulk of the bands recorded output was the work of Lytle, who worked primarily in home studios. The band released four albums before splitting in 2006, with band members going on to solo careers. Grandaddy reformed in 2012 and have made a number of live appearances. In 2016, the announced its fifth studio album, Last Place. Grandaddy was formed in 1992 by singer and keyboardist Jason Lytle, bassist Kevin Garcia, the group was initially influenced by US punk bands such as Suicidal Tendencies and Bad Brains. The band members constructed a studio at the Lytle family home, singles Could This Be Love and Taster followed that year. In 1995, guitarist Jim Fairchild and keyboardist Tim Dryden joined the band, a second cassette, Dont Sock the Tryer was withdrawn, with the band instead releasing debut mini-album A Pretty Mess by This One Band in April 1996 on the Seattle-based Will label.
In 1997 they released their debut full-length album Under the Western Freeway, with the help of Howe Gelb, signed a UK deal with Big Cat Records, the album included the single A. M. 180, which was featured during a sequence in the 2002 British film 28 Days Later and it was used for the theme song for the BBC Four television series Charlie Brookers Screenwipe, and in an advertisement for Colin Murrays BBC Radio 1 show. A. M.180 was used in commercials for the Dodge Journey automobile. The album led to an increase in the popularity in Europe. The album was only a success in the US when reissued by V2, with the band busy touring in 1999, their next release was the compilation The Broken Down Comforter Collection. In May 2000 they released their album, The Sophtware Slump. NME placed it at number 34 in their Top 100 Greatest Albums of the Decade, the album reached number 36 on the UK Albums Chart, and the bands fanbase increased, including celebrities such as David Bowie, Kate Moss and Liv Tyler.
By early 2001 the album had sold 80,000 copies worldwide, the first single from the album, The Crystal Lake, became the bands first UK top 40 single when it was reissued in 2001. Around the time that The Sophtware Slump was released, Grandaddy was invited to open for Elliott Smith on his tour for Figure 8, on some nights, Smith would join Grandaddy onstage and sing lead vocals on portions of Hes Simple, Hes Dumb, Hes the Pilot
Incubus is an American rock band from Calabasas, California. Incubus has attained success, reaching multi-platinum sales, as well as releasing several successful singles. After their first two albums, Fungus Amongus and S. C. I. E. N. C. E, the band earned mainstream recognition with the release of their 1999 album Make Yourself which spawned several hits, including the bands highest charting song Drive. Success continued with the albums Morning View and A Crow Left of the Murder, Incubus released the EP Trust Fall in 2015 and will release their eighth studio album, titled 8, on April 21,2017. Incubus has sold over 23 million albums worldwide, Incubus was formed in 1991 by vocalist Brandon Boyd, guitarist Mike Einziger, bassist Alex Katunich and drummer Jose Pasillas, while the members were in high school. They existed as a band for some time before they gave themselves a name, the bands early shows were frequently at nightclubs on Los Angeles Sunset Strip, including such well-known venues as the Whisky a Go Go, The Roxy and the Troubadour.
Incubus produced many of their recordings with Jim Wirt and Chillum Records in a Santa Monica studio. In 1995, Incubus added Gavin Koppell to the band and recorded their first two song EP, Let Me Tell Ya Bout Root Beer and this was followed by the debut album Fungus Amongus, recorded with Wirt and released on Incubus own label Stopuglynailfungus Music. In the following year, Incubus signed a deal with Sonys Immortal Records. The 1997 six-track EP Enjoy Incubus was the bands first major-label release and was created so the band could present a recording while touring with Korn in Europe, Incubus second studio album, was released on September 9,1997. After their album release, they started opening for such as Korn and 311. This album marked somewhat of a departure from the bands more funk influenced early material. In February 1998, Incubus dismissed Koppell and they decided that with him in the band they could no longer be a productive family. A friend recommended Chris Kilmore to fill the position, the band enjoyed Kilmores style and attitude to life and asked him to join the band.
Incubus participated in the Ozzfest and Family Values metal festivals and toured with System of a Down, Chris Kilmore, known as DJ Kilmore, replaced DJ Lyfe. After constant touring throughout 1998, and after selling over 100,000 copies of S. C. I. E. N. C. E. Without the support of radio or television exposure, Incubus took a break for two years and released their critically acclaimed third album Make Yourself. After just 2 weeks in the studio with producer Jim Wirt, according to the band, Litts involvement in the record came mostly during the mixing process
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
Beck Hansen, known mononymously as Beck, is an American singer, record producer and multi-instrumentalist. He is mostly known for his composition, as well as a palette of sonic genres. He rose to fame in the early 1990s with his experimental and lo-fi style. Today, he musically encompasses folk, soul, hip hop, alternative rock, country and he has released 12 studio albums, as well as several non-album singles and a book of sheet music. Born in Los Angeles in 1970, Beck grew towards hip-hop and folk in his teens and began to perform locally at coffeehouses and he moved to New York City in 1989 and became involved in the citys small fiery anti-folk movement. Returning to Los Angeles in the early 1990s, he cut his breakthrough single Loser, which became a hit in 1994, and released his first major album, Mellow Gold. Odelay, released in 1996, produced hit singles, topped critic polls and he released the psychedelic Mutations in 1998, and the funk-infused Midnite Vultures in 1999. The soft-acoustic Sea Change in 2002 showcased a more serious Beck and he is reportedly working on a thirteenth studio album, with the singles Dreams and Wow having already been released.
