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SunOS is a Unix-branded operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstation and server computer systems. The SunOS name is only used to refer to versions 1.0 to 4.1.4, which were based on BSD, while versions 5.0 and are based on UNIX System V Release 4, are marketed under the brand name Solaris. SunOS 1 only supported the Sun-2 series systems, including Sun-1 systems upgraded with Sun-2 CPU boards. SunOS 2 supported Sun-3 series systems. SunOS 4 supported Sun-3, Sun386i and Sun-4 architectures. Although SunOS 4 was intended to be the first release to support Sun's new SPARC processor, there was a SunOS 3.2 release with preliminary support for Sun-4 systems. SunOS 4.1.2 introduced support for Sun's first sun4m-architecture multiprocessor machines. The last release of SunOS 4 was 4.1.4 in 1994. The sun4, sun4c and sun4m architectures were supported in 4.1.4. Sun continued to ship SunOS 4.1.3 and 4.1.4 until December 27, 1998. In 1987, AT&T Corporation and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix flavors on the market at that time: BSD, System V, Xenix.

This would become System V Release 4. On September 4, 1991, Sun announced that its next major OS release would switch from its BSD-derived source base to one based on SVR4. Although the internal designation of this release would be SunOS 5, from this point Sun began using the marketing name Solaris; the justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS, but the OpenWindows desktop environment and Open Network Computing functionality. Though the new SVR4-based OS was not expected to ship in volume until the following year, Sun began using the new Solaris name to refer to the shipping SunOS 4 release, thus SunOS 4.1.1 was rebranded Solaris 1.0. SunOS 4.1.x micro versions continued to be released through 1994, each of these was given a Solaris 1.x equivalent name. In practice, these were still referred to by customers and Sun personnel by their SunOS release names. Matching the version numbers was not straightforward: Today, SunOS 5 is universally known as Solaris, although the SunOS name is still visible within the OS itself – in the startup banner, the output of the uname command, man page footers, among other places.

Matching a SunOS 5.x release to its corresponding Solaris marketing name is simple: each Solaris release name includes its corresponding SunOS 5 minor version number. For example, Solaris 2.4 incorporated SunOS 5.4. There is one small twist: after Solaris 2.6, the "2." was dropped from the Solaris name and the SunOS minor number appears by itself. The latest Solaris release is named Solaris 11 and incorporates SunOS 5.11. GUI environments bundled with earlier versions of SunOS included SunTools and NeWS. In 1989, Sun released OpenWindows, an OPEN LOOK-compliant X11-based environment which supported SunView and NeWS applications; this became the default SunOS GUI in SunOS 4.1.1. Solaris OpenSolaris OpenIndiana Illumos Comparison of BSD operating systems Comparison of operating systems Unix wars The Sun Hardware Reference SunOS & Solaris Version History at the Wayback Machine An Introduction to Solaris – a sample chapter from Solaris Internals: Core Kernel Architecture by Jim Mauro & Richard McDougall, Prentice-Hall, 2000.

Info on SunOS from OSdata Initial Solaris announcement

Lake Merritt

Lake Merritt is a large tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, just east of Downtown. It is surrounded by city neighborhoods, it is significant as the United States' first official wildlife refuge, designated in 1870, has been listed as a National Historic Landmark since 1963, on the National Register of Historic Places since 1966. The lake features grassy shores. A popular walking and jogging path runs along its perimeter; the circumference of the lake is 3.4 miles and its area is 155 acres. The lake was an arm of San Francisco Bay formed where several creeks empty into the bay, it was surrounded by 1,000 acres of wetlands when the Ohlone people fished and gathered food along its shores. By 1810, the remaining Native Americans were removed to Mission San José and the estuary and 44,800 acres of surrounding land was deeded to Sergeant Luis Maria Peralta to become Rancho San Antonio. After gold was discovered in 1848 in present-day Coloma 125 miles to the northeast, Anglo squatters led by lawyer Horace Carpentier took control of the East Bay area, to become downtown Oakland, including the estuary known as "San Antonio Slough."

