An animation studio is a company producing animated media. The broadest such companies conceive of products to produce, own the physical equipment for production, employ operators for that equipment, hold a major stake in the sales or rentals of the media produced, they own rights over merchandising and creative rights for characters created/held by the company, much like authors holding copyrights. In some early cases, they held patent rights over methods of animation used in certain studios that were used for boosting productivity. Overall, they can function as such in legal terms. There are about 201 animation studios dedicated to the production and distribution of animated films that are active. Few are actual production houses. Many of these animation studios help with the fulfillment of animation works for big brand names and have carried out outsourced projects including Nemo. Winsor McCay was renowned as the father of the animated cartoon, having converted his cartoon strip Little Nemo into a 10-minute feature film, co-directing it along with J. Stuart Blackton, released on April 8, 1911.
However, the idea of a studio dedicated to animating cartoons was spearheaded by Raoul Barré and his studio, Barré Studio, co-founded with Bill Nolan, beating out the studio created by J. R. Bray, Bray Productions, to the honour of the first studio dedicated to animation. Though beaten to the post of being the first studio, Bray's studio employee, Earl Hurd, came up with patents designed for mass-producing the output for the studio; as Hurd did not file for these patents under his own name, but handed them to Bray, they would go on to form the Bray-Hurd Patent Company and sold these techniques for royalties to other animation studios of the time. The patents for animation systems using drawings on transparent celluloid sheets and a registration system that kept images steady were held under this firm. Bray developed the basic division of labor still used in animation studios; the biggest name in animation studios during this early time was Disney Brothers Animation Studio, co-founded by Walt and Roy O. Disney.
Started on October 16, 1923, the studio went on to make its first animated short, Steamboat Willie in 1928, to much critical success, though the real breakthrough was in 1937, when the studio was able to produce a full-length animated feature film i.e. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, which laid the foundation for other studios to try to make full-length movies. In 1932 Flowers and Trees, a production by Walt Disney Productions and United Artists, won the first Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film; this period, from the 1920s to the 1950s or sometimes considered from 1911 to the death of Walt Disney in 1966, is known as the Golden Age of American Animation as it included the growth of Disney, as well as the rise of Warner Bros. and MGM as prominent animation studios. Disney continued to lead in technical prowess among studios for a long time afterwards, as can be seen with their achievements. In 1941, Otto Messmer created the first animated television commercials for Botany Tie ads/weather reports.
They were shown on NBC-TV in New York until 1949. This marked the first forays of animation designed for the smaller screen and was to be followed by the first animated series made for television, Crusader Rabbit, in 1948, its creator, Alex Anderson, had to create the studio'Television Arts Productions' for the purpose of creating this series as his old studio, refused to make a series for television. Since Crusader Rabbit however, many studios have seen this as a profitable enterprise and many have entered the made for television market since, with Bill Hanna refining the production process for television animation on his show Ruff and Reddy, it was in 1958 that The Huckleberry Hound Show claimed the title of being the first all new half-hour cartoon show. This, along with their previous success with the series Tom and Jerry, elevated Hanna's animation studio, Hanna-Barbera Productions, to dominate the North American television animation market during the latter half of the 20th Century. In 2002, produced by DreamWorks and Pacific Data Images won the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature.
Since Disney/Pixar have produced the most number of movies either to win or be nominated for the award. Direct-to-video animation has seen a rise, as a concept, in the Western markets. With many comic characters receiving their versions of OVA's, original video animations, under the Westernized title of direct-to-video animations, the OVA market has spread to American animation houses. Though the term "direct-to-video" carries negative connotations in the North American and European markets, their popularity has resulted in comic characters ranging from Hellboy, Green Lantern and Avengers, to television shows such as Family Guy and Futurama, all releasing direct-to-video animations. DC Comics have continually released their own animated movies for the sole purpose of sale in the direct-to-video market. With growing worries about piracy, direct to video animation might become more popular in the near future With the growth of animation as an industry, the trends of ownership of studios has changed with time.
