The Sundanese are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. They number 40 million, form Indonesia's second most populous ethnic group, after the neighboring Javanese. In their language, the Sundanese refer to themselves as Urang Sunda, while Orang Sunda or Suku Sunda is its Indonesian equivalent; the Sundanese have traditionally been concentrated in the provinces of West Java, Banten and the western part of Central Java. Sundanese migrants can be found in Lampung and South Sumatra, to lesser extent in Central Java and East Java; the name Sunda derives from the Sanskrit prefix su- which means "goodness" or "possessing good quality". An example is suvarna used to describe gold. Sunda is another name for Hindu God Vishnu. In Sanskrit, the term Sundara or Sundari means "beautiful" or "excellence"; the term Sunda means bright, purity and white. The Sundanese are of Austronesian origins who are thought to have originated in Taiwan, migrated through the Philippines, reached Java between 1,500 BC and 1,000 BC.
There is a hypothesis that argues that the Austronesian ancestors of contemporary Sundanese people came from Sundaland, a sunken massive peninsula that today forms the Java Sea, the Malacca and Sunda straits, the islands between them. According to recent genetic study, together with Javanese and Balinese has equal ratio of genetic marker shared between Austronesian and Austroasiatic heritages; the Sunda Wiwitan belief contains the mythical origin of Sundanese people. The oldest of these bataras is called Batara Cikal and is considered the ancestor of the Kanekes people. Other six bataras ruled various locations in Sunda lands in Western Java. A Sundanese legend of Sangkuriang contain the memory of the prehistoric ancient lake in Bandung basin highland, which suggest that Sundanese inhabit the region since Mesolithic era, at least 20,000 years ago. Another popular Sundanese proverb and legend mentioned about the creation of Parahyangan highlands, the heartland of Sundanese realm; this legend suggested the Parahyangan highland as the playland or the abode of gods, as well as suggesting its natural beauty.
The earliest historical polity which appeared in the Sundanese realm in the Western part of Java was the kingdom of Tarumanagara, which flourished between the 4th and 7th century. Hindu influences reached the Sundanese people as early as the 4th century CE as is evident in Tarumanagara inscriptions; the adoption of this dharmic faith in Sundanese way of life was, never as intense as their Javanese counterparts. It seems that despite the central court beginning to adopt Hindu-Buddhist culture and institution, the majority of common Sundanese still retained their native natural and ancestral worship. By the 4th century, the older megalithic culture was still alive and well next to the penetrating Hindu influences. Court cultures flourished in ancient times, for example, during the era of Sunda Kingdom, however the Sundanese appear not to have had the resources nor desire to construct large religious monuments similar to those built by Javanese in Central and East Java; the traditional rural Sundanese method of rice farming, by ladang or huma, in contrast to Javanese irrigated sawah wet rice cultivation contributed to small populations of sparsely inhabited Sundanese villages.
Geographic constraints that isolate each region led Sundanese villages to enjoy their simple way of life and their independence more. That was the factor that would contribute to the carefree nature, conservative and somewhat individualistic social outlook of Sundanese people; the Sundanese seem to love and revere their nature in spiritual ways, leading to them adopting some taboos in order to conserve the nature and maintain the ecosystem. The conservative tendency and their somewhat opposition to foreign influences, is demonstrated in extreme isolationist measures adopted keenly by Kanekes or Baduy people, they have rules against interacting with outsiders and adopting foreign ideas and ways of life. They have set some taboos, such as not cutting trees nor harming forest creatures, in order to conserve their natural ecosystem. One of the earliest historical records that mentions the name "Sunda" appears in the Sanghyang Tapak inscription dated 952 saka discovered in Cibadak, near Sukabumi.
