Sundance Film Festival

The Sundance Film Festival is an annual film festival organized by the Sundance Institute. It takes place each January in Park City, Salt Lake City, at the Sundance Resort, is the largest independent film festival in the United States, it includes competitive categories, includes documentary and dramatic films, both feature length and short films, in which awards are given, as well as out-of-competition categories for showcasing new films. The 2020 Sundance Film Festival took place from January 23 to February 2, 2020. Sundance is the largest independent film festival in the US, with more than 46,660 attending in 2016, it is held in January in Park City, Salt Lake City and the Sundance Resort and acts as a showcase for new work from American and international independent filmmakers. The festival consists of competitive sections for American and international dramatic and documentary films, both feature films and short films, a group of out-of-competition sections, including NEXT, New Frontier, Midnight and Documentary Premieres.

Sundance began in Salt Lake City in August 1978 as the Utah/US Film Festival in an effort to attract more filmmakers to Utah. It was founded by Sterling Van Wagenen, head of Robert Redford's company Wildwood, John Earle of the Utah Film Commission; the 1978 festival featured films such as Deliverance, A Streetcar Named Desire, Midnight Cowboy, Mean Streets, The Sweet Smell of Success. The goal of the festival was to showcase American-made films, highlight the potential of independent film, increase visibility for filmmaking in Utah; the main focus of the event was to conduct a competition for independent American films, present a series of retrospective films and filmmaker panel discussions, celebrate the Frank Capra Award. The festival highlighted the work of regional filmmakers who worked outside the Hollywood system. In 1979, Sterling Van Wagenen left to head up the first-year pilot program of what became the Sundance Institute, James W. Ure took over as executive director, followed by Cirina Hampton Catania.

More than 60 films were screened at the festival that year, panels featured many well-known Hollywood filmmakers. That year, the first Frank Capra Award went to Jimmy Stewart; the festival made a profit for the first time. In 1980, Catania left to pursue a production career in Hollywood. In 1981, the festival moved to Park City and changed the dates from September to January; the move from late summer to midwinter was done by the executive director Susan Barrell with the cooperation of Hollywood director Sydney Pollack, who suggested that running a film festival in a ski resort during winter would draw more attention from Hollywood. It was called the US Video Festival. In 1984, the now well-established Sundance Institute, headed by Sterling Van Wagenen, took over management of the US Film Festival. Gary Beer and Van Wagenen spearheaded production of the inaugural US Film Festival presented by Sundance Institute, which included Program Director Tony Safford and Administrative Director Jenny Walz Selby.

The branding and marketing transition from the US Film Festival to the Sundance Film Festival was managed under the direction of Colleen Allen, Allen Advertising Inc. by appointment of Robert Redford. In 1991, the festival was renamed the Sundance Film Festival, after Redford's character the Sundance Kid from the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid. UK-based publisher C21 Media first revealed in October 2010 that Robert Redford was planning to bring the Sundance Film Festival to London, in March the following year, Redford announced that Sundance London would be held at The O2, in London from 26–29 April 2012. In a press statement, Redford said, "We are excited to partner with AEG Europe to bring a particular slice of American culture to life in the inspired setting of The O2, in this city of such rich cultural history, it is our mutual goal to bring to the UK, the best in current American independent cinema, to introduce the artists responsible for it, in essence, help build a picture of our country, broadly reflective of the diversity of voices not always seen in our cultural exports."The majority of the film screenings, including the festival's premieres, would be held within the Cineworld cinema at The O2 entertainment district.

The 2013 Sundance London Festival was held 25–28 April 2013, sponsored by car-maker Jaguar. Sundance London 2014 took place on 25–27 April 2014 at the O2 arena. Sundance London returned to London from 2–5 June 2016, again 1–4 June 2017, both at Picturehouse Central in London's West End; the 2018 and 2019 events continued at the same venue. Films shown at the 2019 event included the controversial dark tale The Nightingale, US comedy Corporate Animals, Lulu Wang's The Farewell and Sophie Hyde's film based on Emma Jane Unsworth's novel about female friendship, Animals. Inaugurated in 2014, Sundance Film Festival: Hong Kong has taken place in 2016, 2017, 2018 and from 19 September to 1 October 2019; the 2020 event has not been scheduled yet. It is held at The Metroplex in Kowloon Bay each year. From 2006 through 2008, Sundance Institute collaborated with the Brooklyn Academy of Music on a special series of film screenings, panel discussions, special events bringing the institute's activities and the festival's programming to New York City.

Many notable independent filmmakers received their big break at Sundance, including Kevin Smith, Robert Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino, Todd Field, David O. R

1913 Kendal by-election

The Kendal by-election was a Parliamentary by-election. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, elected by the first past the post voting system. Josceline Bagot was twice returned as Conservative MP for Kendal, He died on 1 March 1913. John Weston was selected by the Unionists to defend the seat; the Liberals chose local man William Somervell. Somervell explained his defeat, the doubling of the Unionist majority, by claiming that Weston had been elected because he was a ‘semi-Liberal’ and a popular local man. Somervell was to enter parliament at a by-election in May 1918. Following boundary changes, Kendal was merged into the new Westmorland seat for the 1918 elections. Weston was endorsed by the Coalition Government. Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1885-1918. London: Macmillan. Who's Who: Debrett's House of Commons 1916


Pellaea is a genus of ferns in the Cheilanthoideae subfamily of the Pteridaceae. The genus name is derived from the Greek word πελλος, meaning "dark," and refers to the bluish-gray stems. Members of the genus are known as cliffbrakes, they grow in rocky habitats, including moist rocky canyons and bluffs. They are most abundant and diverse in the southwestern United States south into Andean South America and southern Africa, eastern Australia to New Zealand, they have creeping rhizomes and pinnately to bipinnately compound leaves lacking prominent scales or trichomes on the blades. Like most members of Pteridaceae, they have marginal sori protected by a false indusium formed from the reflexed leaf margin; the distinction of Pellaea from the hairier or scalier Cheilanthes has proven difficult, with some members being of uncertain affinity, listed by different authors in both genera. Furthermore, Pellaea contains a number of sections that may warrant generic status since they appear to represent convergence in phenotypes related to arid habitats rather than similarity due to common descent.

These sections are: Pellaea section Pellaea: includes most American members of the genus as well as a single African member. The genus Ormopteris, long combined with Pellaea as a section, was recognized as a separate genus again in 2015. Members of the genus are not used for any commercial purpose, although several species are cultivated as indoor plants; as of January 2020, the Checklist of Ferns and Lycophytes of the World recognized the following species: USDA PLANTS Profile