World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Sunbeam Motor Car Company
Sunbeam Motor Car Company Limited was a British motor car manufacturer with its works at Moorfields in Blakenhall, a suburb of Wolverhampton in the county of Staffordshire, now West Midlands. Its Sunbeam name had been registered by John Marston in 1888 for his bicycle manufacturing business. Sunbeam motor car manufacture began in 1901; the motor business was sold to a newly incorporated Sunbeam Motor Car Company Limited in 1905 to separate it from Marston's pedal bicycle business. In-house designer Coatalen's enthusiasm for motor racing accumulated expertise with engines. Sunbeam manufactured their own aero engines during the First World War and 647 aircraft to the designs of other manufacturers. Engines drew Sunbeam into Grand Prix racing and participation in the achievement of world land speed records. In spite of its well-regarded cars and aero engines, by 1934 a long period of slow sales had brought continuing losses. Sunbeam was unable to repay money borrowed for ten years in 1924 to fund its Grand Prix racing programme, a receiver was appointed.
There was a forced sale, Sunbeam was picked up by the Rootes brothers. Manufacture of Sunbeam's now old-fashioned cars did not resume under the new owners, but Sunbeam trolleybuses remained in production. Rootes had intended to sell luxury cars under the Sunbeam name, but four years after their purchase, in 1938, the two brothers instead chose to add the name Sunbeam to their Talbot branded range of Rootes designs calling them Sunbeam-Talbots. In 1954 they dropped the word Talbot. Sunbeam continued to appear as a marque name on new cars until 1976, it was used as a model name, firstly for the Chrysler Sunbeam from 1977 to 1979, following the takeover of Chrysler Europe by PSA Group, for the Talbot Sunbeam from 1979 through to its discontinuation in 1981. John Marston, the London-educated son of a sometime mayor of Ludlow and landowner, had been apprenticed to Edward Perry, tinplate-works master and twice mayor of Wolverhampton. In 1859 aged 23 Marston bought two other tinplate manufacturers in Bilston, four miles away, set himself up on his own account.
On Perry's death Marston bought his Jeddo Works in Paul Street Wolverhampton, left Bilston and continued Perry's business. An avid cyclist he established his Sunbeamland Cycle Factory in 1897 in his Paul Street premises manufacturing and assembling pedal bicycles he branded Sunbeam, his Sunbeam trademark was registered in 1893. In 1895 a company, John Marston Limited, was incorporated and took ownership of John Marston's business; the Sunbeam trademark was registered for motor-cars in 1900. Rugby-educated Thomas Cureton 1863–1921 began as his apprentice became Marston's right-hand man in the cycle works and the cautious advocate of a motor-car venture, their board of directors did not favour it but Marston and Cureton continued their project. Between 1899 and 1901 Sunbeam produced a number of experimental cars driven about Wolverhampton but none was offered for sale. In late 1900 they announced the purchase in Blakenhall of "a large area of land in Upper Villiers Street for the erection of works for the manufacture of cars" alongside the premises of Marston's Villiers Engineering business.
The first announcement of their new autocar was in 22 September 1900 issue of The Autocar but no full description was provided to the public until February 1901. It would be supplied with a 2-seater body on a channel steel frame powered by a 4-horsepower horizontal engine with electric ignition intended to run at 700 rpm and have two forward speeds and reverse using belt drive to differential gears on the live axle. Dimensions: weight 10 cwt, overall measurements 84 inches by 57 inches; the first production car branded Sunbeam was not Marston and Cureton's but a car designed and developed by a young architect, Maxwell Mabberly-Smith, powered by a single-cylinder 2¾ horsepower De Dion engine. Described as a "sociable" it carried two passengers sitting close together facing the roadside from above a central belt-drive. To begin with they faced opposite roadsides; this layout provided propinquity while maintaining propriety. Their driver at his tiller sat behind them his body facing the opposite roadside.
