A business jet, private jet, or bizjet is a jet aircraft designed for transporting small groups of people. Business jets may be adapted for other roles, such as the evacuation of casualties or express parcel deliveries, some are used by public bodies, government officials or the armed forces; the Lockheed JetStar, seating ten passengers and two crew, first flew on 4 September 1957. A total of 204 aircraft were produced from 1957 to 1978 powered by several different engines; the smaller, 17,760 pounds MTOW North American Sabreliner first flew on 16 September 1958. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney JT12 turbojet engines Garrett TFE731s, more than 800 were produced from 1959 to 1982; the 25,000 pounds MTOW British Aerospace 125 first flew on 13 August 1962 as the de Havilland DH.125, powered by two 3,000 pounds-force Armstrong Siddeley Viper turbojets. Its engines were replaced by Garrett TFE731s Pratt & Whitney Canada PW300 turbofans. 1,700 aircraft of all variants, including the Hawker 800, were produced between 1962 and 2013.
The Aero Commander 1121 Jet Commander, which became the IAI Westwind, first flew on 27 January 1963, powered by two General Electric CJ610 turbojets Garrett TFE731s. Production of Jet Commanders and Westwinds from 1965 to 1987 came to 442 aircraft; the 29,000 pounds MOTW Dassault Falcon 20 first flew on 4 May 1963, powered by two General Electric CF700s Garrett ATF3 turbofans and Garrett TFE731s. A total of 508 were built from 1963 to 1988, it is the basis of the Dassault Falcon family; the first light jet first flew on 7 October 1963: the Learjet 23. Powered by two 2,850 pounds-force General Electric CJ610s, its 12,500 pounds MTOW complies with FAR Part 23 regulations; the first member of the Learjet family, 104 were built between 1962 and 1966. The forward wing sweep, 20,280 pounds MOTW Hamburger Flugzeugbau HFB 320 Hansa Jet first flew on 21 April 1964, powered by two General Electric CJ610s; the joint Piaggo-Douglas, 18,000 pounds MOTW Piaggio PD.808 first flew on 29 August 1964, powered by two Armstrong Siddeley Vipers, 24 were built for the Italian Air Force.
On 2 October 1966 the first large business jet first flew, the 65,500 pounds MTOW Grumman Gulfstream II, powered by two 11,400 pounds-force Rolls-Royce Spey turbofans. From 1967 to the late 70s, 258 were built and it led to the ongoing Gulfstream Aerospace long range family; the 11,850 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation I first flew on 15 September 1969, powered by two 2,200 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D turbofans. Produced between 1969 and 1985 for a total of 689 examples, it is the first of the Cessna Citation family; the trijet Dassault Falcon 50 made its first flight on 7 November 1976. The 40,000 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by three 3,700 pounds-force TFE731 engines. With the cross-section of the Falcon 20, it is the basis of the larger Falcon 900. On 8 November 1978, the prototype Canadair Challenger took off; the 43,000–48,000 pounds MTOW craft powered by two 9,200 pounds-force General Electric CF34s, formed the basis of the long range Bombardier Global Express family and of the Bombardier CRJ regional airliners.
The 1000th Challenger entered service in 2015. On 30 May 1979 the clean-sheet 22,000 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation III took off for the first time, powered by two 3,650 pounds-force TFE731s; the Mitsubishi MU-300 Diamond made its first flight on 29 August 1978. The 16,100 pounds MTOW jet was powered by two 2,900 pounds-force JT15D; the design was sold and was renamed Beechjet 400 Hawker 400, with a total of 950 produced of all variants. The 1980s only saw the introduction of no major new designs. There was an advent of fractional ownership in the late 1980s for business jets; the first flight of the clean-sheet Learjet 45 was on 7 October 1995. All of the 642 aircraft built since have been powered by two 3,500 pounds-force TFE731 engines. Powered by two 2,300 pounds-force Williams FJ44s, the 12,500 pounds Beechcraft Premier I light jet made its first flight on 22 December 1998. Nearly 300 had been made before production stopped in 2013. In the opposite way compared to Bombardier, which developed airliners from a business jet, Embraer derived the Legacy 600 from the Embraer ERJ family of regional jet airliners.
