Ender's Game (film)
Ender's Game is a 2013 American military science fiction action film based on Orson Scott Card's 1985 novel of the same name. Written and directed by Gavin Hood, the film stars Asa Butterfield as Andrew "Ender" Wiggin, an unusually gifted child, sent to an advanced military academy in outer space to prepare for a future alien invasion; the supporting cast includes Harrison Ford, Hailee Steinfeld, Viola Davis, with Abigail Breslin and Ben Kingsley. The film was released in Germany on October 2013, followed by a release in the UK one day later, it was released in the United States and several other countries on November 1, 2013, was released in other territories by January 2014. Ender's Game grossed $125.5 million on a $110–115 million budget. In the future, humanity is preparing to launch an attack on the homeworld of an alien race, called the Formics, that had attacked Earth and killed millions; the Formic invasion was stopped by Mazer Rackham, who crashed his F-35 Lightning II into a Formic queen ship at the cost of his life.
Over the course of 50 years, gifted children are trained by the International Fleet to become commanders of a new fleet for this counterattack. Cadet Andrew "Ender" Wiggin draws the attention of Colonel Hyrum Graff and Major Gwen Anderson based on his aptitude in simulated space combat, they order the removal of his monitor, signifying the end of the cadet program. Ender is attacked by Stilson, a student he defeated in the combat sim, but Ender fights back and injures him. Ender confesses his grief to his older sister Valentine but is harassed further by their older brother Peter. Graff is still part of the program. Graff brings Ender to Battle School and places Ender with other cadets his age, but treats him as extraordinary, thereby subjecting him to being ostracized by the others. Among other studies, the cadets are placed in squads and perform training games in a zero gravity "Battle Room". Ender adapts to the games, devising new strategies older students have not yet seen. Graff reassigns Ender to Salamander Army, led by Commander Bonzo Madrid.
Bonzo, believing that Ender is inept due to his size and fearing Ender will cause the squad to fail, prevents him from training with the rest of the squad. Another cadet, Petra Arkanian, trains him privately. Bonzo does not take any action against Petra. Ender secretly persuades Bonzo to let him train, arguing this will increase Ender's chance of being accepted into another squad. In the next match, Bonzo orders Ender to do nothing during the match, while the rest of the Salamander Army fights another team. However, seeing the team losing and Petra in trouble, Ender comes to her aid and helps the Salamander Army win. After the match, Bonzo is humiliated by the other students and threatens to kill Ender if he embarrasses him again. Meanwhile, Ender plays a computerized "mind game" set in a fantasy world, which aims to present difficult choices to the player. In one situation, Ender creates an outside the box solution to overcome a unsolvable problem, he encounters a Formic in the game, a simulated image of Valentine entering the ruins of a castle.
Inside, he finds another image of Valentine within Ender's eye, but as he nears, it turns into an image of Peter inside of Ender's eye before the game ends. These are noted as unusual additions to the game, being altered by Ender's interaction with the computer. Graff promotes Ender to leader of his own squad, made from other students who have gained Ender's trust, they are put in difficult battles. In a surprise match against two other teams, including Bonzo's squad the Salamander Army, Ender devises a novel strategy of sacrificing part of his team to achieve a goal, impressing Graff. Bonzo attacks Ender in the bathroom after the match, but Ender fights back, Bonzo falls during the struggle injured. Distraught over this, Ender prepares to quit Battle School, but Graff has Valentine speak to him and convince him to continue. Graff takes Ender to humanity's forward base on a former Formic planet near their homeworld. There, Ender meets Mazer Rackham, who did not die as had been believed, explains how he spotted the shared-mind nature of the Formics to stop the attack 50 years prior.
Ender finds that his former squad members are here to help him train in computerized simulations of large fleet combat. Ender's training is rigorous, Anderson expresses concern they are pushing Ender too fast, but Graff notes they have run out of time to replace Ender. Ender's final test is monitored by several of the fleet commanders; as the simulation starts, Ender finds his fleet over the Formic homeworld and vastly outnumbered. He orders most of his fleet to sacrifice themselves to protect the MD long enough to fire on the homeworld; the resulting chain reaction burns over the surface of the planet. The simulation ends, Ender believes the test is over; the commanders restart the video screens, showing that the destruction of the Formic homeworld was real, Ender had been controlling the real fleet this time. Despite Graff's assurance he will be known as a hero, Ender is horrified and outraged, as he feels responsible for the annihilation of an entire race and believes everyone will remember him as a killer.