Wheels were arranged in a diamond formation. They used a frame like a motorised quadracycle version of Starley's Coventry Rotary and were to be referred to by The Automotor Journal as "the curiously light vehicles with which their name has for some time been associated"; the Sunbeam Mabley was a limited success, several hundred sold in 1901 and 1902 at £130. More stock was still in the Sunbeam catalogue in early 1904 with the following specification: single cylinder 74 x 76 mm. 327 cc engine designed to run at 1,800 rpm, 2-speed gearbox, central wheels driven by belt chain drives from the differential. Weight 4½ cwt. Price £120 At the annual Stanley Cycle Show in November 1902 Sunbeam approved by the magazine's correspondent, displayed beside more Mableys a 12-horsepower four-cylinder car with the engine beneath a bonnet at the front, camshaft within the "crank chamber", a four-speed gearbox and all four artillery wheels of the same size fitted with pneumatic tyres. Price 500 guineas or £525.
Listed in February 1904 its specification was: four cylinders 80 × 120 mm. 1527 cc engine designed to run at 1,000 rpm, four-speed gearbox, rear wheels driven by chain drives from the differential. Weight 16 cwt. Price £512. In February 1904 the 12-horsepower car was given a six-cylinder 16-horsepower stablemate. Like the 12 the new engine was designed to give its full power at what were then considered low engine speeds. Particular note was made that special attention had once more been paid to further controlling the airflow beneath the car's apron and the chassis to reduce t
The Bill is a British police procedural television series, first broadcast on ITV from 16 October 1984 until 31 August 2010. The programme originated from a one-off drama, broadcast in August 1983. In its final year on air, The Bill was broadcast once a week on Tuesdays or Thursdays, in a one-hour format; the programme focused on the lives and work of one shift of police officers, rather than on any particular aspect of police work. The Bill was the longest-running police procedural television series in the United Kingdom, among the longest running of any British television series at the time of its cancellation; the title originates from "Old Bill", a slang term for the police. Although acclaimed by fans and critics, the series attracted controversy on several occasions. An episode broadcast in 2008 was criticised for featuring fictional treatment for multiple sclerosis; the series has faced more general criticism concerning its levels of violence prior to 2009, when it occupied a pre-watershed slot.
The Bill won several awards, including BAFTAs, a Writers' Guild of Great Britain award and Best Drama at the Inside Soap Awards in 2009, this being the series' fourth consecutive win. Throughout its 27-year run, the programme was always broadcast on the main ITV network. In years, episodes of the show were repeated on ITV3 on their week of broadcast; the series has been repeated on other digital stations, including Gold, Watch and Drama. In March 2010, executives at ITV announced that the network did not intend to recommission The Bill, that filming on the series would cease on 14 June 2010; the last episode aired on 31 August 2010. The Bill was conceived by Geoff McQueen in 1983 a new television writer, as a one-off drama. McQueen had titled the production Old Bill, it was picked up by Michael Chapman for ITV franchise holder Thames Television, who retitled it Woodentop as part of Thames's "Storyboard" series of one-off dramas and was broadcast on ITV under the title Woodentop on 16 August 1983.
Woodentop starred Mark Wingett as PC Jim Carver and Trudie Goodwin as WPC June Ackland of London's Metropolitan Police, both attached to the fictional Sun Hill police station. Although only intended as a one-off, Woodentop impressed ITV to the extent that a full series was commissioned, first broadcast on 16 October 1984 with one post-watershed episode per week, featuring an hour-long, separate storyline for each episode of the first three series; the first episode of the full series was "Funny Ol' Business – Cops & Robbers". With serialisation, the name of the show changed from Woodentop to The Bill. In its first four years the series was broadcast between July onwards each year, with a 12-week summer break from May until the next July. With a full ensemble cast to explore new characters not featured or just mentioned in Woodentop, the focus of the storylines soon shifted away from new recruit Carver and towards Detective Inspector Roy Galloway and Sergeant Bob Cryer; the series changed to two episodes, each of 30 minutes on Tuesdays and Thursdays, per week in 1988, increasing to three a week beginning in 1993, with the third episode being broadcast on Fridays.