Current studios such as Warner Bros. and early ones such as Fleischer Studios, started life as small, independent studios, being run by a small core group. After being bought out or sold to other companies, they consolidated with other studios and became larger; the drawback of this setup was that there was now a major thrust towards profitability with the management acting as a damper towards creativity of these
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Super Sunday (TV series)
Super Sunday was a 1980s animated television series produced by Sunbow Productions and Marvel Productions. Super Sunday was a half-hour block with four six-minute matinée segments of Jem and the Muscle Machines and Inhumanoids, it aired on various television stations in syndication on Sunday mornings from October 6, 1985 to October 1986. In markets that the series aired on Saturday, the series was retitled Super Saturday, it aired as Super Week--this was a five-day tryout that featured the first five chapters of Robotix while beginning Bigfoot and the Muscle Machines at the tug of war. The series were cycled through, only two or three of the four different segments appeared in a given episode, it begin with Robotix and Bigfoot added Jem dropped Robotix for Inhumanoids dropped Bigfoot after the rerun of the final segment Despite all four shorts being collected into stand-alone made-for-TV movies, only Inhumanoids and Jem went on to be expanded into independent full-length shows. Super Sunday on IMDb Super Sunday at the Big Cartoon DataBase
G. I. Joe is a line of action figures owned by the toy company Hasbro; the initial product offering represented four of the branches of the U. S. armed forces with the Action Soldier, Action Sailor, Action Pilot, Action Marine and on, the Action Nurse. The name derived from the usage of "G. I. Joe" for the generic U. S. soldier, itself derived from the more general term "G. I.". The development of G. I. Joe led to the coining of the term "action figure". G. I. Joe's appeal to children has made it an American icon among toys; the G. I. Joe trademark has been used by Hasbro for several different toy lines, although only two have been successful; the original 12-inch line introduced on February 2, 1964 centered on realistic action figures. In the United Kingdom, this line was known as Action Man. In 1982 the line was relaunched in a 3.75-inch scale complete with vehicles, a complex background story involving an ongoing struggle between the G. I. Joe Team and the evil Cobra Command which seeks to take over the Free World through terrorism.
As the American line evolved into the Real American Hero series, Action Man changed, by using the same molds and being renamed as Action Force. Although the members of the G. I. Joe team are not superheroes, they all had expertise in areas such as martial arts and explosives. G. I. Joe was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2003; the original idea for the action figure that would become G. I. Joe was developed in 1963 by a Manhattan licensing agent. Weston made rudimentary prototypes of the figure and basic marketing materials that showed the sales potential of a military action figure; when he showed these materials to Donald Levine, a Hasbro executive, Levine told Weston "You will make a fortune with these." Weston subsequently licensed the entire concept to Hasbro for US$100,000. The conventional marketing wisdom of the early 1960s was that boys would not play with dolls and parents would not buy their sons dolls which have been traditionally a girl’s toy.
I. Joe. "Action figure" was the only acceptable term, has since become the generic description for any poseable doll intended for boys. "America's movable fighting man" is a registered trademark of Hasbro, was prominently displayed on every boxed figure package. The Hasbro prototypes were named "Rocky" "Skip" and "Ace", before the more universal name G. I. Joe was adopted. One of the prototypes would sell in a Heritage auction in 2003 for $200,001. Aside from the obvious trademarking on the right buttock, other aspects of the figure were copyrighted features that allowed Hasbro to pursue cases against producers of cheap imitations, since the human figure itself cannot be copyrighted or trademarked; the scar on the right cheek was one. Early trademarking, with "G. I. Joe™", was used through some point in 1965. I. Joe was a registered trademark. I. Joe®" now appears on the first line. Subsequently, the stamped trademarking was altered after the patent was granted, assigned a number. Figures with this marking would have entered the retail market during 1967.
By the late 1960s, in the wake of the Vietnam War, Hasbro sought to downplay the war theme that had defined "G. I. Joe"; the line became known as "The Adventures of G. I. Joe". In 1970, Hasbro settled on the name "Adventure Team". Highlights of the line included: To coincide with the new direction, "Life-Like" flocked hair and beard, an innovation developed in England by Palitoy for their licensed version of Joe, Action Man, is introduced in 1970. A retooled African American Adventurer was introduced, which came in two versions as did the others in the series, bearded or shaven. In 1974, named after the popular martial art, Hasbro introduced "Kung-Fu Grip" to the G. I. Joe line; this was another innovation, developed in the UK for Action Man. The hands were molded in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to grip objects in a more lifelike fashion. In 1976, G. I. Joe was given eagle eye vision; this would be the last major innovation for the original line of 12-inch figures. A shift in play patternsFor its first ten years, G.