In 1856, Peralta fought and won a United States Supreme Court case against the squatters but further court cases between his sons and daughters would diminish their holdings. The Peralta brothers had to sell much of the land to Carpentier to pay legal fees and new property taxes. Oakland was incorporated in 1852 with Carpentier as its first mayor and the estuary became the city's sewer. Lake Merritt had tidal flows via a broad 600 foot outlet, but this has been reduced with development of the region after 1869; the tidal flows are limited in size and managed for flood control. For years the lake acted as a waste collector, it was regarded as ideal for sewage because of its chemical contents, which have high acidities that cause it to decompose human feces at high rates. Sixty miles of brick and wood channeling sent the broken-down sewage to the bottom of the lake to be eaten by bottom feeders; the stench at the lake during the decomposition of the sewage was a problem for Oaklanders on the west shore and residents of Clinton and San Antonio villages on the east.

Dr. Samuel Merritt, a mayor of Oakland who owned property at the shore's edge, was keen to get the body of water cleaned up so that it could become a source of civic pride. In 1868, he proposed and funded a dam between the estuary and the bay by which the flow of water could be controlled, allowing the water level inland to rise higher and become less saline, turning the tidal lagoon into a lake. Sewage was to be redirected elsewhere by two new city projects, though these weren't completed until 1875; the resulting body of water was called variously "Lake Peralta", "Merritt's Lake" and Lake Merritt. The lake at that time still had thick wetlands fringing the shores and it continued to attract large numbers of migratory birds. In order to protect the birds from duck hunters and stop the noise and danger of gunfire so close to the city, Dr. Merritt proposed to turn the lake into a wildlife refuge in 1869; the state legislature voted Lake Merritt Wildlife Refuge into law in 1870, making it the first such refuge in North America.

No hunting of any sort was to be allowed and the only fishing was to be by hook and line. The ornate Camron-Stanford House was built in 1876 near the lake's western shore. Tax records suggest that Samuel Merritt built the Italianate Victorian as part of his plan to promote and develop downtown Oakland and the new lake. In 1877, the house's title was transferred to Mrs. Alice Camron, a purchase she was able to make due to an inheritance from her father, California pioneer Dr. John Marsh. She, her husband Will and their two daughters were the first residents of the home. Further fine homes were built on the lakeshore by others following Dr. Merritt's lead, though none but Camron-Stanford remain today. Beginning in 1910, the house served as the Oakland Public Museum. In 1967, the Oakland Museum moved to other quarters, the Camron-Stanford House is now a separate museum. Protection for the wetlands was nonexistent and residences kept being built on reclaimed land around the shore of the lake. Cleanliness continued to be a problem because of incomplete sewage projects and the lake kept silting up since the natural tidal flow had been interrupted by Merritt's dam.

Dredging of the lake began in 1891, with the removed silt being piled along the eastern shore to make a foundation for a road which became Lakeshore Avenue. From 1893 to 1915, Lake Merritt saw major changes. Inspired by the new City Beautiful movement which got its start at the World's Columbian Exposition, the lake became a city-owned park. In 1913 an elaborate Mission Revival pergola was constructed at the northeastern tip of the lake. Adam's Point was planted with lawns and imported trees and became Lakeside Park. Eastshore Park was created. Oakland Civic Auditorium was built at the south edge of the lake in 1914. 1923 saw Cleveland Cascade spring into life and assisted by noted landscape architect, Howard Gilkey. This was a three-tiered water feature incorporating multiple waterfalls tumbling sequentially into twenty large collection basins and a pool at the bottom, flanked by twin stairs descending from Cleveland Heights to Lakeshore Avenue. Colored lights in rainbow sequence

Gonzalo Novoa

Gonzalo Ignacio Novoa Contreras is a Chilean footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder. His last club was Deportes Temuco. A product of Universidad de Chile's youth system, Novoa was promoted to the first-adult team in 2005 by Héctor Pinto to play the Torneo Apertura, he was part of the players generation of Sebastián Pinto, Eric Pino, among others. After completing loan spells in Deportes Valdivia and Unión Temuco to gain experience, in 2009 after being considered by Sergio Markarián he definitively joined The Lions and helped the team to win the Torneo Apertura. In 2011, he left the club after not being considered by Jorge Sampaoli and joined Primera B side Deportes Copiapó in a long-season deal. Novoa completed the entire season with 2 goals in 16 appearances. In January 2012, Novoa returned his former club Unión Temuco and he stayed here after the club’s merger with Deportes Temuco. In December 2013, he finished his contract. Universidad de ChileTorneo Apertura: 2009 Gonzalo Novoa at Soccerway