In 1998, The Bill returned to hour-long episodes, which became twice-weekly, with the Friday episode being dropped, at which point the series adopted a much more serialised approach. When Paul Marquess took over as executive producer in 2002, as part of a drive for ratings, the series was revamped, bringing in a more soap opera type feel to many of its stories. Many veteran characters were written out, leading to the Sun Hill fire during 2002. Marquess stated that the clearout was necessary to introduce "plausible, powerful new characters"; as part of the new serial format, much more of the characters' personal lives were explored, however, as Marquess put it, the viewers still "don't go home with them". The change allowed The Bill to become more reflective of modern policing with the introduction of officers from ethnic minorities, most notably the new superintendent, Adam Okaro, it allowed coverage of the relationship of homosexual Sergeant Craig Gilmore and PC Luke Ashton, a storyline which Marquess was determined to explore before rival Merseybeat.
In 2005, Johnathan Young took over as executive producer. The serial format was dropped and The Bill returned to stand-alone episodes with more focus on crime and policing than on the personal lives of the officers. 2007 saw the reintroduction of episode titles, dropped in 2002. In 2009, The Bill moved back to the 9pm slot it held and the theme tune, "Overkill", was replaced as part of a major overhaul of the series. On 26 March 2010, ITV announced it would be cancelling the series that year after 26 years on air. ITV said; the last episode of The Bill was filmed in June 2010 and broadcast on 31 August 2010 followed by a documentary titled Farewell The Bill. Fans of the show started a'Save the Bill' campaign on social networking website Facebook in an effort to persuade ITV to reconsider the cancellation, some radio broadcasters, including BBC Radio 1's Chris Moyles, presented special features on the programme's cancellation. At the time of the series' end in August 2010, The Bill was the United Kingdom's longest-running police drama and was among the longest-running of any British television series.
The series finale, entitled "Respect", was aired in two parts and was dedicated to "the men and women of the Metropolitan Police Service past and present". The finale storyline concerned gang member Jasmine Harris being involved in the murder of fellow member Liam
The Hillman Fourteen is a medium-sized 4-cylinder car announced by Hillman's managing director Spencer Wilks, a son-in-law of William Hillman, at the end of September 1925. This new Fourteen increased Hillman's market share and remained on sale into 1931. During this time it was the main product of the company. Late 1920s fashion when engines and other mechanicals were fixed to the chassis decreed that a medium-sized car like the Fourteen should be given a six-cylinder engine to reduce vibration. So the 2-litre Fourteen's place was taken by the 2.1-litre six-cylinder Hillman Wizard 65 in April 1931. This Wizard 65 was itself dropped in 1933; the 2.8-litre Wizard 75 continued re-named 20/70 alongside a 2.6-litre Sixteen and a 3.2-litre Hawk, all of six cylinders. For four years Hillman had no offering in the 2-litre slot; the six-cylinder cars were not as successful as had been expected and in October 1937 a new 2-litre 4-cylinder Hillman Fourteen with a handsome new body filled their previous place in the Hillman range.
Hillman now offered this new Fourteen. In 1946 production resumed but the former Hillman Fourteens were now given a protruding boot lid and no running boards and badged Humber Hawk. In the early 1920s Hillman had concentrated on smaller cars with the 10 and 11 hp models but with their 14 horsepower car they entered the larger sized class taking on the Austin 12 hp and Humber 14/40; the new Hillman was priced at £345 for the saloon, undercutting the Austin which sold for £455, it was advertised as "the car that costs less than it should". EngineThe engineering was conventional with a 72 x 120 mm long stroke, side-valve 1954 cc, four-cylinder 35 bhp engine built in-unit with a four-speed gearbox and spiral bevel geared rear axle. ChassisFour wheel, cable operated, drum brakes were fitted from the start but unusually a vacuum servo was an option; the handbrake had its own set of shoes on the rear brakes. The steel section chassis had semi-elliptic leaf springs all round. In a test by The Autocar magazine, the top speed was around 55 miles per hour and fuel consumption 23-24 mpg.