I. Joe was a generic soldier/adventurer with only the slightest hints of a team concept existing. In 1975, after a failed bid to purchase the toy rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure: Mike Power, Atomic Man. One million units were sold. Added to the Adventure Team was a superhero, Bullet Man; this character had The Intruders -- Strongmen from Another World. Comics included with figures at the time featured "Eagle Eye" Joe, Atomic Man, Bullet Man operating together; the original 12-inch G. I. Joe line ended in America in 1976. At this time, Hasbro released a line of inexpensive, rotationally molded mannequins in the G. I. Joe style called The Defenders. From 1966 through 1984, Palitoy Ltd. produced a British version of the 12-inch G. I. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market; these were the same designs as the American figures, at first the same military theme which included figures from World War II. The line expanded the line to include all men of action, like footbal
A film studio is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, handled by the production company. The majority of firms in the entertainment industry have never owned their own studios, but have rented space from other companies. There are independently owned studio facilities, who have never produced a motion picture of their own because they are not entertainment companies or motion picture companies; the largest film studio in the world is Ramoji Film City, in India. In 1893, Thomas Edison built the first movie studio in the United States when he constructed the Black Maria, a tarpaper-covered structure near his laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey, asked circus and dramatic actors to perform for the camera, he distributed these movies at vaudeville theaters, penny arcades, wax museums, fairgrounds. The first film serial, What Happened to Mary, was released by the Edison company in 1912; the pioneering Thanhouser film studio was founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by American theatrical impresario Edwin Thanhouser.
The company produced and released 1,086 films between 1910 and 1917 distributing them around the world. In the early 1900s, companies started moving to California. Although electric lights were by widely available, none were yet powerful enough to adequately expose film; some movies were shot on the roofs of buildings in Downtown Los Angeles. Early movie producers relocated to Southern California to escape Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company, which controlled all the patents relevant to movie production at the time; the first movie studio in the Hollywood area was Nestor Studios, opened in 1911 by Al Christie for David Horsley. In the same year, another 15 independents settled in Hollywood. Other production companies settled in the Los Angeles area in places such as Culver City and what would soon become known as Studio City in the San Fernando Valley; the Big 5 By the mid-1920s, the evolution of a handful of American production companies into wealthy motion picture industry conglomerates that owned their own studios, distribution divisions, theaters, contracted with performers and other filmmaking personnel, led to the sometimes confusing equation of "studio" with "production company" in industry slang.
Five large companies, 20th Century Fox, RKO Pictures, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer came to be known as the "Big Five," the "majors," or "the Studios" in trade publications such as Variety, their management structures and practices collectively came to be known as the "studio system." The Little 3 Although they owned few or no theaters to guarantee sales of their films, Universal Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists fell under these rubrics, making a total of eight recognized "major studios". United Artists, although its controlling partners owned not one but two production studios during the Golden Age, had an often-tenuous hold on the title of "major" and operated as a backer and distributor of independently produced films. Smaller studios operated with "the majors." These included operations such as Republic Pictures, active from 1935, which produced films that matched the scale and ambition of the larger studio, Monogram Pictures, which specialized in series and genre releases.
Together with smaller outfits such as PRC TKO and Grand National, the minor studios filled the demand for B movies and are sometimes collectively referred to as Poverty Row. The Big Five's ownership of movie theaters was opposed by eight independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, David O. Selznick, Walt Disney, Hal Roach, Walter Wanger. In 1948, the federal government won a case against Paramount in the Supreme Court, which ruled that the vertically integrated structure of the movie industry constituted an illegal monopoly; this decision, reached after twelve years of litigation, hastened the end of the studio system and Hollywood's "Golden Age". By the 1950s, the physical components of a typical major film studio had become standardized. Since a major film studio has been housed inside a physically secure compound with a high wall, which protects filmmaking operations from unwanted interference from paparazzi and crazed fans of leading movie stars. Movement in and out of the studio is limited to specific gates, where visitors must stop at a boom barrier and explain the purpose of their visit to a security guard.