In 1225, a Chinese writer named Chou Ju-kua, in his book Chu-fan-chi, describes the port of Sin-t'o, which refers to the port of Banten or Kalapa. By examining these records, it seems that the name "Sunda" started to appear in the early 11th century as a Javanese term used to designate their western neighbours. A Chinese source more refers to it as the port of Banten or Sunda Kelapa. After the formation and consolidation of the Sunda Kingdom's unity and identity during the Pajajaran era under the rule of Sri Baduga Maharaja, the shared common identity of Sundanese people was more established, they adopted the name "Sunda" to identify their people and their language. Inland Pasundan is mountainous and hilly, until the 19th century, was thickly forested and sparsely populated; the Sundanese traditionally live in small and isolat
Sambal is a chili sauce or paste made from a mixture of a variety of chili peppers with secondary ingredients such as shrimp paste, ginger, scallion, palm sugar, lime juice. Sambal is an Indonesian loan-word of Javanese origin, it is native to the cuisines of Indonesia, popular in Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Singapore. It has spread through overseas Indonesian populations to the Netherlands and Suriname. Various recipes of sambals are served as hot and spicy condiments for dishes, such as lalab, ikan bakar, ikan goreng, ayam goreng, ayam penyet, iga penyet and various soto soup. Traditional sambals are freshly made using traditional tools, such as mortar. Sambal can be cooked; the chili pepper, garlic and tomato are freshly ground using a mortar, while the terasi or belacan is fried or burned first to kill its pungent smell as well as to release its aroma. Sambal might be prepared in bulk, as it can be stored in a well-sealed glass jar in the refrigerator for a week to be served with meals as a condiment.
However, some households and restaurants insist on making freshly prepared sambal just a few moments prior to consuming in order to ensure its freshness and flavor. In most warung and restaurants, most sambal is prepared daily in bulk and offered as a hot and spicy condiment. Today some brands of prepared, instant, or ready-to-use sambal are available in warung, traditional markets and convenience stores. Most are bottled sambal, with a few brands available in aluminum sachet packaging. Compared to traditional sambals, bottled instant sambals have a finer texture, more homogenous content, thicker consistency, like tomato ketchup, due to the machine-driven manufacturing process. Traditionally made sambals ground in a pestle and mortar have a coarse texture and consistency. Several brands produce bottled sambals, among others are Huy Fong Foods' sambal oelek, Heinz ABC sambal terasi and several variants of sambal Indofood; the most common kinds of peppers used in sambal are: Adyuma known as habanero: a spicy and block-shaped pepper.
Cayenne pepper: a shiny and elongated pepper. Madame Jeanette: a yellow–light green, irregularly shaped pepper. Bird's eye chili known as cabe rawit in Javanese: a spicy, green–red, elongated pepper 10 millimeters wide and 50 mm long. Chili peppers known as lombok in Javanese: a mild, green–red, elongated pepper. Green chili peppers are milder than red ones. Cabe taliwang: a pepper spicier than the Bird's eye chili, similar in spiciness to the naga jolokia, its name is the origin from which Lombok Island, or "the Island of the Chili", derives its name. In the Indonesian archipelago, there are as many as 300 varieties of sambal; the intensity ranges from mild to hot. Some varieties include: Sambal andaliman Similar to sambal lado mudo but with the addition of andaliman pepper. Sambal asam. Asam means sour in Indonesian. Sambal bajak Banten sambal. Chili fried with oil, garlic, candlenuts, palm sugar and other condiments; this is richer in flavor than sambal asam. Sambal balado Minangkabau style sambal.
Chili pepper or green chili is blended together with garlic, red or green tomato and lemon or lime juice sauteed with oil. Sambal buah specialty of Palembang, made from the mixture of chili, shrimp paste and pineapple. Sambal cibiuk a sambal recipe specialty of Garut Regency, West Java, it consist of coarsely chopped and ground green bird's eye chili, green raw tomato, galangal, lemon basil, shrimp paste and salt. Sambal colo-colo From Ambon, it consists of Indonesian kecap manis, tomato pieces and lime it has a chiefly sweet taste, it is suitable for barbecue dishes. Some variations will add vegetable oil to the sambal. Sambal dabu-dabu Dabu-dabu comes close to the Mexican salsa sauce, it is of Manado's origin, it consists of coarsely chopped tomatoes, calamansi or known as lemon cui or jeruk kesturi, chopped bird's eye chili, red chili, poured with hot vegetable oil, salt. Sambal durian or Sambal tempoyak; the fermentation process takes 3 to 5 days. The chili and the tempoyak may be mixed or served separately, to cater the individual preference in ratio of chili to tempoyak to determine the scale of hotness.