BodiesA range of bodies were offered including tourers. The cars were well fitted out and spacious with a right-hand gear change by the driver's door, a feature regarded as up-market at the time. Safety glass was fitted in the windows of the 1928 Safety Saloon. Wire spoked or artillery wheels could be specified. A V-windscreened landaulette was advertised in 1927. Standard equipment included: clock, oil gauge, screen wiper, driving mirror, shaded dash-lamp, licence holder, rug rail, floor carpets etc. In early January 1925 The Times motoring correspondent described the new Hillman's engine as lively enough and vibration-free but the suspension was hard. There was no undue hum from the gears. All the controls including steering and brakes were said to work well and the seats and back, described as comfortable; the car's maximum speed over level ground was said to be 50-55 mph. Update September 1927Following two years of production improvements were introduced in September 1927 for that year's motor show.
The wheelbase was lengthened by 2 in. The steering was improved for a smoother and lighter action and the column rake was now adjustable; the front brake cables were replaced with rods. The engine received larger crankshaft and connecting rod bearings and an anti-detonating design adopted for the cylinder head. A Weymann fabric bodied 4-light 4-door sports saloon with safety glass option and a 6-light Safety saloon joined the range; the artillery wheel option was dropped. Dipping headlights were a new feature. Separate seats replaced both back and front seats were widened. There were changes to the mudguards and running boards; the export car was widened to 67 in its track to 56 in inches. A water-impeller and a large top radiator tank were fitted to export cars. During 1928 the Rootes brothers obtained control of Hillman. A new deeper radiator appeared in early September 1928 with larger headlamps on a cross-bar between the wings; the wider bodies had been lowered three inches without reducing head clearance.
The body range was rationalised to a standard saloon, fabric saloon, Segrave coupé, tourer and Huski fabric-bodied sports tourer. There were major changes to a strengthened chassis and an increase in the track of the home market cars from 52 in to 56 in. Other upgrades included a stronger Hardy-Spicer propellor shaft with metal joints, more powerful brakes and shock absorbers all round. An oil pressure gauge was added to the dashboard. October 1929For 1930 a stronger frame was provided together with longer springs employing Silentbloc spring shackles and improved brakes. Olympia Motor Show October 1930Three Fourteens were on Hillman's stand, a 2-door drop head coupé, a 4-door safety tourer and a 6-light Weymann saloon with a sunshine roof. Front seats could now slide for adjustment and a petrol gauge was provided on the instrument panel; the brakes receive servo assistance on the safety model. All the cars displayed had safety glass; the following month the chairman advised shareholders at the annual meeting that the Fourteen continued to be well-received but six months after the motor show at the end of April 1931 its place was taken by the Hillman Wizard 65.
Olympia October 1937First displayed at the Olympia Motor Show in October 1937 some of its thunder was stolen by the "Ghost Minx" displayed beside it. Holes had been replaced by Perspex panels. BodyThe new 2-litre Hillman Fourteen was a much prett
Humber Super Snipe
The Humber Super Snipe is a car, produced from 1938 to 1967 by British-based Humber Limited. The Super Snipe was introduced in October 1938, derived by combining the four-litre inline six-cylinder engine from the larger Humber Pullman with the chassis and body of the Humber Snipe powered by a three-litre engine; the result was a top speed of 79 mph -- fast for its day. Its design was contributed to by American engine genius Delmar "Barney" Roos who left a successful career at Studebaker to join Rootes in 1936; the Super Snipe was marketed to upper-middle-class managers, professional people and government officials. It was low-priced for its large size and performance, was similar to American cars in appearance and concept, in providing value for money. Within a year of introduction, World War II broke out in Europe but the car continued in production as a British military staff car, the Car, 4-seater, 4x2, while the same chassis was used for an armoured reconnaissance vehicle, the Humber Light Reconnaissance Car.
United Kingdom: British Army, Royal Navy, RAF In 1946, post-war civilian production resumed and the Super Snipe evolved though several versions, each designated by a Mark number, each larger, more powerful, more modern, until production ended in 1957 with the Mark IVB version. The Mark I was a 6-cylinder version of the 1945 Humber Hawk, itself a facelifted pre-war car. A version of the 1930s Snipe remained available, with the 1936-introduced 2731 cc engine. However, the standard Super Snipe engine was the 4086cc side-valve engine that had appeared in the Humber Pullman nearly a decade earlier, in 1936, which would continue to power post-war Super Snipes until 1952. Throughout the years 1936–1952 the maximum power output of the engine was always given by the manufacturer as 100 bhp at 3400 rpm; the Mark II announced in mid-September 1948 was redesigned in chassis and body. Now a full six-seater with a bench-type front seat it was given a wider track and a variable ratio steering unit; the gear lever was now mounted on the steering column.