Studio premises feature multiple sound stages along with an outside backlot, as well as offices for studio executives and production companies. There is a studio "commissary", the traditional term in the film industry for what other industries call a company cafeteria. Early nitrate film was notoriously flammable, sets were and are still flammable, why film studios built in the early-to-mid 20th century have water towers to facilitate firefighting. Halfway through the 1950s, with television proving to be a lucrative enterprise not destined to disappear any time soon—as many in the film industry had once hoped—movie studios were being used to produce programming for the burgeoning medium; some midsize film companies, such as Republic Pictures sold their studios to TV production concerns, which were bought by larger studios, such as the American Broadcasting Company, purchased by The Walt Disney Company i
My Little Pony (TV series)
My Little Pony is an American animated television series produced by Sunbow Productions and Marvel Productions based on the My Little Pony toys released by Hasbro. The series featured; the second segment would be an unrelated cartoon based on another Hasbro franchise - including The Glo Friends, MoonDreamers and the Potato Head Kids. The series debuted on September 15, 1986, nearly three months after the release of My Little Pony: The Movie, ended on September 25, 1987. Two previous television specials were edited into segments of My Little Pony'n Friends: Rescue at Midnight Castle and Escape from Catrina; the complete series of My Little Pony segments has been released on DVD in Regions 1 and 4. Other sections have been released on DVD such as "My Little Pony: The Glo Friends" as of 2013. Ponyland is a mystical land, home to all kinds of magical creatures; the Little Ponies make their home in Paradise Estate, living a peaceful life filled with song and games. However, not all of the creatures of Ponyland are so peaceful, the Ponies find themselves having to fight for survival against witches, trolls and all the other beasts that would love to see the Little Ponies destroyed, enslaved or otherwise harmed.
Bettina Bush as Megan Charlie Adler as Spike Susan Blu as Buttons, Paradise Nancy Cartwright as Gusty, Baby Heart Throb, Baby Cuddles, Truly, Surf Rider Jeannie Elias as Whizzer, Baby Lickety-Split, Magic Star, Sweet Stuff, Sun Shower Ellen Gerstell as Lofty, Mimic, Scoops Skip Hinnant as narrator Keri Houlihan as Molly Katie Leigh as Fizzy, Heart Throb, Lickety-Split, Baby Shady, Baby Gusty, Baby Tiddley-Winks, Water Lily Sherry Lynn as Galaxy, Cherries Jubilee, Baby Half-Note, Baby Ribbon, Baby Sundance Scott Menville as Danny Sarah Partridge as Wind Whistler Russi Taylor as Cupcake, Morning Glory B. J. Ward as Surprise, North Star, Peach Blossom, Forget-Me-Not Jill Wayne as Baby Lofty, ShadyAdditional voices by Michael Bell, Joey Camen, Melanie Gaffin, Tress MacNeille, Frank Welker Earth Ponies are like normal horses, but brightly colored as many creatures in Dream Valley are. Pegasus Ponies are agile winged horses who can fly in the skies of Dream Valley and go beyond the rainbow to our world.
Unicorn Ponies possess a single horn on their forehead and are able to wink out, making them phase out and disappear. Flutter Ponies are shy but powerful creatures with magic in their gossamer wings, granting them flight as well as various undefined abilities, they live in a remote area of Dream Valley known as Flutter Valley. Sea Ponies are brightly colored seahorse-like creatures who dwell in the rivers and lakes of Dream Valley; the Bushwoolies, a joyful species of furballs that think alike. They seem to be led by a blue Bushwoolie named Hugster; the Furbobs, cousins of the Bushwoolies. They walk on four legs as opposed to Bushwoolies who seem to walk on the equivalent of two legs. Unlike the Bushwoolies, they disagree with each other. Stone Backs, ferocious looking armadillo-like creatures, they are enemies of the Furbobs until Megan helps the Furbobs realize that the two species can overcome their differences with love and understanding. The Grundles, a small race of creatures ruled by the Grundle King.
They used to live in Grundleland. Three human children, siblings Megan and Molly fly across the Rainbow to join the Little Ponies; the group seeks advice on magical matters from the Moochick, a wise but eccentric gnome who lives in the nearby Mushromp, his rabbit assistant, Habbit. St. Michael, Tempo Video My Little Pony on IMDb My Little Pony at TV.com
The Transformers: The Movie
The Transformers: The Movie is a 1986 animated science fiction action adventure film based on the animated television series by the same name, which in turn is based on the toyline of the same name created by Hasbro. It was released in North America on August 8, 1986, in the United Kingdom on December 12, 1986; the film was co-produced and directed by Nelson Shin, who produced the original Transformers television series. The screenplay was written by Ron Friedman; the movie features the voices of Eric Idle, Judd Nelson, Leonard Nimoy, Casey Kasem, Robert Stack, Lionel Stander, John Moschitta, Jr. Peter Cullen and Frank Welker, it marked the final roles for both Orson Welles, who died the year before its release, Scatman Crothers, who died months after its release. The film's story takes place in 2005, 20 years after the events of the TV series' second season, serves to bridge into the third season. After the death of Optimus Prime during a devastating assault on Autobot City, the remaining Autobots are pursued by Galvatron, the regenerated form of Megatron and servant of Unicron, a planet-devouring Transformer who sets out to consume Cybertron.
