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Sun Myung Moon

Sun Myung Moon was a Korean religious leader known for his business ventures and support for political causes. A messiah claimant, he was the founder of the Unification movement, of its noted "Blessing" or mass wedding ceremony, the author of its unique theology the Divine Principle, he was an opponent of communism and an advocate for Korean reunification, for which he was recognized by the governments of both North and South Korea. Businesses he promoted included News World Communications, an international news media corporation known for its American subsidiary The Washington Times, Tongil Group, a South Korean business group, as well as various related organizations. Moon was born in; when he was a child, his family converted to Christianity. In 1947 he was convicted by the North Korean government of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. In 1954, he founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul, South Korea based on conservative, family-oriented teachings from new interpretations of the Bible.

In 1971, he moved to the United States and became well known after giving a series of public speeches on his beliefs. In the 1982 case United States v. Sun Myung Moon he was found guilty of willfully filing false federal income tax returns and sentenced to 18 months in federal prison, his case generated protests from clergy and civil libertarians, who said that the trial was biased against him. Moon was criticized for making high demands of his followers, his wedding ceremonies drew criticism after they involved members of other churches, including Roman Catholic archbishop Emmanuel Milingo. He was criticized for his relationships with political and religious figures, including U. S. Presidents Richard Nixon, George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev, North Korean President Kim Il Sung, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. Sun Myung Moon was born Moon Yong Myeong on 25 February 1920, in modern-day North P'yŏng'an Province, North Korea, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule.

He was the younger of two sons in a farming family of eight children. Moon's family followed Confucianist beliefs until he was around 10 years old, when they converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church. In 1941, Moon began studying electrical engineering at Waseda University in Japan. During this time he cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan. In 1943, he returned to Seoul and married Sun Kil Choi on 28 April 1945. On 2 April 1946 Sung Jin Moon was born. In the 1940s, Moon attended a church in Sangdo dong, led by Baek Moon Kim, who said that he had been given by Jesus the mission to spread the message of a "new Israel" throughout the world. Around this time Moon changed his given name to Sun Myung. Following World War II, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel into two trusteeships: the United States and the Soviet Union. Pyongyang was the center of Christian activity in Korea until 1945. From the late forties 166 priests and other religious figures were killed or disappeared in concentration camps, including Francis Hong Yong-ho, bishop of Pyongyang and all monks of Tokwon abbey.

In 1947 Moon was convicted by the North Korean government of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp. In 1950, during the Korean War, United Nations troops raided Hŭngnam, the guards fled. Moon traveled to Busan, South Korea. Moon emerged from his years in the labor camp as a staunch anti-communist, his teachings viewed the Cold War between democracy and communism as the final conflict between God and Satan, with divided Korea as its primary front line. In 1954, Moon formally founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul, he drew young acolytes who helped to build the foundations of church affiliated business and cultural organizations. At his new church, he preached a conservative, family-oriented value system and his interpretation of the Bible. On 8 January 1957, Choi divorced. Moon has said that when he was fifteen years old Jesus anointed him to carry out his unfinished work by becoming parent to all of humanity.

The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle is the main theological textbook of the Unification movement. It was co-written by Moon and early disciple Hyo Won Eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973; the book lays out the core of Unification theology, is held to have the status of scripture by believers. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes God's purpose in creating human beings, the fall of man, restoration – the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God intended. God is viewed as the creator, whose nature combines both masculinity and femininity, is the source of all truth and goodness. Human beings and the universe reflect God's personality and purpose. "Give-and-take action" and "subject and object position" are "key interpretive concepts", the self is designed to be God's object.

The purpose of human existence is to return joy to God. The "four-position foundation" is "another important and interpretive concept", explains in part the emph

Williams Peak (Custer County, Idaho)

Williams Peak, at 10,636 feet high is the 6th highest peak in the Sawtooth Mountains of Idaho and is located within the Sawtooth Wilderness portion of the Sawtooth National Recreation Area. The peak lies 0.75 mi north-northwest of the highest peak in the range. The town of Stanley, Idaho is 5.5 miles northeast of the peak. Views of the peak may be accessed from the scenic Idaho State Highway 75, on hiking trails from Redfish Lake and throughout the Sawtooth and White Cloud Mountains. Williams Peak is named for pioneer Dave Williams, a part of the first ascent team in 1934 along with Robert and Miriam Underhill. Williams owned the property of what is now the Idaho Rocky Mountain Ranch, which looks toward the peak. Various routes are available for hikers and climbers as the mountain's southern slopes and ridgelines offer challenging and exciting scrambling, while the steep North Face offers the peak's classic alpine climb with over 1,100 feet or 9 pitches of steep climbing. 1) The June/ North Couloir - This prominent steep couloir cuts up the northeast face to a notch just below the summit.

