Sumo is a form of competitive full-contact wrestling where a rikishi attempts to force his opponent out of a circular ring or into touching the ground with any body part other than the soles of his feet. The sport originated in the only country where it is practiced professionally, it is considered a gendai budō, which refers to modern Japanese martial art, but the sport has a history spanning many centuries. Many ancient traditions have been preserved in sumo, today the sport includes many ritual elements, such as the use of salt purification, from Shinto. Life as a wrestler is regimented, with rules regulated by the Japan Sumo Association. Most sumo wrestlers are required to live in communal sumo training stables, known in Japanese as heya, where all aspects of their daily lives—from meals to their manner of dress—are dictated by strict tradition. From 2008 to 2017, a number of high-profile controversies and scandals rocked the sumo world, with an associated effect on its reputation and ticket sales.
These have affected the sport's ability to attract recruits. Despite this setback, sumo's popularity and general attendance has rebounded due to having multiple yokozuna for the first time in a number of years and other high-profile wrestlers such as Endō and Ichinojō grabbing the public's attention. Prehistoric wall paintings indicate that sumo originated from an agricultural ritual dance performed in prayer for a good harvest; the first mention of sumo can be found in a Kojiki manuscript dating back to 712, which describes how possession of the Japanese islands was decided in a wrestling match between the kami Takemikazuchi and Takeminakata. The Nihon Shoki, published in 720, dates the first sumo match between mortals to the year 23 BC, when a man named Nomi no Sukune fought against Taima no Kuehaya at the request of Emperor Suinin and killed him, making him the mythological ancestor of sumo; until the Japanese Middle Ages, this unregulated form of wrestling was fought to the death of one of the fighters.
The first historically-attested sumo fights were held in 642 at the court of Empress Kōgyoku to entertain a Korean legation. In the centuries that followed, the popularity of sumo within the court increased its ceremonial and religious significance. Regular events at the Emperor's court, the sumai no sechie, the establishment of the first set of rules for sumo fall into the cultural heyday of the Heian period. With the collapse of the Emperor's central authority, sumo lost its importance in the court. By the Muromachi period, sumo had left the seclusion of the court and became a popular event for the masses, among the daimyō it became common to sponsor wrestlers. Sumotori who fought for a daimyō's favor were given generous support and samurai status. Oda Nobunaga, a avid fan of the sport, held a tournament of 1,500 wrestlers in February 1578; because several bouts were to be held within Nobunaga's castle, circular arenas were delimited to hasten the proceedings and to maintain the safety of the spectators.
This event marks the invention of the dohyō, which would be developed into its current form up until the 18th century. Because sumo had become a nuisance due to wild fighting on the streets in Edo, sumo was temporarily banned in the city during the Edo period. In 1684, sumo was permitted to be held for charity events on the property of Shinto shrines, as was common in Kyoto and Osaka; the first sanctioned tournament took place in the Tomioka Hachiman Shrine at this time. An official sumo organization was developed, consisting of professional wrestlers at the disposal of the Edo administration. Many elements date from this period, such as the dohyō-iri, the heya system, the gyōji and the mawashi; the 18th century brought forth several notable wrestlers such as Raiden Tameemon, Onogawa Kisaburō and Tanikaze Kajinosuke, the first historical yokozuna. The Meiji Restoration of 1868 brought about the end of the feudal system, with it the wealthy daimyō as sponsors. Due to a new fixation on Western culture, sumo had come to be seen as an embarrassing and backward relic, internal disputes split the central association.
The popularity of sumo was restored when Emperor Meiji organized a tournament in 1884. The Japan Sumo Association reunited in 1926 and increased the number of annual tournaments from two to four, to six in 1958; the length of tournaments was extended from ten to fifteen days in 1949. The winner of a sumo bout is either the first wrestler to force his opponent to step out of the ring, or the first wrestler to force his opponent to touch the ground with any part of his body other than the bottom of his feet. A number of other less common rules can be used to determine the winner. For example, a wrestler using an illegal technique automatically loses, as does one whose mawashi comes undone. A wrestler failing to show up for his bout automatically loses; the initial crouch and charge are crucial. Upon positioning themselves opposite each other, the wrestlers perform a deep squat; this position is important because it allows them to adopt a more efficient posture to charge from and isometrically
Butajira is a town and separate woreda in south-central Ethiopia. Located at the base of the Zebidar massif in the Gurage Zone of the Southern Nations and Peoples' Region, this town has an elevation of 2131 meters above sea level, it is surrounded by Meskane woreda. It was part of former Meskanena Mareko woreda. According to the Gurage Zone government, Butajira is one of 12 towns with electrical power, one of 11 with telephone service and one of nine that have postal service. Drinkable water is provided by 4 boreholes; the town has a weekly market on Fridays. Notable landmarks in the town include a fountain on the south side of the town, fed from a sacred spring dedicated to saint Tekle Haymanot; the zone authorities mention another local landmark is the local mosque, completed in AD 1979, has two large praying halls, each with room for 2500 individuals: the hall on the ground floor is for women while the hall on the second floor is for men. Butajira was founded between 1926 when a missionary Pere Azaiz found nothing there, 1935 when a German ethnographic expedition found a town laid out in straight lines and square shapes to serve as the administrative center of the Gurage people.
After Ras Desta Damtew was taken prisoner on 24 February 1937 in the small village of Eya he was brought to Butajira where, after a perfunctory trial, he was executed that evening. British patrols, acting as part of the East African Campaign, found that arbegnoch groups had dispersed the local Italian positions, leading to both the British and Ethiopian flags being raised over the town on 21 April 1941. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the CSA, this town has a total population of 33,406, of whom 16,923 are men and 16,483 women; the majority of the inhabitants were reported as Muslim, with 51.27% of the population reporting that belief, while 39.58% practice Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, 8.72% were Protestants. The 1994 national census reported this town had a total population of 20,509 of whom 9,827 were men and 10,682 were women. Butajira is grown and shown a progressive change in socio- economic variable
Team Tiger is an Atlanta-based certified 5013 organization whose mission is to help kids and families fight childhood obesity. The organization provides the resources, opportunity and support. Team Tiger is led by young founder Tiger Greene. Tiger had trouble with simple everyday tasks. By making lifestyle changes and learning about healthy food and exercise, Tiger lost over 60 pounds. Tiger has become a national spokesperson for this curable epidemic, he has been featured on national television programs, including: Dr. Oz, CNN’s Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Anderson Cooper 360, NBC and ABC affiliates and was a featured speaker at the Georgia Children’s Health Alliance ‘Refocus’ Launch. Following his love of football, Tiger partnered including player Marcus Stroud. Together they started a series of fitness camps to inspire thousands of young people to lose weight and get more active; these Sacking Obesity Health & Wellness Camps are run by Team Tiger and the Marcus Stroud Charitable Foundation. Tiger Greene's Sacking Obesity: The Team Tiger Game Plan for Kids Who Want to Lose Weight, Feel Great, Win on and off the Playing Field is a book published by HarperCollins Publishers that puts the camp experience into a book.
It includes menu plans, exercise routines, inspirational stories about kids who have decided to make good choices in their lives. On Wednesday, September 19, 2012, Governor Nathan Deal of Georgia declared "Team Tiger Day" in the State of Georgia