This sambal IS available in two varieties: cooked. In the cooked variety, pounded chilis and lemongrass are stir-fried with anchovies and turmeric leaf. Petai and tapioca shoots are frequently added; the sweet-sour-hot sambal can be found in Sumatra and Kalimantan in Palembang and Bengkulu, in Malay Peninsula. Sambal gandaria Freshly ground sambal terasi with shredded gandaria, a kind of tropical fruit native to Southeast Asia. Sambal goreng Literally means "fried sambal", it is a mix of crisp fried red shallots and green chili, shrimp paste and salt stir-fried in coconut oil. It can be made into a whole different dish by adding other ingredients, such as sambal goreng ati or sambal goreng udang. Sambal jenggot Sambal with an addition of grated coconut, similar to urap. Sambal
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. The cypriniformes are traditionally grouped with the Characiformes and Gymnotiformes to create the superorder Ostariophysi, since these groups share some common features; these features include being found predominantly in fresh water and possessing Weberian ossicles, an anatomical structure derived from the first five anterior-most vertebrae, their corresponding ribs and neural crests. The third anterior-most pair of ribs is in contact with the extension of the labyrinth and the posterior with the swim bladder; the function is poorly understood, but this structure is presumed to take part in the transmission of vibrations from the swim bladder to the labyrinth and in the perception of sound, which would explain why the Ostariophysi have such a great capacity for hearing. Most cypriniformes have scales and teeth on the inferior pharyngeal bones which may be modified in relation to the diet.
Tribolodon is the only cyprinid genus. Several species return to fresh water to spawn. All of the other cypriniformes have a wide geographical range; some consider all cyprinid fishes carp, the family Cyprinidae itself is known as the carp family. In colloquial use, carp refers only to several larger cyprinid species such as Cyprinus carpio, Carassius carassius, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis. Carp have long been an important food fish to humans. Several species such as the various goldfish breeds and the domesticated common carp variety known as koi have been popular ornamental fishes; as a result, carp have been introduced to various locations, though with mixed results. Several species of carp are listed as invasive species by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, worldwide, large sums of money are spent on carp control. At least some species of carp are able to survive for months with no oxygen by metabolizing glycogen to form lactic acid, converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
The ethanol diffuses into the surrounding water through the gills. In 1653 Izaak Walton wrote in The Compleat Angler, "The Carp is the queen of rivers. Carp are variable in terms of angling value. In Europe when not fished for food, they are eagerly sought by anglers, being considered prized coarse fish that are difficult to hook; the UK has a thriving carp angling market. It is the fastest growing angling market in the UK, has spawned a number of specialised carp angling publications such as Carpology, Advanced carp fishing and Total Carp, informative carp angling web sites, such as Carpfishing UK. In the United States, carp are classified as a rough fish, as well as damaging to naturalized exotic species, but with sporting qualities. Carp have long suffered from a poor reputation in the United States as undesirable for angling or for the table since they are an invasive species out-competing more desirable local game fish. Nonetheless, many states' departments of natural resources are beginning to view the carp as an angling fish instead of a maligned pest.
Groups such as Wild Carp Companies, American Carp Society, the Carp Anglers Group promote the sport and work with fisheries departments to organize events to introduce and expose others to the unique opportunity the carp offers freshwater anglers. Various species of carp have been domesticated and reared as food fish across Europe and Asia for thousands of years; these various species appear to have been domesticated independently, as the various domesticated carp species are native to different parts of Eurasia. Aquaculture has been pursued in China for at least 2,400 years. A tract by Fan Li in the fifth century BC details many of the ways carp were raised in ponds; the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is from Central Europe. Several carp species were domesticated in East Asia. Carp that are from South Asia, for example catla and mrigal, are known as Indian carp, their hardiness and adaptability have allowed domesticated species to be propagated all around the world. Although the carp was an important aquatic food item, as more fish species have become available for the table, the importance of carp culture in Western Europe has become less important.
Demand has declined due to the appearance of more desirable table fish such as trout and salmon through intensive farming, environmental constraints. However, fish production in ponds is still a major form of aquaculture in Central and Eastern Europe, including the Russian Federation, where most of the production comes from low or intermediate-intensity ponds. In Asia, the farming of carp continues to surpass the total amount of farmed fish volume of intensively sea-farmed species, such as salmon and tuna. Selective breeding programs for the common carp include improvement in growth and resistance to disease. Experiments carried out in the USSR used crossings of broodstocks to increase genetic diversity, selected the species for traits such as growth rate, exterior traits and viability, and/or adaptation to environmental conditions such as variations in temperature. Selected carp for fast growth and tolerance to cold, the Ropsha carp; the results showed a 30 to 77.4% improvement of cold tolerance, but did not provide any data for growth
Tempe or tempeh is a traditional Southeast Asian soy product, originating from Indonesia. It is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form. Here a special fungus is used, which has the Latin name Rhizopus oligosporus marketed under the name Tempeh starter, it is popular on the island of Java, where it is a staple source of protein. Like tofu, tempe is made from soybeans, but it is a whole soybean product with different nutritional characteristics and textural qualities. Tempe's fermentation process and its retention of the whole bean give it a higher content of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, it has an earthy flavor, which becomes more pronounced as it ages. The etymology of the term tempe itself is suggested to be derived from Old Javanese tumpi, a whitish food made from fried batter made from sago or rice flour which resembles rempeyek. Historian Denys Lombard suggests however that it is linked to the local term tape or tapai which means "fermentation".
