Helen of Troy Limited
Helen of Troy Limited is an American publicly-traded designer and worldwide marketer of consumer brand-name housewares and home, beauty products under owned and licensed brands. It is the parent corporation of OXO International Ltd. Kaz, Inc. Steel Technologies, LLC, Idelle Labs, among others; the Company is headquartered in Hamilton and its U. S. operations are headquartered in Texas. The Company is named after the mythic figure Helen of Troy; the company started as a wig store in Downtown El Paso in 1968, expanded into the hair appliance business in 1975 by first supplying hair salons with hair dryers and curling irons. In 1980, the Company's founder, Jerry Rubin, entered into a successful licensing agreement with Vidal Sassoon. Since the Company's growth has come through years of acquiring rights to use well-known global brands in the health and home, housewares and nutritional supplements categories, or by acquiring brands and companies outright; those transactions have made Helen of Troy a force in the personal-care products market.
The company underwent a notable tax inversion when it reorganized into a Bermuda company in 1993. This inversion prompted new Federal Legislation tightening the rules on inversion, which are colloquially known as the "Helen of Troy Rules."In June 2004, the company paid $273.2 million for OXO International, a New York designer and maker of household tools. In January 2011, the Company announced it has completed the acquisition of Kaz, Inc. for $271.5 million. Kaz provides health care and home environment consumer solutions including body thermometers, humidifiers and other products under the Vicks and Honeywell brands, as well as products under owned brands like Stinger and Kaz. In January 2012, Kaz acquired the PUR water purification products business from The Procter & Gamble Company. In 2014, the Company implemented its succession plan, with Jerry Rubin stepping down as CEO, the appointment of Julien R. Mininberg as Chief Executive Officer effective March 1, 2014. Mr. Mininberg had served as Chief Executive Officer and President of Helen of Troy’s Healthcare/Home Environment segment.
In March 2016, the Company acquired Steel Technologies, LLC, which does business under the brand name Hydro Flask, for $210 million in cash, subject to certain customary closing adjustments. Since that time, the Company has grown organically and through acquisition and operates in three reportable business segments; the Company divested its former Nutritional Supplements business in December, 2017. By order of sales contribution, these are Health & Home and Beauty. Helen of Troy's sales were $1.49 billion in Fiscal Year 2018. As of February 28, 2018, the Company employed 1,489 full-time employees worldwide; the Company's US headquarters and Shared Services Center is in a unique northwest El Paso building, the company has two distribution facilities in Olive Branch and Southhaven, Mississippi. The Company has offices in Bend, New York City, Mexico City, Toronto, Sheffield, Lausanne, Switzerland, as well as in the Far East in Macau and Hong Kong; the Company contracts with unaffiliated manufacturers in China and Mexico, to manufacture a significant portion of its finished goods for the Beauty appliances and accessories, Healthcare, Water Filtration, Home Environment product categories.
The North American region of the grooming and hair care category of the Beauty segment source most of their products from U. S. manufacturers. For fiscal years 2018, 2017, 2016, finished goods manufactured by vendors in the Far East comprised 74%, 71%, 70% of total finished goods purchased. Helen of Troy Limited, together with its subsidiaries, develops, imports and distributes brand-name products in three reportable business segments: Health & Home and Beauty; the Health and Home segment offers healthcare and home comfort products including thermometers, blood pressure monitors and humidifiers, faucet mount water filtration systems and pitcher based water filtration systems, air purifiers, fans and dehumidifiers under the PUR, Honeywell and Vicks brands. The Housewares segment offers food and beverage preparation tools and gadgets, storage containers and organization products, household cleaning products, shower organization and bathroom accessories and drinking products, child seating, cleaning tools and nursery accessories, insulated water bottles, drinkware, travel mugs and food containers under the OXO, Good Grips, Hydro Flask, Soft Works, OXO tot brands.
The Beauty segment offers hair and skin care appliances, grooming brushes and decorative hair accessories, liquid hair styling and conditioning products, skin care products, fragrances and antiperspirants under the Hot Tools, Pert, Infusium 23, Bed Head brands. Helen of Troy's Corporate site Helen of Troy's Investor Relations site
In North America, a bowl game is one of a number of post-season college football games that are played by teams belonging to the NCAA's Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. For most of its history, the Division I Bowl Subdivision had avoided using a playoff tournament to determine an annual national champion, instead traditionally determined by a vote of sports writers and other non-players. In place of such a playoff, various cities across the United States developed their own regional festivals featuring post-season college football games. Prior to 2002, bowl game statistics were not included in players' career totals and the games were considered to be exhibition games involving a payout to participating teams. Despite attempts to establish a permanent system to determine the FBS national champion on the field, various bowl games continue to be held because of the vested economic interests entrenched in them. Bowl games featured the best teams in college football, with strict bowl eligibility requirements for teams to receive an invitation to a bowl game in a particular year.