It's easy access from the Alpine Way Trail near Marshall Lake. The couloir has ice and snow and is blocked by a large cornice in the winter near the top; the first ascent came in 1986 by Kirk Bachman and B. Franklin. Rope up at the base of the couloir and expect variable conditions on snow and ice; the route is straightforward. At the top of the couloir, follow the ridge to the west and the south to the summit. It's only 400 feet from the top of the couloir to the summit proper; the easiest descent is to utilize the south facing routes to get back to the trail. 2) Southeast Slopes - Easy access from the Alpine Way Trail make this method the easiest and quickest route on the mountain. Winter time offers great snow ski descents here. 3) East Ridge - A more challenging route involves up and down scrambling on the prominent southeast ridge above the Southeast Slopes route. There are sections of steep, loose gullies to cross over. Mountain Goats were encountered on this route. 4) Southwest Couloir - This route is accessible from the Thompson / Williams Saddle or the Lake 8865 area.


Forever Miles Davis

Forever Miles Davis is a three-disc compilation album by American jazz musician Miles Davis, released in 1981 by independent label Madacy Special Markets. "My Funny Valentine" – 6:04 "Blues by Five" – 10:23 "Airegin" – 4:26 "Tune-Up/When Lights Are Low" – 13:09 "If I Were a Bell" – 8:18 "You're My Everything" – 5:19 "I Could Write a Book" – 5:10 "Oleo" – 6:20 "It Could Happen to You" – 6:39 "Woody'n You" – 5:02 "It Never Entered My Mind" – 5:26 "Four" – 7:15 "In Your Own Sweet Way" – 5:45 "The Theme " – 2:01 "Trane's Blues" – 8:35 "Ahmad's Blues" – 7:27 "Half Nelson" – 4:47 "The Theme " – 1:04 Rikka Arnold – project assistant Dave Brubeck – composing Johnny Burke – composer Emmanuel Campeau – cover design Chris Clough – project assistant John Coltrane – composing, tenor saxophone Miles Davis – composer, trumpet Esmond Edwards – cover design Zev Feldman – project assistant Red Garland – composer, piano Dizzy Gillespie – composer Ira Gitler – liner notes Joe Goldberg – liner notes Lorenz Hart – composer Jimmy Van Heusen – composer Terri Hinte – project assistant Ahmad Jamal – composer Philly Joe Jonesdrums Stuart Kremsky – reissue production assistant Frank Loesser – composer Jack Maher – liner notes Reid Miles – cover design Cheryl Pawelski – project assistant Nick Phillips – reissues producer, reissues supervisor Richard Rodgers – composer Sonny Rollins – composer David Roy – liner notes Rudy Van Gelder – author, remastering Bob Weinstock – supervisor Forever Miles Davis at AllMusic

Tropical Storm Etau (2009)

Tropical Storm Etau was the deadliest tropical cyclone to impact Japan since Typhoon Tokage in 2004. Forming on August 8, 2009 from an area of low pressure, the system intensified into a tropical storm. Tracking in a curved path around the edge of a subtropical ridge, Etau continued to intensify as it neared Japan. By August 10, the cyclone reached its peak intensity as a weak tropical storm with winds of 75 km/h and a barometric pressure of 992 hPa. Shortly after, Etau began to weaken. Increasing wind shear led to the center becoming devoid of convection and the system weakened to a tropical depression on August 13; the remnants of Etau persisted for nearly three days before dissipating early on August 16. Although Etau did not make landfall, the outer bands of the storm produced torrential rainfall in Japan, peaking at 326.5 mm. These rains triggered deadly flooding and mudslides in Hyōgo Prefecture. Twenty-eight people were killed by the storm and ¥7.1 billion in damage occurred throughout the affected region.

According to the Fire and Disaster Management Agency, a total of 5,602 homes were flooded and 183 were destroyed. Following the storm, 600 Japanese soldiers were deployed from Tokyo to assist in cleanup efforts. Tropical Storm Etau originated on August 5 out of an area of low pressure associated with disorganized convective activity located about 550 km east-northeast of Guam; the following day, the system relocated several dozen kilometers to the north. Convective turning began to appear on satellite imagery and a Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough cell to the north provided a northward component to the system's movement. Early on August 7, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert for the developing system as deep convection consolidated around the low pressure system. Around 0000 UTC on August 8, the Japan Meteorological Agency designated the system as a tropical depression. Several hours on August 8, the JTWC declared the system a tropical depression, classifying it at 10W.

That day, convection associated with the depression became disorganized, preventing intensification of the system. The depression tracked towards the northwest during the day in response a subtropical ridge to the north. By August 9, the center of circulation became more defined as convection wrapped around it. Around 1200 UTC, the JMA gave it the name Etau; the JTWC, did not upgrade the system to a tropical storm for several more hours. On August 10, the JTWC downgraded the storm to a tropical depression. By this time, the system had re-curved to the east around the western periphery of the subtropical ridge. Etau became disorganized as it began to interact with the baroclinic zone near Japan. Early on August 11, the JMA reported that the storm winds had peaked at 75 km/h and a barometric pressure of 992 hPa; that day, the storm once more became disorganized due to increased wind shear. On August 11, the center of Etau became devoid of convection, with only a narrow band of shower and thunderstorm activity persisting to the southeast of the center.

Increasing wind shear prevented convection from redeveloping and the storm continued to weaken. Early the following day, the JTWC issued their final advisory on Etau as they reported it had weakened to a tropical depression well to the east of Japan. 24 hours the JMA downgraded the system to a tropical depression. The final advisory on Etau was issued by the JMA early on August 14 as it tracked northward. In anticipation of wind gusts up to 126 km/h and heavy rains, Japanese officials evacuated 47,000 residents from western regions along the coast as gale warnings were declared by the JMA. Officials feared that flooding from Tropical Storm Etau would mirror that of Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan where at least 14 were killed in the country's worst flood in 50 years. Six flights in the country were canceled. Fifteen railway services were canceled due to heavy rains. According to officials in Japan, nearly 140,000 people were evacuated to shelters in relation to flooding and landslides produced by Etau.

As Tropical Storm Etau brushed Japan on August 10, torrential rains fell within its outer bands. In a 24‑hour span, a record 326.5 mm of rain fell. Initial reports stated that 13 people were killed and 10 others were missing due to the storm. Most of the fatalities took place in Hyōgo Prefecture where hundreds of homes were flooded and numerous others were damaged or destroyed by landslides. In some areas, flood waters reached a depth of 1.5 m. One man drowned after being overcome by the water. Another person was killed. In Tokushima, two people were listed as missing and two others sustained serious injuries. News reports stated that up to 18 people were missing following further landslides; the affected region was susceptible to landslides due to recent seismic activity, with a magnitude 6.4 earthquake taking place on August 10. By August 11, one of the missing persons was confirmed to have been killed during the storm. About 800 people were placed in public shelters and 53,000 homes were left without running water.

By August 12, a total of 18 people were confirmed to have been killed and nine others were still missing. Three bridges in

Baháʼí Faith in Turkmenistan

The Baháʼí Faith in Turkmenistan begins before Russian advances into the region when the area was under the influence of Persia. By 1887 a community of Baháʼí refugees from religious violence in Persia had made a religious center in Ashgabat. Shortly afterwards — by 1894 — Russia made Turkmenistan part of the Russian Empire. While the Baháʼí Faith spread across the Russian Empire and attracted the attention of scholars and artists, the Baháʼí community in Ashgabat built the first Baháʼí House of Worship, elected one of the first Baháʼí local administrative institutions and was a center of scholarship. During the Soviet period religious persecution made the Baháʼí community disappear — however, Baháʼís who moved into the regions in the 1950s did identify individuals still adhering to the religion. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991, Baháʼí communities and their administrative bodies started to develop across the nations of the former Soviet Union; as of 2007 the religion had still failed to reach the minimum number of adherents to register and individuals have had their homes raided for Baháʼí literature.

