Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests
The Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests is an ecoregion in the Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests Biome, in the Eastern United States. The ecoregion is located in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains, including the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians and the Blue Ridge Mountains, it covers an area of about 61,500 square miles in: northeast Alabama and Georgia, northwest South Carolina, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina, Virginia and central West Virginia and Pennsylvania. They are one of the world's richest temperate deciduous forests in terms of biodiversity; the reasons for this are the long-term geologic stability of the region, its long ridges and valleys which serve both as barrier and corridors, their general north-south alignment which allowed habitats to shift southward during ice ages. The mountains contain a large variety of diverse landscapes and soils all constituting microhabitats allowing many refugia areas and relict species to survive and thrive; the climate varies from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.
Summers are warm at higher elevations. Winters are cold at higher elevations and cool at lower elevations. In terms of biodiversity, the only comparable temperate deciduous forest regions in the world are in central China, Japan and in the Caucasus Mountains. Both the Appalachians and central China contain relict habitats of an ancient forest, once widespread over the Northern Hemisphere. There are species and families of plants that occur only in these two locations; the Great Smoky Mountains are rich in biodiversity. The Appalachians are home to 158 different species of tree, more than anywhere else in North America. There are two main types of forest; until 1890 the oaks were mixed with American chestnut but these were wiped out by the chestnut blight fungus in the early 1900s. Cove forests occur in coves and on low north- and east-facing slopes in the southern Blue Ridge and central Appalachian Mountains, they are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems in the country. Typical trees of these forests are sugar maple, American beech, eastern hemlock, Carolina silverbell, tulip poplar, red maple, white oak, northern red oak, yellow birch, yellow buckeye, basswood.
Oaks gain numbers on drier sites. Southern Appalachian low-elevation pine forests occur on a variety of topographic and landscape positions, including ridgetops, upper- and mid-slopes, in lower elevations such as mountain valleys; these forests dominated by Virginia pine. Pitch pine may sometimes be present. Hardwoods are sometimes abundant dry-site oaks such as southern red oak, chestnut oak, scarlet oak, but pignut hickory, red maple, others; the shrub layer may be well-developed, with hillside blueberry, black huckleberry, or other acid-tolerant species most characteristic. Herbs are sparse but may include narrowleaf silkgrass and goat-rue. Southern Appalachian oak forests, widespread in the southeastern United States, occur on dry, upland sites on southern and western aspects and ridgetops; the composition of these forests varies throughout their range but includes chestnut oak, northern red oak, eastern black oak, white oak, scarlet oak. Hickories such as bitternut and mockernut, are found here, as are black tupelo, red maple, white pine, white ash.
The Southern Ridge and Valley/Cumberland dry calcareous forests occur on dry to dry-mesic calcareous habitats in the southern Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians. They are found on deep soils in a variety landscapes within their range. Trees are oaks and hickories, with other species less abundant. Oaks include white oak, northern red oak, post oak, chinkapin oak, Shumard oak. Hickories include shagbark hickory. Other trees can be eastern red-cedar, or pines; the Allegheny-Cumberland dry oak forest and woodland forest system is found on ridges in the southern Ridge and Valley. The forests are dominated by white oak, southern red oak, chestnut oak, scarlet oak, with lesser amounts of red maple, pignut hickory, mockernut hickory. A few shortleaf pines or Virginia pines may occur adjacent to escarpments or following fire. Sprouts of chestnut can be found where it was a common tree. Central Appalachian dry oak-pine forests occur on dry sites with loamy to sandy soils. A mix of oak and pine tree species dominate the c
Saluda County, South Carolina
Saluda County is a county in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,875, its county seat is Saluda. The county was formed from eastern portions of Edgefield County. Saluda County is part of the Augusta-Richmond County Metropolitan Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 462 square miles, of which 453 square miles is land and 9.0 square miles is water. Saluda County is in the Saluda River basin with a small portion of western Saluda in the Savannah River basin. Newberry County - north Lexington County - east Aiken County - south Edgefield County - southwest Greenwood County - northwest McCormick County - west Sumter National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 19,181 people, 7,127 households, 5,295 families residing in the county; the population density was 42 people per square mile. There were 8,543 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 65.80% White, 29.99% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.29% from other races, 0.64% from two or more races.
7.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,127 households out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.20% were married couples living together, 14.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.70% were non-families. 22.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 14.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,774, the median income for a family was $41,603. Males had a median income of $29,221 versus $21,395 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,328.