Tempe originated in Indonesia certainly in Java, more the central or east Java, with an estimated discovery between a few centuries ago to a thousand years or more. Around the 12th to 13th century, a type of food was mentioned as kadêlê in an old Javanese manuscript, Serat Sri Tanjung. However, it is not clear whether kadêlê refer to processed fermented soy or not, since the term in Javanese today refer to "soybeans"; the earliest known reference to it as têmpê appeared in 1815 in the Serat Centhini. The invention of tempe is connected to tofu production in Java; the tofu-making industry was introduced to Java by Chinese immigrants circa the 17th century. Chinese Indonesian historian Ong Hok Ham suggests that tempe was accidentally produced as the by-product of the tofu industry in Java. Three detailed documented histories of tempe, have been written, all by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Tempe begins with whole soybeans, which are softened by soaking, dehulled partly cooked. Specialty tempe may be made from other types of beans, wheat, or may include a mixture of beans and whole grains.
The principal step in making tempe is the fermentation of soybeans which undergo inoculation with Rhizopus spp. molds, a type of filamentous fungus most used for the production of tempe. For example, a fermentation starter containing the spores of fungus Rhizopus oligosporus or Rhizopus oryzae is mixed in; the beans are spread into a thin layer and are allowed to ferment for 24 to 36 hours at a temperature around 30°C. The soybeans have to cool down to allow spore germination and abundant growth of mycelium; the temperature of the beans will rise and rapid mold growth happens for around 4 hours. As mold growth declines, the soybeans should be bound into a solid mass by the mycelium. In good tempe, the beans are knitted together by a mat of white mycelium. Tempe is harvested after 48 hours of fermentation with its distinguishable whitish color, firm texture, nutty flavor. Extended fermentation time results in an increase in pH and undesirable color darkening in the tempe. During the fermentation process, optimal time of fermentation, oxygen, pH levels are required to encourage the growth of the Rhizopus mold, while discouraging the growth of undesired microorganisms.
The pH level should be kept around 3-5 by adding a mild acidulant such as vinegar, lactic acid, or acetic acid, thereby favoring mold growth and restricting the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Oxygen is required for Rhizopus spp. growth, but should be maintained at low levels to prevent the production of undesired microorganisms. Under conditions of lower temperature, or higher ventilation, gray or black patches of spores may form on the surface—this is not harmful, should not affect the flavor or quality of the tempe; this sporulation is normal on mature tempe. A mild ammonia smell may accompany good tempe as it ferments. Traditional tempe is produced in Indonesia using Hibiscus tiliaceus leaves; the undersides of the leaves are covered in downy hairs to which the mold Rhizopus oligosporus can be found adhering in the wild. Soybeans are pressed into the leaf, stored. Fermentation occurs resulting in tempe. In particular, the tempe undergoes salt-free aerobic fermentation. Once tempe is produced, it is divided into three categories based on its quality: good and inedible.
Good tempe includes beans that are bound into a firm, compact cake by a dense, white mycelium, which should permeate the entire cake. Furthermore, the beans should be visible; the odor of good tempe should be pleasant, subtly sweet or resemble the aroma of mushrooms. The entire tempe should lift as a cohesive cake without crumbling when shaken gently. Unfinished tempe has beans that are bound together loosely by a sparse white mycelium, hence it crumbles easily. Unfinished tempe should be incubated longer unless it has been incubated more than 8 hours past the recommended time. If it has been incubated for enough time and still remains unfinished, it should be discarded. Inedible tempe has beans with foul odor, resembling strong ammonia or alcohol, indicating the development of undesirable bacteria due to excess moisture or overheating. Inedible tempe cake is wet and mushy with a collapsed structure, its color is tan to brown and mold develops in sparse patches. Food grade wrapping paper and perforated polyethylene bags are the most suitable materials for packaging tempe.