Powered by two 8,800 pounds-force Rolls-Royce AE 3007s, the first flight of the 50,000 pounds aircraft was on 31 March 2001. On 14 August 2001, the Bombardier Challenger 300 made its first flight; the 38,850 pounds aircraft is powered by two 6,825 pounds-force HTF7000s. The 500th example was delivered in 2015; the first light jet, the 5,950 pounds MTOW Eclipse 500, took off for the first time on 26 August 2002, powered by two 900 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s. Between and the end of production in 2008, 260 were produced, it was followed by the 8,645 pounds MTOW Cessna Citation Mustang on 23 April 2005, powered by two 1,460 pounds-force Pratt & Whitney Canada PW600s and with more than 450 produced. The Embraer Phenom 100 made its maiden flight on 26 July 2007; the 10,500 pounds MTOW airplane is powered by two 1,600 pounds-force Whitney Canada PW600s. With its Phenom 300 development, nearly 600 have been built; the first flight of the midsize, fly-by-wire, 7,000 lbf Honeywell HTF700
London City Airport
London City Airport is an international airport in London, United Kingdom. It is located in the Royal Docks in the London Borough of Newham 6 NM east of the City of London and a shorter distance east of Canary Wharf; these are the twin centres of London's financial industry, a major user of the airport. The airport was developed by the engineering company Mowlem in 1986–87. In 2016 it was bought by a Canadian-led consortium of Alberta Investment Management Corporation, OMERS, the Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan and Wren House Infrastructure Management of the Kuwait Investment Authority. London City Airport has a single 1,500-metre long runway, a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flight training. Only multi-engine, fixed-wing aircraft with special aircraft and aircrew certification to fly 5.5° approaches are allowed to conduct operations at London City Airport. The largest aircraft which can be used at the airport is the Airbus A318, modified with a "steep approach function".
London City served over 4.5 million passengers in 2017. It is the fifth-busiest airport in passengers and aircraft movements serving the London area—after Heathrow, Gatwick and Luton—and was the 14th-busiest in the UK in 2017; the airport was first proposed in 1981 by Reg Ward, Chief Executive of the newly formed London Docklands Development Corporation, responsible for the regeneration of the area. He in turn discussed the proposal with Sir Philip Beck and the idea of an airport for Docklands was born. By November of that year Mowlem and Bill Bryce of Brymon Airways had submitted an outline proposal to the LDDC for a Docklands STOLport city centre gateway. On 27 June 1982 Brymon's Captain Harry Gee landed a de Havilland Canada Dash 7 turboprop aircraft on Heron Quays, in the nearby West India Docks, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the STOLport project; that year the LDDC published a feasibility study, an opinion poll amongst local residents showed a majority in favour of the development of the airport, Mowlem submitted the application for planning permission.
A 63-day planning inquiry started on 6 June 1983. By the middle of the following year, Nicholas Ridley the Secretary of State for Transport had indicated that he was "disposed to agree the application", but asked for further details; the Greater London Council brought an action in the High Court of Justice to reopen the inquiry. After the High Court dismissed the action in March 1985, outline planning permission was granted in May of that year, followed by the grant of detailed planning permission in early 1986. Construction began on the site shortly after permission was granted, with Charles, Prince of Wales laying the foundation stone of the terminal building, designed by R Seifert and Partners, on 2 May 1986; the first aircraft landed on 31 May 1987, with the first commercial services operating from 26 October 1987. Queen Elizabeth II opened London City Airport in November of the same year. In 1988, the first full year of operation, the airport handled 133,000 passengers; the earliest scheduled flights were operated to and from Plymouth, Paris and Rotterdam.
With a runway of only 1,080 m in length, a slope of the glidepath of 7.5°, the airport could only be used by a limited number of aircraft types, principally the Dash 7 and the smaller Dornier Do 228. In 1989 the airport submitted a planning application to extend the runway, allowing the use of a larger number of aircraft types. In 1990 the airport handled 230,000 passengers, but the figures fell drastically after the Gulf War and did not recover until 1993, when 245,000 passengers were carried. By this time the extended runway had been opened. At the same time the glide path was reduced to 5.5°, still steep for a European airport, but sufficient to allow a larger range of aircraft, including the BAe 146 regional jet liner and Airbus A318, to serve the airport. By 1995 passenger numbers reached half a million, Mowlem sold the airport to Irish businessman Dermot Desmond. Five years passenger numbers had climbed to 1,580,000, over 30,000 flights were operated. In 2002 a jet centre catering to corporate aviation was opened, as well as additional aircraft stands at the western end of the apron.
