Derby Summer House
Since 1958 it has been owned by the Danvers Historical Society. Samuel McIntire designed this ornate Federal style garden house for Elias Hasket Derbys farm in Salem, the structure is 20 feet square, 2½ stories high, decorated with pilasters and Grecian urns, and topped with rustic wood statues of a Reaper and Shepherdess. The ground floor is punctuated by arched openings on the east and west facades. The second floor is ornamented with swags and fluted Ionic pilasters at the corners, the summer house was moved to its present location in 1901, about 4 miles from its original site, where it now opens onto a walled rose garden designed by Herbert Browne. Neither of the two atop the house are originals. The Shepherdess was missing when the house was transported, after 20 years she was found atop an Andover mill building, a duplicate was carved in 1924, and the original is now on display in the Peabody Institute. The original Reaper fell in a storm in 1981 and it too was reproduced, the original is in the Danvers Historical Society collection.
The summer house was declared a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1968, list of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts Derby Summer House Danvers Historical Society
Skansen is the first open-air museum and zoo in Sweden and is located on the island Djurgården in Stockholm, Sweden. It was opened on 11 October 1891 by Artur Hazelius to show the way of life in the different parts of Sweden before the industrial era, the 19th century was a period of great change throughout Europe, and Sweden was no exception. Its rural way of life was giving way to an industrialised society and many feared that the countrys many traditional customs. Skansen became the model for other early open-air museums in Scandinavia, Skansen was originally a part of the Nordic Museum, but became an independent organisation in 1963. The objects within the Skansen buildings are still the property of the Nordic Museum, only three of the buildings in the museum are not original, and were painstakingly copied from examples he had found. All of the buildings are open to visitors and show the range of Swedish life from the Skogaholm Manor house built in 1680. Skansen attracts more than 1.3 million visitors each year, there is even a small patch growing tobacco used for the making of cigarettes.
There is a zoo containing a wide range of Scandinavian animals including the bison, brown bear, grey seal, otter, red fox, wolf. There are farmsteads where rare breeds of animals can be seen. In early December the sites central Bollnäs square is host to a popular Christmas market that has held since 1903. In the summer there are displays of folk dancing and concerts, since 1897, Skansen has been served by the Skansens Bergbana, a funicular railway on the northwest side of the Skansen hill. The funicular is 196.4 meters long, with a rise of 34.57 meters. Culture in Stockholm Royal National City Park Official website Andy Carvins Skansen Gallery Skansen-akvariet Panoramic virtual tour of brown bear enclosure at Skansen
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Erlangen is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located north-west of Nuremberg at the confluence of the river Regnitz and its large tributary, Erlangen has more than 100,000 inhabitants. An event that left its mark on the city was the settlement of Huguenots after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Felix Kleins Erlangen program of 1872, considering the future of research in mathematics, is so called because Klein taught at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen was first mentioned in official records in 1002 under the name of Villa Erlangon. In 1361, the village was sold to Emperor/King Charles IV and it became part of the Czech Kingdom. Three years later, a city was close to the village. In 1398, the rights were confirmed by King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia. In 1402, the city came into the possession of the House of Hohenzollern as part of the Principality of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, in 1810 it became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, together with the rest of former Brandenburg-Bayreuth.
While it was part of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, the first French Huguenot refugees arrived in Erlangen in 1686. Margrave Christian Ernst of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, built a new town for them, in 1706, the old town was almost completely destroyed by a fire, but soon rebuilt. In 1812, the old and new towns were merged into one, only did it obtain the name of Friedrich-Alexander-University and become a Prussian state university. Famous students of these times were Johann Ludwig Tieck and Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder, already during the Bavarian municipal reform of 1818, the city was endowed with its own administration. In 1862, the canton administration Erlangen was founded, from which arose the administrative district of Erlangen. In 1972, this district was merged with the district of Höchstadt. Erlangen became the capital of newly founded district Erlangen-Höchstadt. During this municipal reform, Erlangen was effectively enlarged considerably, thus in 1974 it had more than 100,000 inhabitants. The University of Erlangen-Nuremberg was founded in 1742 by Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, in the city of Bayreuth, today, it features five faculties, some departments are located in Nuremberg.
About 39,000 students study at university, of which about 20,000 are located in Erlangen
As such sea breezes are more localised than prevailing winds. Because land absorbs solar radiation far more quickly than water, a sea breeze is an occurrence along coasts after sunrise. Sea breezes and land breezes are important factors in coastal regions prevailing winds. The term offshore wind may refer to any wind over open water, wind farms are often situated near a coast to take advantage of the normal daily fluctuations of wind speed resulting from sea or land breezes. The sea has a heat capacity than land, so the surface of the sea warms up more slowly than the lands surface. As the temperature of the surface of the land rises, the heats the air above it by conduction. The warm air is less dense and so it expands, decreasing the pressure over the land near the coast, the air above the sea has a relatively higher pressure, causing air near the coast to flow towards the lower pressure over land. The strength of the sea breeze is directly proportional to the difference between the land and the sea.
If a strong wind is present, that is, a wind greater than 8 knots and opposing the direction of a possible sea breeze. A sea-breeze front is a front created by a sea breeze. The cold air from the sea meets the air from the land. When powerful this front creates cumulus clouds, and if the air is humid and unstable, the front can sometimes trigger thunderstorms. If the flow aloft is aligned with the direction of the sea breeze, places experiencing the sea breeze frontal passage will have benign, or fair, weather for the remainder of the day. At the front warm air continues to flow upward and cold air moves in to replace it. Its speed depends on whether it is assisted or hampered by the wind. At night, the sea breeze usually changes to a land breeze, thunderstorms caused by powerful sea breeze fronts frequently occur in Florida, a peninsula surrounded on both the east and west by the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, respectively. These storms can produce significant hail due to the tremendous updraft it causes in the atmosphere especially during times when the atmosphere is cooler such as during the spring or fall.
On calm summer afternoons with little prevailing wind, sea breezes from both coasts may collide in the middle, creating severe storms down the center of the state
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave. As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for a terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, pergolas are sometimes confused with arbours, and the terms are often used interchangeably. An arbour is generally regarded as a bench seat with a roof. A pergola, on the hand, is a much larger and more open structure. As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for a terrace or a link between pavilions. Pergolas may link pavilions or extend from a door to an open garden feature such as an isolated terrace or pool. Freestanding pergolas, those not attached to a home or other structure, provide an area that allows for breeze and light sun. Pergolas give climbing plants a structure on which to grow, at the Medici villa, La Petraia and outer curving segments of such green walks, the forerunners of pergolas, give structure to the pattern, which can be viewed from the long terrace above it.
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula, referring to a projecting eave, the English term was borrowed from Italian. The clearly artificial nature of the pergola made it fall from favor in the naturalistic gardening styles of the 18th and 19th centuries, a particularly extensive pergola features at the gardens of The Hill, designed by Thomas Mawson for his client W. H. Lever. Wooden pergolas are either made from a weather-resistant wood, such as western redcedar or, formerly, of coast redwood, are painted or stained, for a low maintenance alternative to wood, fiberglass, aluminum and CPVC can be used. These materials do not require paint or stain like a wooden pergola and their manufacture can make them even stronger. Breezeway Brise soleil Latticework Patio Trellis Vine training systems
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. Whatever is not urban is considered rural, typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, though so are others such as forests. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for statistical and administrative purposes, in Canada, the census division has been used to represent regions and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent communities. Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their living in a rural community. Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft, as well, rural northern regions encompass all of the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts and this definition has changed over time.
Typically, it has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or less inhabitants, the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre. 84% of the United States inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent. The U. S. Census Bureau, the USDAs Economic Research Service, an urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000. USDA The USDAs Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds, for example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts, Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States.
This became the Goldsmith Modification definition of rural, health care delivery in rural areas of the United States can be challenging. From 2005-2011, the rate of potentially preventable hospitalizations for acute conditions was highest in rural areas, in Brazil, theres different notions of rural area and countryside. Rural areas are any place outside an urban development and its carried by informal usage. Otherwise, countryside are officially defined as all municipalities outside the capitals metropolitan region. Some states as Mato Grosso do Sul doesnt have any metropolitan region, thus all of the state, Rio de Janeiro is singular in Brazil and its de facto a metropolitan state, as circa 70% of its population are located in Greater Rio
The city is spread across 14 islands on the coast in the southeast of Sweden at the mouth of Lake Mälaren, by the Stockholm archipelago and the Baltic Sea. The area has settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC. It is the capital of Stockholm County, Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden. The Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the countrys GDP and it is an important global city, and the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region. The city is home to some of Europes top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and it hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the citys most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited museum in Scandinavia. The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is known for its decoration of the stations. Swedens national football arena is located north of the city centre, Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city.
The city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, and hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, and the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister. The government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, and the Prime Ministers residence is adjacent at the Sager House. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BCE, there were already a number of people living in the present-day Stockholm area. Thousands of years later, as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable, at the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings. They had a positive impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholms location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, and in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne, the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade.
The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification, the second part of the name means islet, and is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. Stockholms core, the present Old Town was built on the island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid 13th century onward. The city originally rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League, Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials, the most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has traditionally been a more general one. Zoos, which wild animals in simulated natural habitats, were formerly called zoological gardens. Western gardens are almost universally based on plants, with garden often signifying a shortened form of botanical garden, some traditional types of eastern gardens, such as Zen gardens, use plants sparsely or not at all. Xeriscape gardens use local plants that do not require irrigation or extensive use of other resources while still providing the benefits of a garden environment. Gardens may exhibit structural enhancements, sometimes called follies, including features such as fountains, waterfalls or creeks, dry creek beds, arbors, trellises. Some gardens are for ornamental purposes only, while some produce food crops, sometimes in separate areas.
Food-producing gardens are distinguished from farms by their scale, more labor-intensive methods. Flower gardens combine plants of different heights, textures, Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining the garden. This work is done by an amateur or professional gardener, a gardener might work in a non-garden setting, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscape architecture is a professional activity with landscape architects tending to specialise in design for public. See Grad for more complete etymology, the words yard and Latin hortus, are cognates—all referring to an enclosed space. The term garden in British English refers to an enclosed area of land. This would be referred to as a yard in American English, garden design is the creation of plans for the layout and planting of gardens and landscapes. Gardens may be designed by garden owners themselves, or by professionals, professional garden designers tend to be trained in principles of design and horticulture, and have a knowledge and experience of using plants.
Some professional garden designers are landscape architects, a formal level of training that usually requires an advanced degree. Garden design can be divided into two groups and naturalistic gardens. All of these considerations are subject to the limitations of the budget, most gardens consist of a mix of natural and constructed elements, although even very natural gardens are always an inherently artificial creation
A cottage is, typically, a small house. It may carry the connotation of being an old or old-fashioned building, in modern usage, a cottage is usually a modest, often cosy dwelling, typically in a rural or semi-rural location. The word comes from the architecture of England, where it referred to a house with ground floor living space. In British English the term now denotes a small dwelling of traditional build, Cottages may be detached houses, or terraced, such as those built to house workers in mining villages. The tied accommodation provided to workers was usually a cottage. Peasant farmers were known as cotters. The holiday cottage exists in many cultures under different names, in American English, cottage is one term for such holiday homes, although they may be called a cabin, chalet, or even camp. In certain countries the term cottage has local synonyms, In Finnish mökki, in Estonian suvila, in Swedish stage, in Norwegian hytte, in Slovak chalupa, in Russian дача. There are cottage-style dwellings in American cities that were primarily for the purpose of housing slaves In places such as Canada.
Originally in the Middle Ages, cottages housed agricultural workers and their friends, the term cottage denoted the dwelling of a cotter. Thus, cottages were smaller peasant units, in that early period, a documentary reference to a cottage would most often mean, not a small stand-alone dwelling as today, but a complete farmhouse and yard. Thus, in the Middle Ages, the word cottage denoted not just a dwelling, but included at least a dwelling and a barn, as well as, usually, a fenced yard or piece of land enclosed by a gate. The word is probably a blend of Old English cot, cote hut and Old French cot hut, from Old Norse kot hut, examples of this may be found in 15th century manor court rolls. The house of the cottage bore the Latin name, domus, on, cottage might have denoted a smallholding comprising houses and supporting farmland or woods. A cottage, in sense, would typically include just a few acres of tilled land. Examples of this included the Welsh Tŷ unnos or house in a night. Much later, from around the 18th century onwards, the development of industry led to the development of weavers cottages, in England and Wales the legal definition of a cottage is a small house or habitation without land.
However, originally under an Elizabethan statute, the cottage had to be built with at least 4 acres of land, traditionally the owner of the cottage and small holding would be known as a cottager
In architecture a pavilion has several meanings. In architectural terminology it refers to a building that is either positioned separately or as an attachment to a main building. Often its function makes it an object of pleasure, such configurations provide an emphatic visual termination to the composition of a large building, akin to bookends. Pavilions may be small outbuildings, similar to a summer house or a kiosk, small rooms on the roof of a large house. These were particularly popular up to the 18th century and can be equated to the Italian casina and these often resembled small classical temples and follies. Especially if there is space for food preparation, they may be called a banqueting house. A pavilion built to take advantage of a view may be referred to as a gazebo, bandstands in a park are a class of pavilion. A pool house by a swimming pool may have sufficient character, a sports pavilion is usually a building adjacent to a sports ground used for changing clothes and often partaking of refreshments.
Often it has a verandah to provide protection from the sun for spectators, in cricket grounds, as at Lords, a cricket pavilion tends to be used for the building the players emerge from and return to, even when this is actually a large building including a grandstand. Externally, pavilions may be emphasised by any combination of a change in height, colour, internally they may be part of a rectangular block, or only connected to the main block by a thin section of building. The two 18th-century English country houses of Houghton Hall and Holkham Hall, illustrate these different approaches in turn, in the Place des Vosges, twin pavilions mark the centers of the north and south sides of the square. They are named the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon de la Reine though no royal personage ever lived in the square, with their triple archways, they function like gatehouses that give access to the privileged space of the square. French gatehouses had been built in the form of such pavilions in the preceding century, in some areas, a pavilion is a term for a hunting lodge.
The Pavillon de Galon in Luberon, France is a typical 18th century aristocratic hunting pavilion, the pavilion, located on the site of an old Roman villa, includes a garden à la française, which was used by the guests for receptions. Notes Media related to Pavilions at Wikimedia Commons
A tea house is an establishment which primarily serves tea and other light refreshments. Sometimes the meal is called tea. Although its function varies widely depending on the culture, tea houses often serve as centers of social interaction, some cultures have a variety of distinct tea-centered houses of different types, depending on the national tea culture. For example, the British or American tearoom serves afternoon tea with a variety of small cakes, in China and Nepal, a tea house is traditionally a place which offers tea to its consumers. People gather at tea houses to chat and enjoy tea, the Guangdong style tea house is particularly famous outside of China especially in Nepals Himalayas. These tea houses, called chálou serve dim sum, and these plates of food are enjoyed alongside tea. In Japanese tradition a tea house ordinarily refers to a structure designed for holding Japanese tea ceremonies. This structure and specifically the room in it where the tea ceremony takes place is called chashitsu, the architectural space called chashitsu was created for aesthetic and intellectual fulfillment.
In Japan during the Edo period, the tea house could refer to a place of entertainment with geisha or as a place where couples seeking privacy could go. In this case the establishment was referred to as an ochaya, these establishments only served tea incidentally, and were instead dedicated to geisha entertainment or to providing discreet rooms for visitors. Contemporary Japanese go to modern tearooms called kissaten on main streets to drink black or green tea as well as coffee, in Central Asia the term tea house could refer to Shayhana in Kazakh, Chaykhana in Kyrgyz and Choyxona in Uzbek, which literally means a tea room. The largest tea houses are Orient Tea house or Chinese Tea house, on the 15th anniversary of Independence in Tajikistan, the people of Isfara town presented Isfara Tea house to Kulyab city for its 2700th anniversary on September 2006. Tea houses are present in parts of Central Asia, notably in Iran. Such tea houses may be referred to, in Persian, as Chay-Khaneh, or in Turkish, çayhane—literally and these tea houses usually serve several beverages in addition to tea.
In Arab countries such as Egypt, establishments that serve tea, coffee, in Pakistan, the prominet Pak Tea House is an intellectual tea–café located in Lahore known as the hub of Progressive Writers Movement. Tea drinking is a closely associated with the English. A female manager of Londons Aerated Bread Company is credited with creating the bakerys first public tearoom, Tea rooms were part of the growing opportunities for women in the Victorian era. In the UK today, a tea room is a room or restaurant where beverages and light meals are served