The number of bowl games has grown, reaching 20 games by the 1997 season rapidly expanding beyond 30 games by the 2006 season and 40 team-competitive games by the 2015 season. The increase in bowl games has necessitated a significant easing of the NCAA bowl eligibility rules, since reduced to allow teams with non-winning 6–6 records and losing 5–6 and 5–7 seasons to fill some of the many available bowl slots; the term "bowl" originated from the Rose Bowl stadium, site of the first post-season college football games. The Rose Bowl Stadium, in turn, takes its name and bowl-shaped design from the Yale Bowl, the prototype of many football stadiums in the United States; the term has since become synonymous with any major American football event collegiate football with some significant exceptions. Two examples are the Egg Bowl, the name of the annual matchup between the Mississippi State Bulldogs and the Ole Miss Rebels, the Iron Bowl, a nickname given to the annual game between the Alabama Crimson Tide and the Auburn Tigers.
In professional football, the names of the National Football League's "Super Bowl" and "Pro Bowl" are references to college football bowl games. The use of the term has crossed over into collegiate Canadian football. A notable example is the annual Banjo Bowl between the Winnipeg Blue Bombers and Saskatchewan Roughriders of the Canadian Football League. U Sports plays two semi-final "bowl games" before the Vanier Cup national championship game, the Uteck Bowl and the Mitchell Bowl; the matchups are determined on a conference rotation basis, with the Uteck Bowl being played at the easternmost host team, while the Mitchell is at the westernmost host team. The history of the bowl game began with the 1902 Tournament East-West football game, sponsored by the Tournament of Roses Association between Michigan and Stanford, a game which Michigan won 49-0; the Tournament of Roses sponsored an annual contest starting with the 1916 Tournament East-West Football Game. With the 1923 Rose Bowl it began to be played at the newly completed Rose Bowl stadium, thus the contest itself became known as the Rose Bowl game.
The name "bowl" to describe the games thus comes from the Rose Bowl stadium. Other cities saw the promotional value for tourism that the Tournament of Roses parade and Rose Bowl carried and began to develop their own regional festivals which included college football games; the label "bowl" was attached to the festival name though the games were not always played in bowl-shaped stadiums. The historic timing of bowl games, around the new year, is the result of two factors—warm climate and ease of travel; the original bowls began in warm climates such as Southern California, Louisiana and Texas as a way to promote the area for tourism and business. Since commercial air travel was either non-existent or limited, the games were scheduled well after the end of the regular season to allow fans to travel to the game site. While modern travel is more convenient, all but 5 of 41 bowl games are still located in cities below 36° N. Currently, college football bowl games are played from mid-December to early January.
As the number of bowl games has increased, the number of games a team would need to win to be invited to a bowl game has decreased. With a 12-game schedule, a number of teams with only 5 wins have been invited to a bowl game; as of the completion of the 2016 season, the University of Alabama has played in more bowl games than any other school, with 64 appearances. Alabama holds the record for most bowl victories with 37; as of the 2016 season, Florida State has the record of consecutive bowl births at 36 bowl appearances, however, it is not recognized by the NCAA due to the NCAA vacated FSU's 2006 Emerald Bowl victory over UCLA due to an academic issue. Virginia Tech Hokies have the longest active streak of consecutive bowl appearances with 25 recognized by the NCAA; the Rose Bowl was the only major college bowl game in 1930. By 1940, there were five major college bowl games: the Rose Bowl, the Sugar Bowl, the Cotton Bowl Classic, the Orange Bowl, the Sun Bowl. By 1950, the number had increased to eight games.
This figure of eight bowl games persisted t
Hyundai Motor Company
The Hyundai Motor Company known as Hyundai Motors, is a South Korean multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Seoul. The company was founded in 1967 and, along with its 32.8% owned subsidiary, Kia Motors, its 100% owned luxury subsidiary Genesis Motor, altogether comprise the Hyundai Motor Group. It is the third largest vehicle manufacturer in the world. Hyundai operates the world's largest integrated automobile manufacturing facility in Ulsan, South Korea which has an annual production capacity of 1.6 million units. The company employs about 75,000 people worldwide. Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5,000 showrooms. Chung Ju-Yung founded the Hyundai Engineering and Construction Company in 1947. Hyundai Motor Company was established in 1967; the company's first model, the Cortina, was released in cooperation with Ford Motor Company in 1968. When Hyundai wanted to develop their own car, they hired George Turnbull in February 1974, the former Managing Director of Austin Morris at British Leyland.