They have demonstrated good retention of
Padang food or Minang food is the cuisine of the Minangkabau people of West Sumatra, Indonesia. It is among the most popular food in Maritime Southeast Asia, it is known across Indonesia as Masakan Padang after the city of Padang the capital city of West Sumatra province. It is served in restaurants owned by perantauan Minangkabau people in Indonesian cities. Padang food is popular in neighboring Malaysia and Singapore. Padang food is famous for its rich taste of succulent coconut spicy chili. Minang cuisine put much emphasis in three elements. No traditional Padang meal is complete without the three — spicy chili sauce. Among the cooking traditions in Indonesian cuisine, Minangkabau cuisine and most of Sumatran cuisine, demonstrate Indian and Middle Eastern influences, with dishes cooked in curry sauce with coconut milk and the heavy use of spices mixture; because most Minangkabau people are Muslims, Minangkabau cuisine follows halal dietary law rigorously. Protein intake are taken from beef, water buffalo, lamb meat, poultry and fish.
Minangkabau people are known for their fondness of cattle meat products including offal. All the parts of a cattle, such as meat, tongue, liver, brain, bone marrow, intestine, cartilage and skin are made to be Minangkabau delicacies. Seafood is popular in coastal West Sumatran cities, most are grilled or fried with spicy chili sauce or in curry gravy. Fish and cuttlefish are cooked in similar fashion. Most of Minangkabau food is compressed rice such as katupek. Vegetables are boiled such as boiled cassava leaf, or simmered in thin curry as side dishes, such as gulai of young jackfruit or cabbages. In popular usage prevalent in the rest of Indonesia and neighboring countries, the term "Padang food" is used to designate the whole culinary traditions of Minangkabau people hailed from West Sumatra. However, this term is used in Minangkabau inland cities itself, such as Bukittinggi — a culinary hotspot in West Sumatra where they refer to it as Masakan Minang or "Minang food" instead; this is because many Minangkabau nagari took pride in their culinary legacies, technically there are differences between Nasi Padang of Padang and Nasi kapau of Bukittinggi.
In Padang food establishments, it is common to eat with one's hands. They provide kobokan, a bowl of tap water with a slice of lime in it to give a fresh scent; this water is used to wash one's hands after eating. If a customer does not wish to eat with bare hands, it is acceptable to ask for a fork; the cuisine is cooked once per day. To have Nasi Padang in restaurants customers choose from those dishes, which are left on display in high-stacked plates in the windows. During a dine-in hidang style Padang restaurant, after the customers are seated, they do not have to order; the waiter serves the dishes directly to the table, the table will be set with dozens of small dishes filled with flavored foods such as beef rendang, curried fish, stewed greens, chili eggplant, curried beef liver, intestines, or foot tendons, fried beef lung, fried chicken, of course, the spicy sauces ubiquitous at Indonesian tables. Customers take -- and pay for --; the best known Padang dish is a spicy meat stew. Soto Padang is local residents' breakfast favorite, meanwhile sate.
The serving style is different in Nasi Kapau food stalls, a Minangkabau Bukittinggi style. After the customer is seated, he or she is asked; the chosen dishes will be put directly in separate small plates. There are myriad Padang food establishments throughout Indonesia and the region, according to Ikatan Warung Padang Indonesia or Warung Padang Bonds. In greater Jakarta alone there are at least 20,000 Padang restaurant establishments. Several notable Minangkabau restaurant chains are Sederhana, Pagi Sore, Simpang Raya, Sari Ratu, Sari Minang, Salero Bagindo and Natrabu; the importance of Padang food establishments for Indonesian workers' lunch break in urban areas, was demonstrated in 2016. The cooking method of gulai, which employing certain ingredients; the thick golden, yellowish and spicy gulai sauce has become the hallmark of Padang restaurant's window display everywhere. In Padang, smart cooking means the capability of preparing gulai. Randang, asam padeh and kalio are just a few variations of Padang gulai.