In 2003 a new ground holding point was established at the eastern end of the runway, enabling aircraft awaiting takeoff to hold there whilst other aircraft landed. On 2 December 2005, London City Airport DLR station opened on a branch of the Docklands Light Railway, providing rail access to the airport for the first time, providing fast rail links to Canary Wharf and the City of London. By 2006, more than 2.3 million passengers used London City Airport. In October 2006 the airport was purchased from Dermot Desmond by a consortium comprising insurer AIG Financial Products Corp. and Global Infrastructure Partners. In the final quarter of 2008 GIP increased its stake in the airport to 75%, the remaining 25% belonging to Highstar Capital. London City Airport was granted planning permission to construct an extended apron with four additional aircraft parking stands and four new gates to the east of the terminal in 2001, they are carried on piles above the water of the King George V Dock. British Airways commenced the first scheduled transatlantic flights from the airport in September 2009, with a twice a day service to New York City's John F. Kennedy International Airport u
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Friedrichshafen Airport is a minor international airport 1.9 miles north of Friedrichshafen, Germany, on the banks of Lake Constance. It is the third biggest airport in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden and served 559,985 passengers in 2015. Friedrichshafen features flights to European metropolitan and leisure destinations. Due to its proximity to the Austrian Alps it is heavily used during the winter by skiing tourists; the Messe Friedrichshafen convention center is just north of the airport's runway. The center hosts an annual European general aviation conference AERO Friedrichshafen and other conferences; this airport was established in 1915. The first scheduled passenger flights with the Zeppelin started from here, long before they were relocated to Frankfurt/Zeppelinheim. Friedrichshafen saw its first scheduled passenger flights in 1929 with Deutsche Luft Hansa services to Stuttgart. Delta Air established the first successful post-war regional flights in 1978, flying to Stuttgart and Zürich.
A new terminal building and runway were built between 1988 and 1994. Another new terminal was opened in 2010. InterSky, based the airport, shut down its key route to Cologne Bonn Airport, which it had operated for seven years, in October 2010 due to tough competition from Germanwings which started flying the same route in spring 2010. Germanwings closed the route on 14 June 2015. On 5 November 2015, InterSky ceased all operations due to financial difficulties, leading to the termination of domestic connections to Berlin, Cologne and Düsseldorf. In December 2015, it was announced that the airport might need financial support from its majority owners - the city of Friedrichshafen and the surrounding county - as the shutdown of InterSky -one of the airport's largest customers- led to financial difficulties. In December 2015, VLM Airlines announced it would base three aircraft in Friedrichshafen to take over the domestic routes to Berlin, Düsseldorf and Hamburg provided by InterSky. However, VLM went bankrupt in June 2016.
The airport consists of one passenger terminal building that with seven departure gates as well as some shops and restaurants. The apron consists of seven aircraft stands, there are no jet bridges; the terminal building features office space and an observation deck called the ON TOP terrace. The airport features an airship hangar as well as general aviation facilities; the airport was the base of InterSky, an Austrian regional airline, now defunct. A museum dedicated to Dornier Flugzeugwerke, a German aircraft manufacturer, is located next to the terminal; the following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights at Friedrichshafen Airport: Friedrichshafen can be reached from all directions via federal highways B30 and B31 which are connected to several motorways such as the A96 from Munich or the A13/A14 from Austria and Switzerland. The airport is signposted throughout the city. Taxis and rental car agencies are available at the terminal building. Friedrichshafen Airport has its own small railway station named Friedrichshafen Flughafen directly across from the terminal building.