He in turn hired five other top British car engineers. They were Kenneth Barnett body design, engineers John Simpson and Edward Chapman, John Crosthwaite ex-BRM as chassis engineer and Peter Slater as chief development engineer. In 1975, the Pony, the first South Korean car, was released, with styling by Giorgio Giugiaro of ItalDesign and powertrain technology provided by Japan's Mitsubishi Motors. Exports began in the following year to Ecuador and soon thereafter to the Benelux countries. Hyundai entered the British market in 1982. In 1984, Hyundai began exporting the Pony to Canada, but not to the United States, as the Pony would not pass emissions standards there. Canadian sales exceeded expectations, it was at one point the top-selling car on the Canadian market. In 1985, the one millionth Hyundai car was built. In 1986, Hyundai began to sell cars in the United States, the Excel was nominated as "Best Product #10" by Fortune magazine because of its affordability; the company began to produce models with its own technology in 1988, beginning with the midsize Sonata.
In the spring of 1990, aggregate production of Hyundai automobiles reached the four million mark. In 1991, the company succeeded in developing its first proprietary gasoline engine, the four-cylinder Alpha, its own transmission, thus paving the way for technological independence. In 1996, Hyundai Motor India Limited was established with a production plant in Irungattukottai near Chennai, India. In 1998, Hyundai began to overhaul its image in an attempt to establish itself as a world-class brand. Chung Ju Yung transferred leadership of Hyundai Motor to his son, Chung Mong Koo, in 1999. Hyundai's parent company, Hyundai Motor Group, invested in the quality, design and long-term research of its vehicles, it added a 10-year or 100,000-mile warranty to cars sold in the United States and launched an aggressive marketing campaign. In 2004, Hyundai was ranked second in "initial quality" in a survey/study by J. D. Power and Associates. Hyundai is now one of the top 100 most valuable brands worldwide. Since 2002, Hyundai has been one of the worldwide official sponsors of the FIFA World Cup.
In 2006, the South Korean government initiated an investigation of Chung Mong Koo's practices as head of Hyundai, suspecting him of corruption. On 28 April 2006, Chung was arrested, charged for embezzlement of 100 billion South Korean won; as a result, Hyundai Vice Chairman and CEO, Kim Dong-jin, replaced him as head of the company. On 30 September 2011, Yang Seung Suk announced his retirement as CEO of Hyundai Motor Co. In the interim replacement period, Chung Mong-koo and Kim Eok-jo will divide the duties of the CEO position. Hyundai has six research and development centers, located in South Korea, Germany and India. Additionally, a center in California develops designs for the United States. Hyundai has made an app with augmented reality, showing users how to maintain vehicles. In 1998, after a shake-up in the South Korean auto industry caused by overambitious expansion and the Asian financial crisis, Hyundai acquired the majority of rival Kia Motors. Hyundai owns 33.88% of Kia. In 2000, the company established a strategic alliance with DaimlerChrysler and severed its partnership with the Hyundai Group.
In 2001, the Daimler-Hyundai Truck Corporation was formed. In 2004, DaimlerChrysler divested its interest in the company by selling its 10.5% stake for $900 million. Hyundai has invested in manufacturing plants in North America, the Czech Republic, Russia and Turkey as well as research and development centers in Europe, North America and the Pacific Rim. In 2004, Hyundai Motor Company had $57.2 billion in sales in South Korea making it the country's second largest corporation, or chaebol. Worldwide sales in 2005 reached an 11 percent increase over the previous year. In 2011, Hyundai sold 4.05 million cars worldwide and the Hyundai Motor Group was the world's fourth largest automaker behind GM, Volkswagen and Toyota. Hyundai vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5,000 dealerships. In 2006, Hyundai hired Thomas Bürkle as head of the company's design center in Germany. Bürkle had worked for BMW, having designed the BMW 3 Series, the BMW 6 Series. Hyundai's current design philosophy is known as Fluidic Sculpture, inspired by nature.