Rendang, chunks of beef stewed in spicy coconut chili gravy, cooked well until dried. Other than beef, rendang ayam, rendang itiak, rendang lokan, number of other varieties can be found Daun ubi tumbuk, cassava leaves in coconut milk Sate Padang, Padang style satay, skewered barbecued meat with thick yellow sauce Soto Padang, a soup of beef Balado, chili paste similar to sambal with large sliced chili pep
Chinese Indonesian cuisine
Chinese Indonesian cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians brought their legacy of Chinese cuisine, modified some of the dishes with the addition of Indonesian ingredients, such as kecap manis, palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili and local spices to form a hybrid Chinese-Indonesian cuisine; some of the dishes and cakes share the same style as in Malaysia and Singapore which are known as the Nonya cuisine by the Peranakan. Chinese influences are evident in Indonesian food, with several quintessential Chinese favourite has made their way into mainstream Indonesian culinary scene. Popular Chinese Indonesian foods including bakmi, mie ayam, bakso, kwetiau goreng and mie goreng. Chinese culinary culture is evident in Indonesian cuisine through the Hokkien and Cantonese loanwords used for various dishes. Words beginning with bak signify the presence of e.g. bakpau. Mi or mie signify noodle as in mi goreng. Most of these loanwords for food dishes and their ingredients are Hokkien in origin and are used throughout the Indonesian language and vernacular speech of large cities.
Because they have become an integral part of the local language, many Indonesians and ethnic Chinese do not recognize their Hokkien origins. Some of popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng, mi goreng, kwetiau and bakpia can trace their origin to Chinese influence; some food and ingredients are part of the daily diet of both the indigenous and ethnic Chinese populations as side dishes to accompany rice, the staple food of most of the country. Chinese influence is so evident in cities with large Chinese settlements since colonial era in Jakarta, Semarang, Medan and Pontianak; as the result numbers of mi and tahu recipes were developed in these cities. Chinese influence is so evident in Betawi people cuisines, formed as peranakan culture, as the result Betawi people held Chinese Indonesians dishes such as asinan and rujak juhi as theirs. To a certain extent, Javanese in Semarang and Surabaya willingly absorbs Chinese culinary influences, as the result they considered Chinese-influenced dishes such as mi goreng, lumpia and tahu gunting as theirs.
Because food is so prevalent in Chinese culture as Chinese families allocate their quality time to go eating out—just like banquet customs found in Chinese communities worldwide—many Pecinan in Indonesian cities are well known as the culinary hot spots of the city, with rows of shops and restaurants. As Chinese and native Indonesians establishing their food business, many eating establishments sprung up, from humble street side cart hawker to fancy restaurants offering their specialty. Areas such as Glodok and Kelapa Gading in Jakarta, Gardu Jati in Bandung, Kya-kya Kembang Jepun in Surabaya, Pecinans in Cirebon, Semarang and Medan are teeming with lots of warungs and restaurants, not only offering Chinese Indonesians' dishes, but local and international cuisines; the Indonesian Chinese cuisine vary with locations. For example, in different parts of Java the dishes are adapted to local culture and taste, in return Chinese Indonesians residing in this region had developed a taste for local cuisine.
In central Java, the food tends to be much sweeter. In East Java, Chinese food there is more savory with a preference of petis shrimp paste. In Medan, North Sumatra and in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, a more traditional Chinese style can be found. Chinese cuisine in Indonesia have absorbed local preference of spicy food and local ingredients. For example, it is common to have sambal chili sauce, acar pickles and sprinkle of bawang goreng crispy fried shallot as condiment. Chinese cuisine influences on Indonesian cuisine is evident in Indonesian take on Chinese dishes, such as mie goreng, lumpia and siomay; however the culinary influences is taken another way around. Vice versa, Chinese Indonesian been influenced by native Indonesian cuisine, it is believed that Lontong Cap Go Meh is a Chinese Indonesian take on traditional Indonesian dishes. The dish reflect the assimilation among Chinese immigrants with local community; because Indonesia is Muslim majority country, some of ingredients were replaced to create a halal Chinese food.