Wings of Youth (1940 film)

Wings of Youth is a 1940 Canadian short documentary film, part of the Canada Carries On series of short films by the National Film Board of Canada. The film was directed by Raymond Spottiswoode, it was narrated by Lorne Greene. During the First World War, Canadian aviators made their mark as combat pilots. After the war, many of them became part of the Royal Canadian Air Force, taking on peacetime roles of mapping the frontiers and forest fire patrols. Bush pilots built a system of commercial flying that led to Trans-Canada Air Lines, a transcontinental airline; when war came again, veterans took on the task of training a new generation of aviators in the Commonwealth Air Training Plan. While youth sign up and begin training, the Commonwealth Air Training Plan bases are being constructed across the country. In Canadian aircraft factories, training aircraft such as the North American Harvard are being manufactured to add to those sent from Great Britain, including the Fairey Battle and Avro Anson.

To train for the modern aerial combat environment, pilots undergo a rigorous ground training program that includes classroom work, high altitude chambers and Link Trainer simulation sessions. After initial flying training, the successful candidates complete a solo flight in the Canadian designed and built Fleet Finch trainer, before going on to advanced flight training. Other air crew learn how to navigate, drop armament and fire weapons in other simulated training programs. Mechanics have to learn all the skills required to repair and maintain an aircraft; when pilots, ground crew and air crew trainees have completed their training, they receive their "wings" at a special graduation ceremony presided over by high ranking RCAF officers such as Air Marshal Billy Bishop. Billy Bishop Fidel Carrière, trainee Wilf Mstthews, trainee Jack Linnes, trainee Harry Briggio, trainee Wings of Youth was the part of the Canada Carries On series, produced with financial backing from the Wartime Information Board, in partnership with Audio Pictures Limited, which acted as a co-producer.

The documentary was created as a morale boosting propaganda film during the Second World War. The narrator of Wings of Youth was Lorne Greene, known for his work on both radio broadcasts as a news announcer at CBC as well as narrating many of the Canada Carries On series, his sonorous recitation led to his nickname, "The Voice of Canada", to some observers, the "voice-of-God". When reading grim battle statistics or as in Warclouds in the Pacific, narrating a serious topic such as Canada going to war, he was "The Voice of Doom"; as part of the Canada Carries On series, Wings of Youth was produced in 35 mm for the theatrical market. Each film was shown over a six-month period as part of the shorts or newsreel segments in 800 theatres across Canada. Along with others in the Canada Carries On series, Wings of Youth received widespread circulation; the NFB had an arrangement with Famous Players theatres to ensure that Canadians from coast-to-coast could see the documentary series, with further distribution by Columbia Pictures.

After the six-month theatrical tour ended, individual films were made available on 16 mm to schools, libraries and factories, extending the life of these films for another year or two. They were made available to film libraries operated by university and provincial authorities. Wings of Youth on IMDb

Apollo 1

Apollo 1 designated AS-204, was the first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program, the undertaking to land the first men on the Moon. Planned as the first low Earth orbital test of the Apollo command and service module, to launch on February 21, 1967, the mission never flew. "Gus" Grissom, Senior Pilot Ed White, Pilot Roger B. Chaffee—and destroyed the command module; the name Apollo 1, chosen by the crew, was made official by NASA in their honor after the fire. After the fire, NASA convened the Apollo 204 Accident Review Board to determine the cause of the fire, both houses of the United States Congress conducted their own committee inquiries to oversee NASA's investigation; the ignition source of the fire was determined to be electrical, the fire spread due to combustible nylon material, the high pressure, pure oxygen cabin atmosphere. Rescue was prevented by the plug door hatch, which could not be opened against the internal pressure of the cabin; because the rocket was unfueled, the test had not been considered hazardous, emergency preparedness for it was poor.