Like Humber's Pullman the headlights were fitted into the wings and running-boards were re-introduced. The transverse-spring independent suspension, first introduced on the Snipe and Pullman in 1935, continued but with 14 leaves instead of eight; the smaller-engined Snipe was discontinued. Early Mark II Super Snipes can be distinguished by round lamps below the head lamps; the left one was a fog lamp, the right one was a "pass" lamp with a low narrow beam for passing cars when using dipped headlights. These were dropped in 1949 in favour of rectangular side lamps which were continued in the Mark III; the Times motoring correspondent tested the new car at the end of 1948. The spare wheel was criticized as being difficult to extract and the indirect gears were, he thought, not as quiet as they might be. Overall the finish reflected the excellent taste that distinguished Rootes Group products125 drophead coupés were made by Tickford in 1949 and 1950; the Mk III followed in August 1950. Identifiable by spats over the rear wheels it had a Panhard rod added to the rear suspension which limited sideways movement of the rear wheels and so permitted the use of softer springs.
The 1950 car can be distinguished from the previous model by the simpler dome-shaped bumpers and the rectangular stainless-steel foot-treads on the running-boards. A Mk III tested by The Motor magazine in 1951 had a top speed of 81.6 mph and could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 19.1 seconds. A fuel consumption of 17.7 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £1,471 including taxes; the all-new Mark IV Super Snipe announced mid-October 1952, Earls Court Motor Show time, used a Hawk Mk IV body shell lengthened by 6 in but with a 4138 cc 113 bhp overhead-valve engine used in a Rootes Group Commer truck. Chassis and suspension components were uprated to take the greater weight and power of the Super Snipe, those parts ceasing to be interchangeable with those of the Hawk. From 1955, overdrive was available as an option, followed in 1956 by an automatic gearbox. Shortly after the car's announcement Leslie Johnson, Stirling Moss, two Rootes Group staff, drove a new silver-grey Super Snipe from Oslo to Lisbon, travelling through fifteen European countries in 3 days, 17 hours and 59 minutes.
The run demonstrated the car's high-speed reliability in far from ideal conditions. In 1953 The Motor tested a Mk IV and found the larger engine had increased performance with the top speed now 91 mph and acceleration from 0-60 mph in 14.7 seconds. Fuel consumption had increased to 15.5 miles per imperial gallon. The test car cost more at £1,481, including taxes; the Automatic Mk IV saloon tested by The Motor in 1956 Ref. 21/56 Continental, recorded a maximum speed of 97.0mph and 98.9mph. 0–60 mph acceleration was 14.8 sec, with a 0–90 in 38.2 sec, The Standing Quarter Mile was 20.4 sec. The axle ratio was 3.7:1 and maximum bhp 122 on a 7.13:1 compression ratio, as stated in the data panel of this road test. In 1957 The Times commented, it attracted favourable attention from passers-by and gave its occupants a satisfying sense of solidity and respectability. The two separate front seats were described as "enormous" and it was noted their backs could be reclined to the horizontal for a passenger to sleep.
The steering was described as imprecise, uncomfortably low-geared for parking, in need of power assistance. The car represented "remarkably fine" value for money. In October 1958, a new Super Snipe was introduced and first presented to the public at
The Humber Snipe was a four-door luxury saloon introduced by British-based Humber Limited for 1930 as a successor to the Humber 20/55 hp at the same time as the similar but longer Humber Pullman. The first Humber Snipe was launched in September 1929 under the banner headline "Such Cars As Even Humber Never Built Before", it showed the influence of William Rootes' marketing skills following the appointment of Rootes Limited as Humber's "World Exporters" and a significant similarity to his Hillmans. Three years Humber Limited joined what became known as the Rootes Group as part of a necessary restructure of Humber's capital and ownership in July 1932. Snipes and Super Snipes became Rootes Group's owner-driver big car offerings until the brand disappeared under Chrysler ownership; the Snipe, or from late 1932, Snipe 80 featured a 3498-cc six-cylinder engine of 80 mm bore and 116 mm stroke with the overhead-inlet, side-exhaust valve gear, a feature of the company’s six-cylinder engines since the mid-1920s.