Most of Chinese eating establishments with significant Muslim native Indonesian clientele would do so. However, in Chinatowns in major Indonesian cities where there is significant Chinese and non-Muslim population, Chinese restaurants that serve pork dishes such as babi kecap, char siew, crispy roast pork, sweet pork sausage and sate babi are available. There are different styles of Chinese food in Indonesia: Traditional Chinese food, such as the Teochew, Hakka dishes. Chinese-Indonesian food with recipes borrowed from local Indonesian cuisine and other European cuisine. Chinese dishes adapted to the local culture and taste, such as replacing pork with chicken or beef to make it halal. New style Chinese food with chefs from China, Hong Kong or Taiwan. Most of the times, the name of Chinese Indonesian foods are preserved from its original Chinese Hokkien name. However, sometimes the name are derived from the translation of its meanings, ingredients or process
Shrimp paste or shrimp sauce is a fermented condiment used in Southeast Asian, Indian subcontinent and Southern Chinese cuisines. It is made from finely crushed shrimp or krill mixed with salt, fermented for several weeks; some versions are in its wet form such as those in Vietnam and other versions are sun-dried and either cut into rectangular blocks or sold in bulk. It is an essential ingredient in many curries and sambal. Shrimp paste can be found in most meals in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Vietnam, it is an ingredient in dip for fish or vegetables. The tradition to prepare shrimp, fish or seafood through fermentation is widespread in Southeast Asia. Fermented fish or seafood is an ancient tradition in Southeast Asia, a similar tradition is demonstrated by Cambodian prahok, quite similar to the shrimp paste; the origin of shrimp paste seems to point to Maritime Southeast Asia. According to Thai tradition, the origin of kapi can be traced to their southern territory; as far back as the eighth century, inhabitants of the coastal cities of Pattani and Nakhon Si Thammarat — located in today’s southern Thailand but ruled by the Malay Kingdom of Srivijaya — used shrimp paste in their cooking.
They shared this practice with people from other coastal nations in Southeast Asia, including regions now known as Indonesia, Myanmar and Vietnam. After King Ramkhamhaeng of Sukhothai occupied Pattani in the fourteenth century, shrimp paste became available in Thai court, although it was reserved for aristocrats. In 1666, kapi was described by a Persian diplomat named Ibn Muhammad Ibrahim, in derogative manner as "'rotten food unfit for cooking or eating."Kapi is described by Simon de La Loubère, a French diplomat appointed by King Louis XIV to the Royal Court of Siam in 1687. In one chapter, "Concerning the Table of the Siamese" he wrote: "Their sauces are plain, a little water with some spices, chilbols, or some sweet herb, as baulm, they do much esteem a liquid sauce, like mustard, only corrupted crayfish, because they are ill salted. Dampier described it further as a mixture of shrimp and small fish made into a kind of soft pickle with salt and water, the dough was packed in a clay jar.
The pickling process makes it mushy. They poured arrack into the jars to preserve them. "The mushy fish remains was called trassi," Dampier wrote. However, after adding a little part of it, the dish's flavour became quite savory."In the 1880s, trassi was described by Anna Forbes during her visit to Ambon. Anna was the wife of British naturalist Henry Ogg Forbes. In her journal she describes the culture and tradition of the natives, including their culinary tradition; because of this foul-smelled ingredient, she accused her cook of trying to poison her and threw away that "horrible rotten package". She wrote: "Then, I observed each dish of the native or European, those that I have consumed since my arrival in the East contains this. Shrimp paste may vary in appearance from pale liquid sauces to solid chocolate-colored blocks. Shrimp paste produced in Hong Kong and Vietnam is a light pinkish gray. In the Philippines, they are bright red or pink, due to the use of angkak as a coloring agent. While all shrimp paste has a pungent aroma, the scent of higher grade shrimp paste is milder.
Markets near villages producing shrimp paste are the best places to obtain the highest quality product. Shrimp paste varies between different Asian cultures and can vary in smell and saltiness. Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from small shrimp from the Acetes species, known as geragau in Malaysia or rebon in Indonesia. In Malaysia the krill are steamed first and after that are mashed into a paste and stored for several months; the fermented shrimp are prepared and hard-pressed into cakes. William Marsden, an English writer, included the word in his "A Dictionary of the Malayan Language" published in 1812. Belacan is used as an ingredient in many dishes. A common preparation is sambal belacan, made by mixing toasted belacan with chilli peppers, minced garlic, shallot paste and sugar and fried. Sometimes it is toasted to bring out the flavour creating a strong, distinctive odor. In Sri Lanka, belacan is a key ingredient used to make Lamprais. Terasi, an Indonesian variant of dried shrimp paste, is purchased in dark blocks, but is sometimes sold ground as granulated coarse powder.
The color and aroma of terasi varies depending on. The color ranges from a soft purple-reddish hue to darkish brown. In Cirebon, a coastal city in West Java, terasi is made from tiny shrimp called rebon, the origin of the city's name. Another kind is petis made from tuna mixed with palm sugar. In Sidoarjo, East Java, terasi is made from the mixture of ingredients such as fish, small shrimp, vegetables. T