It is served by local DB Regio and Bodensee-Oberschwaben-Bahn trains, which continue to the city center of Friedrichshafen or the nearest major city, Ulm. Transport in Germany List of airports in Germany Media related to Friedrichshafen Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Current weather for EDNY at NOAA/NWS Accident history for FDH at Aviation Safety Network
Düsseldorf Airport is the international airport of Düsseldorf, the capital of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is about 7 kilometres north of downtown Düsseldorf, some 20 kilometres south-west of Essen in the Rhine-Ruhr area, Germany's largest metropolitan area. Düsseldorf is the third largest airport in Germany after Munich, it is a focus city for several more airlines. The airport has three passenger terminals and two runways and can handle wide-body aircraft up to the Airbus A380. Düsseldorf Airport is the largest and primary airport for the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region – the largest metropolitan region in Germany and among the largest metropolitan areas of the world; the airport is located in Düsseldorf-Lohausen. The largest nearby business centres are Essen; the airport extends over a compact 6.13 square kilometres of land – small in comparison to airports of a similar capacity, but a reason for Düsseldorf being known as an airport of short distances. The airport has more than 18,200 employees.
With 18.99 million passengers passing through in 2010, the airport was the third busiest in Germany, after Frankfurt Airport and Munich Airport, was the 23rd busiest airport in Europe. Transfer passengers and those travelling on long-haul flights from the airport accounted for around 13% of all passengers in 2010; the City of Düsseldorf owns half the airport, with the other half owned by various commercial entitites, including ARI, itself owned by the Irish Government. Düsseldorf Airport is a public–private partnership with the following owners: 50% city of Düsseldorf 50% Airport Partners GmbH The first aviation event in the area was the landing of Zeppelin LZ3 on 19 September 1909 about 3 kilometres south of the present airport; the present airport was opened on 19 April 1927, after two years of construction. Deutsche Luft Hansa opened routes to Berlin, Hamburg and Geneva. At the beginning of World War II civil use of the airport ceased in September 1939 and the airfield was used by the military.
After the end of the war the airport reopened for civil use in 1948. With the area under British administration, the first flights were operated by British European Airways to RAF Northolt. In 1950, the main runway was extended to 2475 metres. In 1964 planning began for the construction of a new terminal, with capacity for 1.4 million passengers, in 1969 the main runway was further lengthened to 3000 metres. In 1973 the new central building and Terminal B were opened and in 1975 the railway connection between Düsseldorf central station and the airport opened; the additional new Terminal A was opened in 1977. In 1986 Terminal C was opened and 8.22 million passengers used the airport, making it number two in Germany. By 1992, when the second runway was built, 12.3 million passengers were using the airport. On 11 April 1996, the Düsseldorf Airport fire, the worst structural airport fire worldwide to date, broke out, it was caused by welding work on an elevated road in front of Terminal A above its arrivals area.
Insufficient structural fire protection allowed the fire and the smoke to spread fast, so these destroyed large parts of the passenger areas of the airport. Seventeen people died due to smoke inhalation, with many more hospitalised. At the time, the fire was the biggest public disaster in the history of North Rhine-Westphalia. Damage to the airport was estimated to be in the hundreds of millions, Terminals A and B had to be reconstructed. While repairs were ongoing, passengers were housed in big tents. In November 1997, Terminal C was redeveloped, with three lightweight construction halls serving as departure areas. In 1997 construction began on the new inter-city railway station at the eastern edge of the airport. In 1998 the rebuilt Terminal A was reopened and the airport changed its name from "Rhine Ruhr Airport" to "Düsseldorf International". Reconstruction of the central building and Terminal B began in the same year; the first stage in the "Airport 2000+" programme commenced in 1999 with the laying of a foundation stone for an underground parking garage under the new terminal.
The new Düsseldorf Airport station was opened in May 2000, with the capacity of 300 train departures daily. Sixteen million passengers used the airport that year; the new departures hall and Terminal B were opened in July 2001 after 2½ years of construction time. In 2002 the inter-terminal shuttle bus service was replaced by the suspended monorail called the SkyTrain connecting the terminal building with the InterCity train station; the monorail travels the 2.5 kilometres between the terminal and station at a maximum speed of 50 kilometres per hour. The system was developed by Siemens and is based on the similar H-Bahn operating with two lines on Dortmund university campus. On 12 November 2006, the first Airbus A380 landed in Düsseldorf as part of a Lufthansa promotional flight. In March 2013 the Airport received a new corporate design and dropped the phrase International from its official name. In January 2015, Emirates announced it will schedule the Airbus A380 on one of their two daily flights from Dubai to Düsseldorf starting in July 2015.
In May 2015, the airport finished construction of the new facilities n
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology