A sunbeam, in meteorological optics, is a beam of sunlight that appears to radiate from the Sun's position. Shining through openings in clouds or between other objects such as mountains and buildings, these beams of particle-scattered sunlight are separated by darker shadowed volumes. Despite converging toward the light source, the beams are parallel shafts of directly sunlit particles separated by shadowed ones, their apparent convergence in the sky is a visual illusion from linear perspective. This illusion causes the apparent convergence of the otherwise parallel lines of a long straight road or hallway at a distant vanishing point; the scattering particles that make sunlight visible may be air particulates. Crepuscular rays or "God rays" are sunbeams that originate when the sun is below the horizon, during twilight hours. Crepuscular rays are noticeable when the contrast between dark are most obvious. Crepuscular comes from the Latin word "crepusculum". Crepuscular rays appear orange because the path through the atmosphere at sunrise and sunset passes through up to 40 times as much air as rays from a high midday sun.
Particles in the air scatter short wavelength light through Rayleigh scattering much more than longer wavelength yellow and red light. In some cases, sunbeams may extend across the sky and appear to converge at the antisolar point, the point on the celestial sphere opposite of the Sun's direction. In this case, they are called antisolar rays or anticrepuscular rays; this apparent dual convergence is a perspective effect analogous to the apparent dual convergence of the parallel lines of a long straight road or hallway at directly opposite points. Airglow Anticrepuscular rays Light beam Rayleigh scattering Tyndall effect Volumetric lighting Sunrays - Crepuscular rays, Explanation & Images Detailed description of how crepuscular rays occur
Marshall's Store known as DeHaven's Store, or the Marshall/DeHaven Store, is a commercial building located at 102 East St. Joseph Street in Lawrence, Michigan, it was designated a Michigan State Historic Site in 1979 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. Hannibal M. Marshall was born in Antwerp, New York in 1835, moved with his family first to Oakland County, Michigan and to Van Buren County, Michigan in 1838, he taught school for three years in 1859 began clerking in Dr. Nelson Rowe's store in Hartford, Michigan. At the end of the year, he went into business for himself; the store prospered, by 1874 Marshall was able to construct this large building in the village of Lawrence. Marshall owned the store through the end of the 19th century; until 1902 the third floor of his building was used by Masons and other fraternal organizations as a meeting place. In 1906, the store was purchased by Levi C. DeHaven. DeHaven was born in 1852, in 1871 purchased a store in Bangor, Michigan.
He had multiple other business ventures, including purchasing the "Big Store" in Bangor in 1900. After purchasing Marshall's store, DeHaven changed the name to "DeHaven and Sons." He operated both the Lawrence and Bangor stores until 1924, when he sold the Lawrence store to Henry R. Phillips. Phillips continued to operate the store using the name, "DeHaven's Store" until his death in 1965. After Phillips' death, the store closed for good, having served as the main grocery and dry goods store in Lawrence from its construction through the mid-20th century; the structure remained vacant until 1976. From 1977 to 1983, the DeHaven Store served as the home of the Whole Art Theatre Company, it has remained one of the best preserved and most distinctive Italianate commercial buildings in the region. Marshall's Store is located at the center of the village of Lawrence, is by far the largest and most visually striking building in the commercial district, it is a three-story red brick Italianate structure stretching five bays wide.
The first floor has two doors. The name "DEHAVENS STORE" is painted directly on the bricks above the entrance
The Toyota AZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The AZ series uses an aluminium engine block with cast iron cylinder liners and aluminium DOHC cylinder heads; the engine series features many advanced technologies including slant-squish combustion chambers, offset cylinder and crank centers, the VVT-i continuously variable intake valve timing system. The aluminium engine measures 626 mm long, 608 mm wide, 681 mm tall; the cylinder block is an open-deck, midi-skirt die-cast aluminium type with cast-in iron liners and a die-cast aluminium lower crankcase and a stamped oil pan. The forged steel crankshaft is balanced with eight counterweights and supported by five main bearings. A helical gear pressed in No. 3 counterweight drives twin contra-rotating balance shafts in the shaft housing within the lower crankcase. The dual overhead camshafts are driven by a single-stage roller chain of 8 mm pitch, enabling a narrow included valve angle of 27.5°. The camshafts act on four valves per cylinder via bucket tappets.
As in the recent Toyota engine practice, no clearance adjusting shim is employed. Valve diameters are 34 mm for intake and 29.5 mm for exhaust, with 8 mm lift for both intake and exhaust. The four-vane VVT-i device is fitted on the intake camshaft, altering timing by 50°; the valve cover is made of magnesium to save weight. Fuel is injected sequentially via an ultra-fine-atomization injector with twelve small injection holes, each 0.18 mm in diameter. As in the smaller NZ engine, the new AZ adopts a plastic, built-up, vibration-welded intake manifold integrating a large volume plenum chamber. Exhaust manifolds are of tubular construction with integrated catalytic converters; the AZ is the replacement for the S engine. Its successor is the AR engine; the 2AZ-FE engine in the 2007-2009 Camry is involved in this lawsuit. Other engines are affected. If this Toyota engine is burning more than 1 US quart of oil in 1,200 miles, has less than 150,000 miles, is less than 10 years old, Toyota service will perform a free oil consumption test to determine if your engine is affected.
There are 1,715,200 vehicles covered by this Warranty Enhancement Program. The 1AZ line of engines have 2.0 L displacements. The 1AZ-FE is a 2.0 L version. Output is 108 kW at 6000 rpm with 190 N⋅m of torque at 4000 rpm for the Camry Aurion version. Rav4 and Ipsum engines were rated at 148–150 hp at 6000 rpm and 142 lb⋅ft of torque at 4000 rpm; the 1AZ has a total displacement of 2.0 L with 86 mm × 86 mm bore and stroke, a compression ratio of 9.6:1. The 1AZ-FSE is a 2.0 L version. Bore and stroke is 86 mm × 86 mm, a compression ratio of 11.0:1. Output is 149 PS at 5700 rpm with 196 N⋅m of torque at 4000 rpm; the 1AZ-FSE features Toyota's D-4 direct injection system. The 2AZ line of engines have 2.4 L displacements. The 2AZ-FE is a 2.4 L version built in Japan, at TMMK in the USA and built in China for select Scion xB models, obtains a total displacement of 2.4 L with 88.5 mm × 96 mm bore and stroke, with a compression ratio of 9.6:1. Output is 160 hp at 5600 rpm. Versions of the 2AZ-FE engine were upgraded with 9.8:1 compression ratio, a more aggressive intake cam profile, 6500 rpm redline, piston oil squirters.
These versions are rated at 161 hp in the Scion tC, 177 hp in the RAV4, 158 hp in the Camry, Corolla XRS, Scion xB, 170 hp for the Previa/Estima. However, these 2AZ-FE models were the first to be rated under the new SAE J1349 standard; the new standard produces more conservative numbers, though no definitive comparison is available since the two versions were never tested by the same standard. The RAV4 uses a different timing chain cover from the Camry, they can however be interchanged. A TRD supercharger was available for the Scion tC until Spring 2009. There have been complaints of this engine "burning oil" in North America, with the issue starting after 45,000 miles, though after 60,000–75,000 miles. Piston ring design has been identified as a potential problem. Toyota has not issued a recall. Alternative theories point to a head gasket problem: the 2AZ-FE aluminum block threads may wear out on the back three middle bolts. Check TSB SB-0015-11. There are several class-action lawsuits underway regarding this issue.
In January 2015, Toyota North America issued extended warranty notification for this issue for Toyota North America vehicles only. The 2AZ-FSE is a 2.4 L version. Bore and stroke is 88.5 mm × 96 mm, a compression ratio of 11.0:1. Output is 163 PS at 5800 rpm with 231 N⋅m of torque at 3800 rpm; the 2AZ-FSE features Toyota's D-4 direct injection system. The 2AZ-FXE is an Atkinson cycle variant of the 2AZ-FE, it has the same bore and stroke. It has a physical compression ratio of 12.5:1. The large valve overlap leads to a reduction in cylinder charge and reduced torque and power output, but efficiency is increased; this combination makes the 2AZ-FXE suitable for use only in hybrid vehicles, where peak torque and power demands can be met by the electric motor and battery. Maximum output