Hyundai Motor America began selling cars in the United States on 20 February 1986, with a single model, the Hyundai Excel, offered in
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Easton is a city in and the county seat of Northampton County, United States. The city's population was 26,800 as of the 2010 census. Easton is located at the confluence of the Delaware River and the Lehigh River 55 miles north of Philadelphia and 70 miles west of New York City. Easton is the easternmost city in the Lehigh Valley, a region of 731 square miles, home to more than 800,000 people. Together with Allentown and Bethlehem, the Valley embraces the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton metropolitan area, including Lehigh and Carbon counties within Pennsylvania, Warren County in the adjacent state of New Jersey. Easton is the smallest of the three Lehigh Valley cities, with one-fourth of the population of the largest Lehigh Valley city, Allentown. In turn, this metropolitan area comprises Pennsylvania's third-largest metropolitan area and the state's largest and most populous contribution to the greater New York City metropolitan area; the city is split up into four sections: Historic Downtown, which lies directly to the north of the Lehigh River, to the west of the Delaware River, continuing west to Sixth Street.
The boroughs of Wilson, West Easton, Glendon are directly adjacent to the city. The greater Easton area consists of the city, three townships, three boroughs. Centre Square, the town square of the city's Downtown neighborhood, is home to the Soldiers' & Sailors' Monument, a memorial for Easton area veterans killed during the American Civil War; the Peace Candle, a candle-like structure, is assembled and disassembled every year atop the Civil War monument for the Christmas season. The Norfolk Southern Railway's Lehigh Line, runs through Easton on its way to Bethlehem and Allentown heading west and to Phillipsburg, New Jersey just across the Delaware River; the Lenape Native Americans referred to the area as "Lechauwitank", or "The Place at the Forks". The site of the future city was part of the land obtained from the Delawares by the Walking Purchase. Thomas Penn set aside a 1,000 acres tract of land at the confluence of the Lehigh and Delaware rivers for a town. Easton was settled by Europeans in 1739 and founded in 1752, was so named at the request of Penn.
As Northampton County was being formed at this time, Easton was selected as its county seat. During the French and Indian War, the Treaty of Easton was signed here by the British colonial government of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Native American tribes in the Ohio Country, including the Shawnee and Lenape. Easton was an important military center during the American Revolutionary War. During the Revolutionary War, Easton had a military hospital. On 18 June 1779, General John Sullivan led 2,500 Continentals from Easton to engage British Indian allies on the frontier. Easton was one of the first three places, it is claimed that the Easton flag was flown during that reading, making it one of the first "Stars and Stripes" to fly over the colonies. This flag was used by a militia company during the War of 1812, serves as Easton's municipal flag. Sited at the confluence of the flowing Lehigh River's waters with the more stately waters of the deeper wider Delaware, Easton became a major commercial center during the canal and railroad periods of the 19th century, when it would become a transportation hub for the eastern steel industry.
The Delaware Canal, was built soon after the lower Lehigh Canal became effective in and reliably delivering much needed anthracite coal, into more settled lands along the rivers. And the Morris would serve to connect the developing Coal Regions to the north and west, to the fuel starved iron works to the west, the commercial port of Philadelphia to the south, to the many home owners seeking fuel for heat within Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York. Seeing other ways of exploiting the new fuel source, other entrepreneurs moved to connect across the Delaware River reaching into the New York City area to the east via a connection with the Morris Canal in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, so the town became a canal nexus or hub from which the Coal from Mauch Chunk reached the world; the early railroads were built to parallel and speed shipping along transportation corridors, by the late 1860s the Lehigh and Susquehanna Railroad and Lehigh Valley Railroad were built to augment the bulk traffic through the canals and provide lucrative passenger travel services.
The LVRR, known as'the Black Diamond Line' would boast the twice daily "Black Diamond Express" daily passenger trains to and from New York City and Buffalo, New York via Easton. The Central Railroad of New Jersey, would lease and operate the LH&S tracks from the 1870s until the Conrail consolidations absorbed both the Central Railroad of New Jersey and Lehigh Valley Railroad in 1966. Today, the Lehigh Valley Railroad's main line is the only major rail line that goes through Easton and is now known as the Lehigh Line.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
1949 Sun Bowl controversy
The 1949 Sun Bowl controversy refers to the student protests at Lafayette College in Easton, after a Sun Bowl invitation was extended to the Lafayette Leopards football team under the condition that the African American player, David Showell, would not play. On November 19, 1948 Lafayette College was invited by the Sun Bowl Committee to play against the Texas College of Mines, now The University of Texas at El Paso. Just four days on November 23, the Lafayette faculty voted to turn down the bid because the Sun Bowl Committee would not allow Showell to play; this bid rejection led to a large student demonstration on the Lafayette campus and in the city of Easton against segregation. West Virginia University accepted the bid after Lafayette's rejection; the Sun Bowl was played on January 1, 1949. West Virginia defeated the Texas College of Mines by a score of 21–12; the segregation policies of the Sun Bowl were in effect from the first Sun Bowl game played on January 1, 1935, in El Paso, through the 1940s.