During the Congressional investigation, Senator Walter Mondale publicly revealed a NASA internal document citing problems with prime Apollo contractor North American Aviation, which became known as the "Phillips Report". This disclosure embarrassed NASA Administrator James E. Webb, unaware of the document's existence, attracted controversy to the Apollo program. Despite congressional displeasure at NASA's lack of openness, both congressional committees ruled that the issues raised in the report had no bearing on the accident. Manned Apollo flights were suspended for 20 months while the command module's hazards were addressed. However, the development and uncrewed testing of the lunar module and Saturn V rocket continued; the Saturn IB launch vehicle for Apollo 1, SA-204, was used for the first LM test flight, Apollo 5. The first successful crewed Apollo mission was flown by Apollo 1's backup crew on Apollo 7 in October 1968. AS-204 was to be the first crewed test flight of the Apollo command and service module to Earth orbit, launched on a Saturn IB rocket.

AS-204 was to test launch operations, ground tracking and control facilities and the performance of the Apollo-Saturn launch assembly and would have lasted up to two weeks, depending on how the spacecraft performed. The CSM for this flight, number 012 built by North American Aviation, was a Block I version designed before the lunar orbit rendezvous landing strategy was chosen; this was incorporated into the Block II CSM design, along with lessons learned in Block I. Block II would be test-flown with the LM when the latter was ready, would be used on the Moon landing flights. Director of Flight Crew Operations Deke Slayton selected the first Apollo crew in January 1966, with Grissom as Command Pilot, White as Senior Pilot, rookie Donn F. Eisele as Pilot, but Eisele dislocated his shoulder twice aboard the KC135 weightlessness training aircraft, had to undergo surgery on January 27. Slayton replaced him with Chaffee, NASA announced the crew selection on March 21, 1966. James McDivitt, David Scott and Russell Schweickart were named as the backup crew.

On September 29, Walter Schirra and Walter Cunningham were named as the prime crew for a second Block I CSM flight, AS-205. NASA planned to follow this with an uncrewed test flight of the LM the third crewed mission would be a dual flight designated AS-278, in which AS-207 would launch the first crewed Block II CSM, which would rendezvous and dock with the LM launched uncrewed on AS-208. In March, NASA was studying the possibility of flying the first Apollo mission as a joint space rendezvous with the final Project Gemini mission, Gemini 12 in November 1966, but by May, delays in making Apollo ready for flight just by itself, the extra time needed to incorporate compatibility with the Gemini, made that impractical. This became moot when slippage in readiness of the AS-204 spacecraft caused the last-quarter 1966 target date to be missed, the mission was rescheduled for February 21, 1967. In October 1966, NASA announced the flight would carry a small television camera to broadcast live from the command module.

The camera would be used to allow flight controllers to monitor the spacecraft's instrument panel in flight. Television cameras were carried aboard all crewed Apollo missions. Grissom's crew received approval in June 1966 to design a mission patch with the name Apollo 1; the design's center depicts a command and service module flying over the southeastern United States with Florida prominent. The Moon is seen in symbolic of the eventual program goal. A yellow border carries the mission and astronaut names with another border set with stars and stripes, trimmed in gold; the insignia was designed by the crew, with the artwork done by North American Aviation employee Allen Stevens. The Apollo command and service module was much bigger and far more complex than any implemented spacecraft design. In October 1963, Joseph F. Shea was named Apollo Spacecraft Program Office manager, responsible for managing the design and construction of both the CSM and the LM. In a spacecraft review meeting held with Shea on August 19, 1966, the crew expressed concern about the amount of flammable material in the ca

Betws Garmon

Betws Garmon is a community and small hamlet outside Waunfawr and near Beddgelert in Gwynedd, Wales. It has a population of 249; the summit of Snowdon lies within the community boundaries. Bryn Gloch has the newly reopened narrow gauge Welsh Highland Railway passing alongside it. Rhyd-Ddu is in the community. Over the road from Bryn Gloch there is a parish church. Along the mountain extensive slate workings can be seen. Betws Garmon has a park near it. Near the station there is a road. Up that road there is a footpath. A river that flows through the hamlet is called Afon Gwyrfai. There was a folk tale concerning the family of Pellings, who lived at Betws Garmon until the 19th century, it was said that they were descended from a fairy named Penelope. Penelope lived with her human husband until she was accidentally touched with a piece of iron, whereupon she disappeared forever; the first part of the name of the village comes from the Middle English word bedhus, meaning "prayer house", which became betws in Welsh.

Betws Garmon's population was 249, according to the 2011 census. The 2011 census showed 54.8% of the population could speak Welsh, a rise from 45.0% in 2001. photos of Betws Garmon and surrounding area