As Ender struggles with his emotions during sleep, he recognizes one of the Formic structures nearby, similar to the ruined castle from the game. Believing it is trying to communicate wit
Orson Scott Card
Orson Scott Card is an American novelist, public speaker and columnist. He is known best for science fiction, his novel Ender's Game and its sequel Speaker for the Dead both won Hugo and Nebula Awards, making Card the only author to win both science fiction's top U. S. prizes in consecutive years. A feature film adaptation of Ender's Game, which Card co-produced, was released in 2013. Card is a professor of English at Southern Virginia University, has written two books on creative writing, hosts writing bootcamps and workshops, serves as a judge in the Writers of the Future contest. A great-great-grandson of Brigham Young, Card is a practicing member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In addition to producing a large body of fiction works, he has offered political and social commentary in his columns and other writing. Card is the son of Willard Richards Card and Peggy Jane, the third of six children and the older brother of composer and arranger Arlen Card. Card was born in Richland and grew up in Santa Clara, California as well as Mesa and Orem, Utah.
He served as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints in Brazil and graduated from Brigham Young University and the University of Utah. D. program at the University of Notre Dame. For part of the 1970s Card worked as an associate editor of the Ensign, an official magazine of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Influences on his fiction include Heinlein, Mitchell, Asimov and Bradbury. Card lives in Greensboro, North Carolina, a place that has played a significant role in Ender's Game and many of his other works. Card began his writing career as a poet, studying with Clinton F. Larson at BYU. During his studies as a theater major, he began "doctoring" scripts, adapting fiction for readers theater production, writing his own one-act and full-length plays, several of which were produced by faculty directors at BYU, he explored fiction writing, beginning with stories that evolved into The Worthing Saga. After returning to Provo, Utah from his Church of Jesus Christ mission in Brazil, Card started the Utah Valley Repertory Theatre Company, which for two summers produced plays at "the Castle", a Depression-era outdoor amphitheater behind the state psychiatric hospital in Provo.
Meanwhile, he took part-time employment as a proofreader at BYU Press made the jump to full-time employment as a copy editor. In 1976, in the midst of a paid role performing in the church's musical celebrating America's Bicentennial, he secured employment as an assistant editor at the Ensign, moved to Salt Lake City, it was while working at Ensign. His short story "Gert Fram" appeared in the July 1977 fine arts issue of that magazine under the pseudonym Byron Walley, he wrote the short story "Ender's Game" while working at the BYU press, submitted it to several publications. The idea for the novel of the same title came from the short story about a school where boys can fight in space, it was purchased by Ben Bova at Analog Science Fiction and Fact and published in the August 1977 issue. Meanwhile, he started writing half-hour audioplays on LDS Church history, the New Testament, other subjects for Living Scriptures in Ogden, Utah, he completed his master's degree in English at the University of Utah in 1981 and began a doctoral program at the University of Notre Dame, but the recession of the early 1980s caused the flow of new book contracts to temporarily dry up.
He returned to full-time employment as the book editor for Compute! magazine in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1983. In October of that year, a new contract for the Alvin Maker "trilogy" allowed him to return to freelancing. Ender's Game and its sequel Speaker for the Dead were both awarded the Hugo Award and the Nebula Award, making Card the only author to win both of science fiction's top prizes in consecutive years. Card continued the series with Xenocide, Children of the Mind, Ender's Shadow, Shadow of the Hegemon, Shadow Puppets, "First Meetings in the Enderverse", Shadow of the Giant, A War of Gifts, Ender in Exile, a book that takes place after Ender's Game and before Speaker for the Dead. Card has announced his plan to write Shadows Alive, a book that connects the "Shadow" series and "Speaker" series together. Shadows in Flight serves as a bridge towards this final book, he co-wrote the formic war novels: Earth Unaware, Earth Afire, Earth Awakens and The Swarm as prequels to the Ender novels, with two more novels in the pipeline, which will result in two prequel formic war trilogies.
These trilogies relay, among the history of Mazer Rackham. Children of the Fleet is the first novel in a new sequel series, called Fleet School. In 2008 Card announced that Ender's Game would be made into a movie, but that he did not have a director lined up, it was to be produced by Chartoff Productions, Card was writing the screenplay himself. The film was made several years and released in 2013, with Asa Butterfield in the title role and Gavin Hood directing. Other works include the alternative histories The Tales of Alvin Maker, Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus, The Homecoming Saga, Hidd
Stephenie Meyer is an American novelist and film producer, best known for her vampire romance series Twilight. The Twilight novels have gained worldwide recognition and sold over 100 million copies, with translations into 37 different languages. Meyer was the bestselling author of 2008 and 2009 in America, having sold over 29 million books in 2008, 26.5 million books in 2009. Twilight was the best-selling book of 2008 in US bookstores. Meyer was ranked No. 49 on Time magazine's list of the "100 Most Influential People in 2008", was included in the Forbes Celebrity 100 list of the world's most powerful celebrities in 2009, entering at No. 26. Her annual earnings exceeded $50 million. In 2010, Forbes ranked her as the No. 59 most powerful celebrity with annual earnings of $40 million. Stephenie Meyer was born in Hartford, Connecticut as the second of six children to Stephen and Candy Morgan, she was raised in Phoenix, with five siblings: Seth, Jacob and Heidi. Meyer attended Chaparral High School in Scottsdale, where her former English teacher remembered her as "bright but not overly so."
She attended Brigham Young University in Provo, where she received a BA in English in 1997. Meyer met her husband, when she was four years old in Arizona, married him in 1994 when they were both 20. Together they have three sons. Christian Meyer an auditor, has now retired to take care of the children. Meyer is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Meyer had no experience as a writer of any kind and had never written a short story before Twilight, she had considered going to law school. Before becoming an author, Meyer's only professional work was as a receptionist in a property company. Meyer says that the idea for Twilight came to her in a dream on June 2, 2003; the dream was about a human girl and a vampire, in love with her but thirsted for her blood. Based on this dream, Meyer wrote the draft of. In a matter of three months she had transformed her dream into a complete novel, though she never intended to publish Twilight and was writing for her own enjoyment, her sister's response to the book was enthusiastic and she persuaded Meyer to send the manuscript to literary agencies.
Of the 15 letters she wrote, five went unanswered, nine brought rejections, the last was a positive response from Jodi Reamer of Writers House. Eight publishers competed for the rights to publish Twilight in a 2003 auction. By November, Meyer had signed a $750,000 three-book deal with Little and Company. Twilight was published in 2005 with a print run of 75,000 copies, it reached No. 5 on The New York Times Best Seller list for Children's Chapter Books within a month of its release, rose to #1. Foreign rights to the novel were sold to over 26 countries; the novel was named the Publishers Weekly Best Book of a Times Editor's Choice. Following the success of Twilight, Meyer expanded the story into a series with three more books: New Moon and Breaking Dawn. In its first week after publication, New Moon reached No. 5 on The New York Times Best Seller list for Children's Chapter Books, in its second week rose to the No. 1 position, where it remained for the next 11 weeks. In total, it spent over 50 weeks on the list.
After the release of Eclipse, the first three "Twilight" books spent a combined 143 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list. The fourth installment of the Twilight series, Breaking Dawn, was released with an initial print run of 3.7 million copies. Over 1.3 million copies were sold on the first day. The novel won Meyer her first British Book Award, despite competition from J. K. Rowling's The Tales of Beedle the Bard; the series has sold over 100 million copies worldwide in 37 languages. In 2008, the four books of the series claimed the top four spots on USA Today's year-end bestseller list, making Meyer the first author to achieve this feat, as well as being the bestselling author of the year; the Twilight novels held the top four spots on USA Today's year-end list again in 2009. In August 2009, USA Today revealed; the books have spent more than 143 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list. Upon the completion of the fourth entry in the series, Meyer indicated that Breaking Dawn would be the final novel to be told from Bella Swan's perspective.
Midnight Sun was to be a companion novel to the series. It would be a retelling of the events of the novel Twilight, but from the perspective of Edward Cullen. Meyer had hoped to have Midnight Sun published some time shortly after the release of Breaking Dawn, but after an online leak of a rough draft of its first 12 chapters, Meyer chose to delay the project indefinitely. Meyer has decided to pursue non-Twilight related books as a result of the leak, she made the rough chapters of Midnight Sun available on her website. In 2015, she published a new book in honor of the 10th anniversary of the best-selling franchise, titled Life and Death: Twilight Reimagined, with the genders of the original protagonists switched. Meyer cites many novels as inspiration for the Twilight series, including Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë and L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables and its sequels; each book in the series was inspired by a different literary classic: Twilight by Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice.
Andrew G. Vajna
Andrew G. Vajna was a Hungarian-American film producer. Andrew G. Vajna was born in Budapest to György Vajna, a merchant of Jewish descent, his wife, Klára. In 1956 at the age of 12, he fled from Hungary and with the support of Red Cross he made his way alone to Canada, he arrived speaking no English. On he reunited with his parents in Los Angeles, USA who fled Hungary separately, he studied cinematography at University of California, Los Angeles and joined the University's Educational Motion Picture Department where he worked on different projects. Preferring being independent Vajna left UCLA to set up his own photo studio, but that venture soon came to end when he broke his leg in a ski accident and business could not operate for 9 months. After his recovery he became a hairdresser and teamed up with a boyhood friend, Gábor Koltai, a wig stylist in Hollywood, to produce high quality wigs. Vajna moved to Hong Kong where he established his own wig manufacturing company, called Gilda Fashion. Vajna sold the firm in 1973.
By that time the company employed more than 3,000 people. Vajna launched his career in the entertainment industry with his purchase of motion picture theatres in the Far East, he founded Panasia Films Limited in Hong Kong, a profitable venture in the distribution and representation of films. After Vajna negotiated the sales of Panasia to Raymond Chow's Golden Harvest Company in 1976, met Mario Kassar at the 1975 Cannes Film Festival, he and the film producer and industry executive formed Carolco, specializing in sales and distribution of films worldwide. Vajna and Kassar had rented a small office in Melrose Avenue where their desks faced each other in the office and Vajna's wife and Kassar's girlfriend were their secretaries. In less than four years, Carolco became one of the top three foreign sales organizations in motion pictures industry. In 1982, Vajna was a founder and president of the American Film Marketing Association. During that same year and Kassar made their film production debut with Rambo: First Blood, starring Sylvester Stallone.
First Blood was a success. Rambo: First Blood Part II was released in 1985, generating more than $300 million worldwide. Vajna was executive producer with Mario Kassar on such films such as Alan Parker's Angel Heart, Rambo III. Other projects include Music Box, Mountains of the Moon, Total Recall, Air America, Narrow Margin and Jacob's Ladder. In December 1989, Vajna sold all his interest in Carolco for $106 million and formed Cinergi Productions, Inc. to engage in the financing, development and distribution of major event motion pictures. As part of its business plan, Cinergi has formed an alliance with The Walt Disney Company for distribution of Cinergi motion pictures in the United States and Latin America. Vajna's strategy was to develop long-term relationships with certain talent and produce a steady supply of two to four event motion pictures per year. John McTiernan directed Medicine Man. Christmas 1993 saw the release of the Wyatt Earp/Doc Holliday legend. In 1994, Cinergi released Renaissance Color of Night.
The summer of 1995 saw the release of two Cinergi productions. The first was Die Hard with a Vengeance. To date, the film has grossed over $365 million worldwide; the second release was Judge Dredd. In 1995, Cinergi released two more films: The Scarlet Letter and Nixon. Nixon received four Academy Award nominations. Another Cinergi release was Evita starring Madonna; the film was a commercial success. It has won the Golden Globe for Best Picture of 1996 as well as the best actress and best original song awards. Vajna never always tried to help the Hungarian film industry, he had a major role in many films being shot in Budapest, such as Evita, Escape to Victory and Red Heat. He participated in the distribution of Motion Pictures in Hungary having a 70% share of the Hungarian box office. In 1989 Vajna founded InterCom that has become a market-leader and a distributor of many Hollywood studios, including 20th Century Fox, Warner Bros. Sony Pictures, Disney and MGM, he was a producer of the record-breaking Hungarian comedy Out of Order aired in 1997.
With 750,000 viewers in cinemas and several million on television it broke Hungarian box office records. In 1998, Vajna took Cinergi private by buying out the public stockholders. Thereafter, he joined together with Mario Kassar, their first return venture into big budget Hollywood I Spy starring Eddie Murphy and Owen Wilson was shot in Budapest. In 2002 he founded DIGIC Pictures in Hungary, an animation studio specializing in full 3D animation and visual effects. In 2003, he and Kassar produced Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines with Arnold Schwarzenegger. In 2005 Vajna was, together with Quentin Tarantino and Lucy Liu, the executive producer of a feature-length documentary called Freedom's Fury, created by Colin Keith Gray and Megan Raney Aarons, which showed his renewed interest in the story of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution; the film called The Children of Glory, which showed the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, was Hungary's most successful movie in 2006 having been viewed by more than half a million people.
From 2011 Vajna worked as the Government Commissioner in charge of the Hungarian film industry. In the same year Vajna conceived Hungarian National Film Fund with the mission to contribute to the production of Hungarian films or co-productions that provide art and entertainment for moviegoers and bring significant success both domestically and on an international level. Under Vajn
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a