A single Stromberg carburettor was fitted. The four speed transmission had a right hand change lever until 1931 when it moved to the centre of the car facilitating the production of left hand drive examples; the shutters on the radiator grille were opened and closed thermostatically to control the flow of cooling air. For 1933 the engine was redesigned to have overhead valves producing an extra 5 bhp. Bendix mechanical brakes were fitted; the conservatively boxy 4 or 6 light saloon body with spare wheels mounted on the front wings incorporated rear-hinged doors for back passengers. A fabric saloon, sports saloon and drophead coupé were listed and bare chassis were supplied to outside coachbuilders. In 1930 on the home market the chassis sold for £410, the tourer £495, coupé £565 and saloon £535. With a 120-inch wheelbase and a total length of 173 inches, the car was, by the standards of the British market and more spacious than the average family car such as the more mainstream Hillman Minx of that time, the Hillman business having been acquired by Humber in 1928.
With the success of the Snipe, Humber was seen to be succeeding, "where many had failed, in marketing large cars at competitive prices". There were several minor body updates for 1933 including windscreen wipers mounted below rather than above the screen, recessed direction indicators and two tone paint on the 4-light sports saloon. 1205 of the 1933 models were made. In 1931 a fleet of Snipes was used by the Prince of Wales on his tour of the West Indies; the body and chassis were shared with 16-60 models. 1936 saw the wheelbase grow by 4 inches to 124 inches while the overall length of the standard-bodied car increased by 2 inches. The chassis was new with independent front suspension using a transverse spring. A vacuum servo was fitted to the braking system. Body styles available were 4-light and 6-light saloons, a sports saloon and a drophead coupé; the car now featured a side-valve 6-cylinder engine of 4086 cc with a stated output of 100 hp, used in the post war Super Snipe. A top speed of 84 mph was claimed.2652.
The same chassis and body range was used for the smaller engined Humber 18. Prompted by concern that the Snipe was outgrowing the wishes of the market place, the 1938 Snipe was the smallest-engined Snipe to date, with a wheelbase reduced to 114 inches, but the total length was still 175 inches, reflecting the more streamlined shape which the body, the same as on the Hillman 14, had now acquired; the six-cylinder side-valve engine of 3180 cc propelled the car to a claimed top speed of 79 mph, reflecting a power-output reduction to 75 hp.1938 changes for the 1939 models saw a new cross braced chassis and hydraulic brakes. The Snipe and its sister model become more differentiated from one another, since the Humber Pullman continued to be offered with the older, more powerful 4086-cc engine.2706 were made. Civilian availability ended in 1940 when the factory was given over to production of the ’Ironside’ Reconnaissance Car, though Humber saloons based on pre-war designs continued to be built for government use.
Before the end of 1945, Humber had announced its post-war model range. Four cars were listed, which resembled the Humbers offered just before the war. At the top of the range was the Humber Pullman; the other three models shared a body which, while smaller than that of the Pullman sustained the Humber tradition of offering a lot of car for the money. These were the six-cylinder Humber Snipe and Humber Super Snipe; the six-cylinder engine of the 1945 Snipe was a side-valve unit, of only 2731 cc. The engine block dated back to the Humber 18 of 1935. Maximum power output and speed were stated as 65 hp and 72 mph. For customers who remembered the Snipe as a more powerful vehicle, the car could be specified with the 4086-cc 100-hp engine, fitted in the 1930s and, still the standard power unit in the 1945 Humber Pullman. Fitted with this engine, the car was branded as the Humber Super Snipe; when the Humber range was upgraded for 1948, the Snipe was withdrawn, leaving only the Hawk and the Super Snipe listed, alongside the larger Pullman.
1240 were made. "Such Cars As Even Humber Never Built Before" All-weather tourer