About 12.00% of families and 15.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.40% of those under age 18 and 16.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,875 people, 7,527 households, 5,393 families residing in the county; the population density was 43.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 9,289 housing units at an average density of 20.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.1% white, 26.3% black or African American, 0.4% American Indian, 0.3% Pacific islander, 0.2% Asian, 10.3% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 14.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 17.8% were American, 14.7% were German, 8.6% were English, 8.2% were Irish. Of the 7,527 households, 32.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families, 24.2% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.05. The median age was 39.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $40,508 and the median income for a family was $45,173. Males had a median income of $31,264 versus $28,344 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,717. About 11.7% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.4% of those under age 18 and 15.0% of those age 65 or over. Batesburg-Leesville Monetta Ridge Spring Saluda Ward Mount Willing National Register of Historic Places listings in Saluda County, South Carolina Saluda County Official Website Saluda County Chamber of Commerce Saluda County Historical Society Geographic data related to Saluda County, South Carolina at OpenStreetMap
Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge
The Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge is a 66,287 acre National Wildlife Refuge in southeastern South Carolina near Awendaw, South Carolina. The refuge lands and waters encompass water impoundments and bays, emergent salt marsh and barrier islands. 29,000 acres are designated as Class I Wilderness. Most of the refuge is only accessible by boat. Mainland facilities include the refuge's headquarters and visitor center which are located on U. S. Highway 17 about 30 minutes by car from South Carolina. In the 1800s the red wolf was abundant in the Southeastern United States including South Carolina. However, by the mid-1960s, efforts of trappers and farmers— combined with the destruction of natural habitat— nearly wiped out the population. Only a few wolves remained in Louisiana. To protect the red wolf, they were taken into captivity, by 1980, were extinct in the wild. Within the decade, captors of the red wolf were looking to reestablish the red wolf's territory. In 1987, red wolves were released in Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge in eastern North Carolina, Bull Island in South Carolina, Horn Island in Mississippi, St. Vincent Island in Florida.
Established in 1932 as a haven for migratory birds, Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge is additionally managed for the protection of threatened and endangered species such as the loggerhead sea turtle, wood stork, piping plover. Every year loggerhead; the refuge supports 23% of the northern subpopulation of loggerhead sea turtles, the largest north of Florida. For the past 30 years refuge employees have helped loggerhead turtles survive by identifying nests that are in areas subject to overwash and inundation, moving them to a safer area on the island. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge is the site of two surviving historic lighthouses which still remain on the refuge, both on Lighthouse Island; the Cape Romain Lighthouses are on the National Register of Historic Places. Bulls Island is at 4,900 acres the largest of the barrier islands. A regular ferry service to Bulls Island is provided by a private charter service at Garris Landing; the Island was the site of a third lighthouse, Bulls Bay Light, deactivated in 1913 and lost to the sea years ago.
The island has Boneyard Beach, a beach where a forest has been encroached on by the sea. The Sewee Center features displays about the various ecosystems and heritage of the South Carolina Lowcountry. Exhibits include the marine ecosystems of the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge and the forest Center. Other facilities include a classroom/lab, an auditorium with an orientation film, information station, a book store, picnic area and trails; the Center is jointly operated by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U. S. Forest Service, offers nature education programs and activities; the South Eastern Wildlife and Environment Education Association is the Friends Group for the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge and for the Francis Marion National Forest. The SEWEE Association supports the education and conservation activities for the refuge and the forest. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge Official Site Sewee Visitor & Environmental Education Center Cape Romain Facebook Page
Congaree National Park
Congaree National Park is a 26,276-acre American national park in central South Carolina. The park received its official designation in 2003 as the culmination of a grassroots campaign that began in 1969; the park preserves the largest tract of old growth bottomland hardwood forest left in the United States. The lush trees growing in its floodplain forest are some of the tallest in the eastern United States, forming one of the highest temperate deciduous forest canopies remaining in the world; the Congaree River flows through the park. About 15,000 acres are designated as a wilderness area. Resource extraction on the Congaree River centered on cypress logging from 1898, when the Santee River Cypress Logging Company began to operate in the area of what is now the park. Owned by Francis Beidler and Benjamin F. Ferguson of Chicago, the company operated until 1914. In the 1950s Harry R. E. Hampton was a member of the Cedar Creek Hunt Club and co-editor of The State. Hampton joined with Peter Manigault at the Charleston The Post and Courier to advocate preservation of the Congaree floodplain.