The Baháʼí community of Ashgabat was founded in about 1884 from religious refugees from Persia. One of the most prominent members of the community was Mirza Abu'l-Faḍl Gulpaygani, an Apostle of Baháʼu'lláh, who lived in Ashgabat off and on from 1889 to 1894. A short time after moving there, the assassination of one of the Baháʼís there, Haji Muhammad Rida Isfahani occurred and Gulpaygani helped the Baháʼí community to respond to this event and he was the spokesman for the Baháʼís at the trial of the assassins; this event established the independence of the Baháʼí Faith from Islam both for the Russian government and for the people of Ashgabat. Under the protection and freedom given by the Russian authorities, the number of Baháʼís in the community rose to 4,000 by 1918 and for the first time anywhere in the world a true Baháʼí community was established, with its own hospitals, workshops, newspapers and House of Worship; the city population was between 50 thousand at this time. This first Baháʼí House of Worship was constructed inside the city of Ashgabat.

The design of the building was started in 1902, the construction was completed in 1908. The House of Worship in Ashgabat has been the only Baháʼí House of Worship thus far to have the humanitarian subsidiaries associated with the institution built alongside it; the city of Merv had a Baháʼí community, while it was less developed. The Baháʼí community in the city received permission to build a House of Worship which they did on a smaller scale. By the time the effects of the October Revolution began to spread across the Russian Empire transforming it into the Soviet Union, Baháʼís had spread east through Central Asia and Caucasus, north into Moscow, Leningrad and Kazan with the community of Ashgabat alone numbering about 3000 adults. After the October Revolution the Ashgabat Baháʼí community was progressively severed from the rest of the worldwide Baháʼí community. In 1924 Baháʼís in Merv had a special committee for the advancement of women; the religion still grew in organization when the election of the regional National Assembly of the Baháʼís of the Caucasus and Turkistan in 1925.

However, the Baháʼí House of Worship was expropriated by the Soviet authorities in 1928, the Baháʼí schools had been closed in 1930, the House of Worship was leased back to the Baháʼís until 1938 when it was secularized by the communist government and turned into an art gallery. The records of events shows an increasing hostility to the Baháʼís between 1928 and 1938. From 1928 free rent was set for five years, the Baháʼís were asked to make certain repairs, which they did, but in 1933, before the five-year rent agreement expired the government decided expensive renovations would be required. These unexpected requirements were accomplished, but in 1934 complaints about the condition of the building were again laid. Inquires from abroad silenced the complaints. In 1936 escalated demands were made beyond the resources of the local community; the Baháʼís of Turkistan and the Caucasus rallied and were able to sustain the construction requested. The government made moves to confiscate the main gardens of the property to provide for a playground of a school which would wall off the grounds from the Baháʼís — leaving only an entrance to the temple through a side entrance rather than the main entrance facing the front of the property.

Protests lead to the abandonment of this plan. The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake damaged the building and rendered it unsafe, it was demolished in the site converted into a public park. With the Soviet ban on religion, the Baháʼís adhering to their principle of obedience to legal government, abandoned its administration and its properties were nationalized. By 1938, with the NKVD and the policy of religious oppression most Baháʼís were sent to prisons and camps or abroad. In the case of Ashgabat, Baháʼí sources indicate on 5 February the members of the assembly, leaders of the community and some general members of the commun

Germán Arenas Zuñiga

Germán Arenas y Loayza was a Peruvian lawyer and politician. He was a member of the Civilista Party, he was born in Peru. He graduated from the National University of San Marcos, he served in the Chamber of Deputies of Peru. He was three times minister of the interior and minister of economy and finance in the Government of Peru, he was twice Prime Minister of Peru. Basadre, Jorge: Historia de la República del Perú. 1822 - 1933, Octava Edición, corregida y aumentada. Tomos 10, 11, 12 y 13. Editada por el Diario "La República" de Lima y la Universidad "Ricardo Palma". Impreso en Santiago de Chile, 1998. Chirinos Soto, Enrique: Historia de la República. Desde Sánchez Cerro hasta Alan García. Tomo II. Lima, AFA Editores Importadores S. A. 1985. Tauro del Pino, Alberto: Enciclopedia Ilustrada del Perú. Tercera Edición. Tomo 3, ANG/BED. Lima, PEISA, 2001. ISBN 9972-40-151-0