In the case of the 1946 Orange Bowl, African American players Wallace Triplett and Dennis Hoggard could not participate due to the local police department's rules and the "incidents" that were expected to occur if they were allowed to play. This reasoning was consistent with the Sun Bowl and other major bowl games of the 1940s, it was not until the 1946 Orange Bowl game when people began to put forth the argument that "the ideals of democracy are more important than any football game."The Sun Bowl was established in the mid-1930s along with the Cotton Bowl in Dallas, the Orange Bowl in Miami, the Sugar Bowl in New Orleans. While the Sun Bowl followed the southern racial segregation policies, the 1949 Sun Bowl made a major contribution to the future desegregation of college sports; the 1948 season was one of the most successful years for the Lafayette College football team. Led by captain Danny Kovacs and standout running back David Showell, the team had a record of seven wins and two losses.
After starting the year beating Fordham University by a score of 53 to 14, Lafayette suffered a large loss in its following game at Army, losing 54 to 7. The Leopards won each of their next four games by an average scoring margin of 26 points, but they soon lost to Rutgers University by three touchdowns. After defeating Ohio Wesleyan, Lafayette set itself up for a crucial bout against its rival, Lehigh University. However, on November 19, 1948, a day before the game against Lehigh, Lafayette received a phone call from the Sun Bowl Committee inviting the team to participate in the bowl game; this invitation rendered Lafayette's season finale against Lehigh meaningless. Lafayette went on to defeat Lehigh by a score of 23 to 13, capping off the regular season. David Showell, an African American, was a prominent player for Lafayette during the 1948 football season; the Sun Bowl Committee's decision to exclude Showell from the game due to his race led to Lafayette's rejection of its Sun Bowl invitation and the subsequent student protests at the college.
On November 23, 1948, the Lafayette College faculty held a meeting to vote upon whether or not to accept the football team's invitation to the Sun Bowl. The faculty voted to turn down the bid as a result of the Sun Bowl Committee's decision to exclude David Showell; the formal announcement of the rejection, made by college officials did not contain a reason for vetoing the Sun Bowl bid. The Lafayette students, who were excited to see their football team go to the Sun Bowl, were disheartened by the announcement and made it their goal to discover the reason behind the school’s abrupt change in plans. At seven o’clock on the night of November 23, the news began to spread around the Lafayette campus as a caravan of students traversed the school grounds to recruit more protesters. Soon after, a mass of nearly 1,000 students holding flaming newspapers in hand made its way to the college's central quadrangle, which housed the materials for a bonfire; this bonfire was constructed for a pep rally to be held before the football game against Lafayette's rival, Lehigh University, but was never used due to a rain storm.
Therefore, the student mob ignited the fire to continue its demonstration. The students visited the home of Ralph Cooper Hutchison, the president of Lafayette College. Upon their arrival, President Hutchison told the students that David Showell was not invited to play in the bowl game because he was an African American. Hutchison further explained that the Sun Bowl Committee's decision to exclude Showell led to the faculty's rejection of the bowl game bid; the student protestors asked that a conditional acceptance be made to the bid as long as they allowed David Showell to play. Athletic Director Bill Anderson, who had arrived at Hutchison's house, agreed to place a call to C. D. Belding, the chairman of the Sun Bowl Committee in El Paso, Texas. During the call the Athletic Director stated, "We want a waiver on Showell, he served in Texas. He wants the boys to go without him. We are anxious to accept. If Showell can't play, we wouldn't be able to accept. So it can't be done?" Despite the call, Belding still would not let Showell play.
Upon hearing that the answer was still "No" over 1000 frustrated Lafayette students marched to the Centre Square in downtown Easton and held a protest rally against racial intolerance. A number of students rushed to the local Western Union office to wire the news of their protests to prominent individuals to denounce the Sun Bowl Committee's refusal to include Showell. One of the recipients was President Truman; the telegram to Truman read: "Denied Sun Bowl game. Is that democ