Hampton formed the Beidler Forest Preservation Association in 1961. As a result of this advocacy a 1963 study by the National Park Service reported favorably on the establishment of a national monument. No progress was made in the 1960s. Renewed logging by the Beidlers in 1969 prompted the 1972 formation of the Congaree Swamp National Preserve Association; the CSNPA joined forces with the Sierra Club and other conservation organizations to promote federal legislation to preserve the tract. South Carolina Senators Strom Thurmond and Ernest F. Hollings introduced legislation in 1975 for the establishment of a national preserve. On October 18, 1976 legislation was passed to create Congaree Swamp National Monument. An expansion plan was introduced by Hollings and Thurmond in 1988, expanding the monument to 22,200 acres. Over two-thirds of the national monument was designated a wilderness area on October 24, 1988, it became an Important Bird Area on July 26, 2001. Congress redesignated the monument Congaree National Park on November 10, 2003, dropping the misleading "swamp" from the name, expanded its authorized boundary by 4,576 acres.
As of December 31, 2011 26,021 acres of the park are in federal ownership. The park preserves a significant part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Although it is referred to as a swamp, it is bottomland subject to periodic inundation by floodwaters, it has been designated an old growth forest. The park has one of the largest concentrations of champion trees in the world, with the tallest known examples of 15 species. Champion trees include a 167-foot 361-point loblolly pine, a 157-foot 384-point sweetgum, a 154-foot 465-point cherrybark oak, a 135-foot 354-point American elm, a 133-foot 356-point swamp chestnut oak, a 131-foot 371-point overcup oak, a 127-foot 219-point common persimmon. Large animals seen in the park include bobcats, feral pigs, feral dogs, armadillos and otters, its waters contain interesting creatures like amphibians, turtles and many types of fish, including bowfin, alligator gar, catfish. In addition to being a designated wilderness area, a UNESCO biosphere reserve, an important bird area and a national natural landmark, Congaree National Park features primitive campsites and offers hiking, canoeing and bird watching.
Primitive and backcountry camping are available. Some of the hiking trails include the Bluff Trail, Weston Lake Loop Trail, Oakridge Trail, King Snake Trail where hikers may spot deer, raccoon and bobcat tracks; the National Park Service rangers have current trail conditions which can be found in the Harry Hampton Visitor Center. Along with hiking trails, the park has a 20-mile marked canoe trail on Cedar Creek. Most visitors to the park walk along the Boardwalk Loop, an elevated 2.4-mile walkway through the swampy environment that protects delicate fungi and plant life at ground level. Congaree boasts both the tallest and largest loblolly pines alive today as well as several cypress trees well over 500 years old; the Harry Hampton Visitor Center features exhibits about the natural history of the park, the efforts to protect the swamp. Monthly volunteer-led hikes are offered on some of the longer trails to give visitors an opportunity to get off the boardwalk and up close to nature; the park resides within the Congaree River Floodplain Complex with flood deposits of sand and clay.
Muck and peat are the products of vegetation decay. The meander of the river has produced distinctive oxbow lakes. North of the park is the NE-SW regional trending Augusta Fault and the Terrace Complex consisting of Pliocene fluvial terraces. South of the park is the Southern Bluffs. West of the park is Piedmont. In 2008, South Carolina Educational Television produced a documentary on the history of the Congaree National Park titled Roots in the River: The Story of Congaree National Park; the documentary featured interviews with people involved in the movement that led to the area's U. S. National Monument status, observed the role the park plays in the surrounding community of the Lower Richland County area of South Carolina; the program first aired on the SCETV network in September 2009. List of national parks of the United States Notes So
South Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States and the easternmost of the Deep South. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25, 1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U. S. state. Its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3.13%. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties; the capital is Columbia with a 2017 population of 133,114. The Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2017 population estimate of 895,923. South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles".
South Carolina is known for its 187 miles of coastline, beautiful lush gardens, historic sites and Southern plantations, colonial and European cultures, its growing economic development. The state can be divided into three geographic areas. From east to west: the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains. Locally, the coastal plain is referred to the other two regions as Upstate; the Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is a chain of tidal and barrier islands; the border between the low country and the up country is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers. The state's coastline contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of Carolina bays, the origins of which are uncertain; the bays tend to be oval. The terrain is flat and the soil is composed of recent sediments such as sand and clay.
Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion. Just west of the coastal plain is the Sandhills region; the Sandhills are remnants of coastal dunes from a time when the land was sunken or the oceans were higher. The Upstate region contains the roots of an eroded mountain chain, it is hilly, with thin, stony clay soils, contains few areas suitable for farming. Much of the Piedmont was once farmed. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in Loblolly pine for the lumber industry; these forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of the Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain; the fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to harness this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia; the larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line. The northwestern part of the Piedmont is known as the Foothills.
The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is. Highest in elevation is the Blue Ridge Region, containing an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains, which continue into North Carolina and Georgia, as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet, is in this area. In this area is Caesars Head State Park; the environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination. South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles. All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made; the following are the lakes listed by size. Lake Marion 110,000 acres Lake Strom Thurmond 71,100 acres Lake Moultrie 60,000 acres Lake Hartwell 56,000 acres Lake Murray 50,000 acres Russell Lake 26,650 acres Lake Keowee 18,372 acres Lake Wylie 13,400 acres Lake Wateree 13,250 acres Lake Greenwood 11,400 acres Lake Jocassee 7,500 acres Lake Bowen Earthquakes in South Carolina demonstrate the greatest frequency along the central coastline of the state, in the Charleston area.
South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3. The Charleston Earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake to hit the Southeastern United States; this 7.2 magnitude earthquake destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries. South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate, although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F on the coast and from 66–73 °F inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina. Coastal areas of the state have mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F and overnight lows around 40 °F. Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F i
Laurens County, South Carolina
Laurens County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, its population was 66,537, its county seat is Laurens. Laurens County is included in SC Metropolitan Statistical Area. Laurens County was formed in 1785, it was named after the fifth president of the Continental Congress. One of nine modern counties of the Colonial Ninety-Six District, Laurens County hosted more "official" battles than did half of the original colonies; the Battle of Musgrove Mill was the first time during the American Revolution that regular soldiers of Great Britain were defeated in battle by militia. Those battles in modern Laurens County were: Fort Lindley/Lindler Widow Kellet's Block House Musgrove's Mill Farrow's Station Duncan Creek Meeting House Indian Creek Hammond's Store Fort Williams Cedar Springs Mud Lick Creek Hayes' Station. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 724 square miles, of which 714 square miles is land and 10 square miles is water.
Spartanburg County - north Union County - northeast Newberry County - southeast Greenwood County - south Abbeville County - southwest Anderson County - west Greenville County - northwest Interstate 26 Interstate 385 U. S. Route 25 U. S. Route 76 U. S. Route 221 South Carolina Highway 72 South Carolina Highway 418 Sumter National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 69,567 people, 26,290 households, 18,876 families residing in the county; the population density was 97 people per square mile. There were 30,239 housing units at an average density of 42 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.57% White, 26.23% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. 1.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 26,290 households out of which 32.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.10% were married couples living together, 15.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.20% were non-families.
24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 23.80% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,933, the median income for a family was $39,739. Males had a median income of $30,402 versus $21,684 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,761. About 11.60% of families and 14.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.60% of those under age 18 and 13.50% of those age 65 or over. As of December 2017, the county unemployment rate was 4.4%. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 66,537 people, 25,525 households, 17,707 families residing in the county.
The population density was 93.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,709 housing units at an average density of 43.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 70.4% white, 25.4% black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.3% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.8% were American, 9.8% were Irish, 9.6% were German, 8.8% were English. Of the 25,525 households, 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 17.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families, 26.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.00. The median age was 39.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,529 and the median income for a family was $45,769. Males had a median income of $36,807 versus $26,799 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $18,757. About 14.1% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.0% of those under age 18 and 14.6% of those age 65 or over. There are three public school districts in the county. Laurens County District 55 covers what is the northeastern half of the county while District 56 covers the southwestern half; the Ware Shoals area is covered by the multi-county Greenwood County District 51. There are two public high schools in the county: Laurens and Clinton Public K-12 education includes Hickory Tavern Elementary, Ford Elementary, Gray Court-Owings, E. B. Morse, Hickory Tavern Middle, Laurens Middle, Sanders Middle. Private K-12 education includes Laurens Academy. Presbyterian College, located in Clinton, is a four-year liberal-arts school founded in 1880. Clinton Fountain Inn Laurens Cross Hill Gray Court Ware Shoals Waterloo Joanna Mountville Princeton Watts Mills Barksdale Hickory Tavern Kinards Madden Owings James Adair, resided in Laurens County in
Union County, South Carolina
Union County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,961, its county seat is Union. The county was created in 1785. Union County is included in the Spartanburg, SC Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Greenville–Spartanburg–Anderson, SC Combined Statistical Area; the area that includes Union County was once controlled by the Cherokee Indians and they used it as a hunting ground. Up until recent years, one could find numerous arrowheads with little effort throughout the county; the first European settlers in Union County came from the backcountry of Pennsylvania. It has been suggested that the first group of pioneers arrived as early as 1751, they settled in the northwestern section of the county near a small river that would be named Fairforest Creek. According to tradition, Mr. McElwaine, a member of the party looked out at the thick woodlands and exclaimed, "What a fair forest!" At the time of their arrival, wild buffalo and horses abounded as well as panthers and cougars, which were called "tigers" or "tygers" by the settlers.
This may be. The early settlers established Fairforest Presbyterian Church, the first house of worship in Union County. Around 1754, the Brown's Creek area was first settled, about four miles northeast of the present city of Union. A log church or meetinghouse was built and shared among several denominations that could not yet afford their own separate structures; the county and county seat were named for this "Union" church. Quakers arrived in the mid 1750s and settled the southern portion of the county, establishing Cane Creek Church in the Santuc community, Padgett's Creek Church in the Cross Keys community; the Quakers left in the early 1800s because of their opposition to slavery. Baptists from North Carolina, under the leadership of Rev. Philip Mulkey, reached the Broad River in Fairfield County, SC in 1759, they relocated to Union County in 1762, in 1771 formally organized into the first Baptist church in the South Carolina upcountry known as Fairforest Baptist Church. Many Baptist churches throughout the upcountry are descended from this original congregation.
The congregation moved to a site on present day SC Hwy 18 between Union and Jonesville where it remains to this day. During the first part of the American Revolution, the South Carolina backcountry was quiet. Following the fall of Charleston in 1780, the British began focusing their attention on the Carolinas. At least five battles were fought in or near Union County, including Musgrove Mill and Blackstock; the county produced many notable heroes including Lt. Col. James Steen; the war divided the population between Patriots. This settlers moving out of the area. Personal property was damaged by both sides. Following the war, the county seat was established at Unionville and a courthouse was constructed. In 1791, the South Carolina Legislature established a district court that included Spartanburg, Union and York counties; the area was called the Pinckney District and its headquarters was established at a central location in Union County. Land was cleared and streets were laid out for a new town that would be called Pinckneyville.
A courthouse and jail were built for the new judicial district and a college was to be established in the town. Local tradition states that Pinckneyville was to be home to the United States Military Academy, but lost to West Point by one vote in Congress. Instead, local historians say; this was the source of the legend. In 1799, the General Assembly decided to restructure the state court system. Subsequently, the Pinckney District was abolished. During the early 1800s settlers developed large-scale cotton growing in the fertile soil of southern Union County, based on the use of enslaved labor; the demand for slaves in the Deep South drove the domestic market, more than one million slaves were forcibly transported to the South in the antebellum years. There were numerous plantations in the county, several that are still standing, such as Rose Hill Plantation and the Cross Keys House. Rose Hill was the home of South Carolina's "Secession Governor," William Henry Gist; the northern section of the county was home to yeoman farmers and small scale planters who owned fewer slaves.
The county grew during the antebellum period but remained fully agrarian. Stores and other businesses were established in the town of Union and a new courthouse and jail were designed for the town in 1823 by famed architect Robert Mills, designer of the Washington Monument; the courthouse was demolished in 1911, but the jail is still standing and in use by the City of Union. It is located beside the present courthouse, constructed in 1913; the Civil War brought a standstill to the county's progress. Many local men rushed to enlist in the Confederate Army and numerous units of Union County soldiers served on battlefields across the South. On April 20, 1861 a strange object appeared in the sky above the Kelly-Kelton community of northeastern Union County. A large hot air balloon called the Enterprise descended to the ground, piloted by Professor T. S. C. Lowe, who had left Cincinnati, Ohio the day before, he had attempted to fly from Ohio to Washington, D. C. but instead was swept southward across Virginia into South Carolina.
The locals crowded around this mysterious object, many insisting that Lowe be "shot on the spot," as they believed him to be a Northern spy. Local tradition states that Professor Lowe gave