Two of Becks most popular and acclaimed recordings are Odelay and Sea Change, the four-time platinum artist has collaborated with several artists and has made several contributions to soundtracks. Beck is married to actress Marissa Ribisi, and is an active Scientologist, Beck was born in Los Angeles, to David Campbell, a Canadian-born musician, and Bibbe Hansen, a visual artist and former Warhol superstar. Bibbes mother was half Jewish, while Bibbes father, Al Hansen, was partly of Norwegian descent, Beck has said that he was raised celebrating Jewish holidays, and that he considers himself Jewish. Becks mother grew up amid New Yorks Andy Warhol Factory art scene of the 1960s, but moved to California at age 17 and his father is a Canadian-born arranger and conductor who worked on hundreds of albums and numerous films. Beck began life in a house near downtown Los Angeles. As a child, he lived in a neighborhood just off Hollywood Boulevard. By the time we left there, they were ripping out miles of houses en masse and building low-rent, giant apartment blocks, the lower-class family struggled financially, moving to Hoover and Ninth Street, a neighborhood populated primarily by Koreans and Salvadorian refugees.
He was sent for a time to live with his grandparents in Kansas. Since his paternal grandfather was a Presbyterian minister, Beck grew up influenced by church music, Beck spent time in Europe with his maternal grandfather, Al Hansen, a visual collage artist and a pioneer in the avant-garde Fluxus movement. Beck obtained his first guitar at 16 and became a street musician, during his teens, Beck discovered the music of Sonic Youth, Pussy Galore and X, but remained uninterested in most music outside folk until many years into his career
Time Out (magazine)
Time Out is a magazine published by Time Out Digital Ltd. In 2012, the became a free publication with a weekly readership of over 307,000. In addition to print, the Time Out London website has seven million unique users, Time Outs global market presence includes partnerships with Nokia and mobile apps for iOS and Android operating systems. It was the recipient of the International Consumer Magazine of the Year award in both 2010 and 2011 and the renamed International Consumer Media Brand of the Year in 2013 and 2014. Time Out started as a magazine created in 1968 by Tony Elliott, the first product was titled Where Its At, before being inspired by Dave Brubecks album Time Out. The magazine was initially a counter-culture publication which took a non-conformist stance on such as gay rights, racial equality. As one example of its editorial stance, in 1976 Londons Time Out published the names of 60 purported CIA agents stationed in England. Early issues had a print run of around 5,000, Elliott launched Time Out New York, his North American magazine debut, in 1995.
The magazine procured young and upcoming talent to provide cultural reviews for young New Yorkers at the time, the success of TONY led to the introduction of Time Out New York Kids, a quarterly magazine aimed at families. The expansion continued with Elliott licensing the Time Out brand worldwide spreading the magazine to 39 cities including Istanbul, Beijing, Hong Kong, additional Time Out products included travel magazines, city guides, and books. In 2010, Time Out became the publisher of travel guides. The group, founded by Peter Dubens, was owned by Tony Elliott and Oakley Capital until 2016, Time Out has subsequently launched websites for an additional 33 cities including Delhi, Washington D. C. Boston and Bristol. when it was listed on Londons AIM stock exchange, in June 2016, Time Out Group underwent an IPO and is listed on Londons AIM stock exchange. The London edition of Time Out became a magazine in September 2012. This strategy increased revenue by 80 percent with continued upsurge, Time Out has invited a number of guest columnists to write for the magazine.
The columnist as of 2014 was Giles Coren, in April 2015, Time Out switched its New York magazine to the free distribution model to increase the reader base and grow brand awareness. This transition doubled circulation by increasing its Web audience, estimated around 3.5 million unique visitors a month, Time Out increased its weekly magazine circulation to over 305,000 copies complementing millions of digital users of Time Out New York. Free magazines are distributed at bars, gyms, subway stations, and theaters, in addition, a subscription service is offered to those that prefer the magazine to be physically delivered and paid subscribers have access to a digital edition of the magazine