The film is set to a soundtrack of synth-based incidental music composed by Vince DiCola and hard-driving metal music performed by various groups. The film features several grand battles in which multiple characters meet their end in a somewhat brutal fashion; this has led the film to be considered a dark film for its target audience. In 2005, the war between the Autobots and Decepticons has culminated in the Decepticons conquering their home planet Cybertron, while the Autobots operate from its two moons preparing a counter-offensive. Optimus Prime sends an Autobot shuttle to Earth's Autobot City for Energon supplies, but the Decepticons, led by Megatron, commandeer the ship and kill the crew, consisting of Ironhide, Ratchet and Brawn. Travelling to Earth, the Decepticons attack Autobot City, slaughtering many Autobots and leaving only a small group alive including Hot Rod, Ultra Magnus, Springer, Perceptor and the human Daniel Witwicky; the next day and the Dinobots arrive as reinforcements.
Optimus single-handedly defeats the Decepticons and engages Megatron in a climactic battle that leaves both of them mortally wounded. On his deathbed, Optimus passes the Matrix of Leadership to Ultra Magnus, informing him that its power will light the Autobots' darkest hour, dies. Elsewhere, the Decepticons jettison their wounded from Astrotrain, including Megatron at the hands of his treacherous second-in-command Starscream; the wounded are found by a gigantic sentient cyber-planet who consumes other planets. Unicron offers Megatron a new body in exchange for destroying the Matrix, which has the ability to destroy him. Megatron reluctantly agrees and is converted into Galvatron, while the corpses of the Decepticons jettisoned along with him are used to create his new troops. Going to Cybertron, Galvatron crashes Starscream's coronation as Decepticon commander and destroys him, before travelling to Autobot City to eliminate Ultra Magnus; the surviving Autobots escape in separate shuttles, which are damaged by the Decepticons and crash land on different planets.
Hot Rod and Kup are taken prisoner by the Quintessons, multi-faced tyrants who hold kangaroo courts and execute prisoners by feeding them to the Sharkticons. Hot Rod and Kup learn of Unicron from Kranix, a survivor of Lithone – a planet devoured by Unicron. After Kranix is executed, Hot Rod and Kup escape their own trial, aided by the arrival of the Dinobots and the small Autobot Wheelie, who helps them find a ship to leave the planet; the other Autobots land on the Junk Planet, where Galvatron kills Ultra Magnus and seizes the Matrix, intending on using it to control Unicron. The Autobots reunite and befriend the local Junkions, led by Wreck-Gar, who rebuild Magnus. Learning Galvatron has the Matrix, the Autobots and Junkions fly to Cybertron, which Unicron, discovered to be a gigantic Transformer now in robot form, begins to destroy; the Autobots crash their spaceship through Unicron's eye. Daniel rescues his father Spike and Jazz and Cliffjumper from being devoured. Hot Rod confronts Galvatron, who tries to form an alliance, but is forced into attacking Hot Rod by Unicron.
Hot Rod obtains the Matrix, which converts him into Rodimus Prime, the Autobot that Optimus said would light their darkest hour. Rodimus uses the Matrix's power to destroy Unicron from the inside; the Autobots celebrate the war's end and Cybertron's retaking, while Unicron's severed - and regenerating - head orbits Cybertron. The film was budgeted at $6 million, six times greater than the budget used to create 90 minutes of the regular cartoon series. Nelson Shin's team of one hundred personnel took three months to make one episode of the series, so, despite the extra budget, faced considerable time constraints in making the film whilst continuing production on the TV series at the same time. According to Shin, the decisions on which characters to include or kill off were made by Hasbro. "They created the story using characters. Only with that consideration could I have freedom to change the storyline." Shin came up with the concept of the Transformers changing color when they died: "When Optimus Prime died, I changed his color from red and blue into grey to show the spirit was gone from his body."Toei Animation Vice President Kozo Morishita spent one year in the US during production of the film.
Morishita supervised the art direction, insisting the Transformers themselves be given several layers of shading and shadows to give them a mo