Manzanar is most known as the site of one of ten American concentration camps where over 110,000 Japanese Americans were incarcerated during World War II from December 1942 to 1945. Located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada in California's Owens Valley between the towns of Lone Pine to the south and Independence to the north, it is 230 miles north of Los Angeles. Manzanar was identified by the United States National Park Service as the best-preserved of the former camp sites, is now the Manzanar National Historic Site, which preserves and interprets the legacy of Japanese American incarceration in the United States. Long before the first incarcerees arrived in March 1942, Manzanar was home to Native Americans, who lived in villages near several creeks in the area. Ranchers and miners formally established the town of Manzanar in 1910, but abandoned the town by 1929 after the City of Los Angeles purchased the water rights to the entire area; as different as these groups were, their histories displayed a common thread of forced relocation.
Since the last incarcerees left in 1945, former incarcerees and others have worked to protect Manzanar and to establish it as a National Historic Site to ensure that the history of the site, along with the stories of those who were unjustly incarcerated there, are remembered by current and future generations. The primary focus is the Japanese American incarceration era, as specified in the legislation that created the Manzanar National Historic Site; the site interprets the former town of Manzanar, the ranch days, the settlement by the Owens Valley Paiute, the role that water played in shaping the history of the Owens Valley. Since the end of World War II, there has been debate over the terminology used to refer to Manzanar, the other camps in which Americans of Japanese ancestry and their immigrant parents, were incarcerated by the United States Government during the war. Manzanar has been referred to as a "War Relocation Center," "relocation camp," "relocation center," "internment camp," and "concentration camp," and the controversy over which term is the most accurate and appropriate continues to the present day.
Dr. James Hirabayashi, Professor Emeritus and former Dean of Ethnic Studies at San Francisco State University, wrote an article in 1994 in which he stated that he wonders why euphemistic terms used to describe camps such as Manzanar are still being used. Let us review the main points of the debate. Over 120,000 residents of the U. S. A. two thirds of whom were American citizens, were incarcerated under armed guard. There were no crimes committed, no trials, no convictions: the Japanese Americans were political incarcerees. To detain American citizens in a site under armed guard constitutes a "concentration camp." But what were the terms used by the government officials who were involved in the process and who had to justify these actions? Raymond Okamura provides us with a detailed list of terms. Let's consider three such euphemisms: "evacuation," "relocation," and "non-aliens." Earthquake and flood victims are relocated. The words refer to moving people in order to protect them from danger; the official government policy makers used "evacuation" to refer to the forced removal of the Japanese Americans and the sites were called "relocation centers."
These are euphemisms as the terms do not imply forced removal nor incarceration in enclosures patrolled by armed guards. The masking was intentional. Hirabayashi went on to describe the harm done by the use of such euphemisms and addressed the issue of whether or not only the Nazi camps can be called "concentration camps." The harm in continuing to use the government's euphemisms is that it disguises or softens the reality which subsequently has been recognized as a grave error. The actions abrogated some fundamental principles underlying the Constitution, the document under which we govern ourselves; this erosion of fundamental rights has consequences for all citizens of our society and we must see that it is never repeated. Some have argued that the Nazi Germany camps during the Holocaust were concentration camps and to refer to the Japanese American camps would be an affront to the Jews, it is true that the Japanese Americans did not suffer the harsh fate of the Jews in the terrible concentration camps or death camps where Nazi Germany practiced a policy of genocide.
Although the loss of life was minimal in America's concentration camps, it does not negate the reality of the unconstitutional incarceration of Japanese American citizens. Michi and Walter Weglyn's research concerning Nazi Germany's euphemisms for their concentration camps revealed such phrases as "protective custody camps," "reception centers," and "transit camps." Two Nazi euphemisms were identical to our government's usage: "assembly centers" and "relocation centers." It might be well to point out that the Nazis were not operating under the U. S. Constitution. Comparisons neglect to point out that Hitler was operating under the rules of the Third Reich. In America all three branches of the U. S. government, ostensibly operating under the U. S. Constitution, ignored the Bill of Rights in order to incarcerate Japanese Americans. In 1998, use of the term "concentration camps" gained greater credibility prior to the opening of an exhibit about the American camps at Ellis Island; the American Jewish Committee and the National Park Service, which manages Ellis Island, objected to the use of the term in the exhibit.
However, during a subsequent meeting held at the offices of the AJC in New York City, leaders representing
Sunday is the day of the week between Saturday and Monday. Sunday is a day of rest in most Western countries, as a part of the weeknight. For most observant Christians, Sunday is observed as a day of worship and rest, holding it as the Lord's Day and the day of Christ's resurrection. In some Muslim countries and Israel, Sunday is the first work day of the week. According to the Hebrew calendar and traditional Christian calendars, Sunday is the first day of the week, but according to the International Organization for Standardization ISO 8601, Sunday is the seventh day of the week. The name "Sunday", the day of the Sun, is derived from Hellenistic astrology, where the seven planets, known in English as Saturn, Mars, the Sun, Venus and the Moon, each had an hour of the day assigned to them, the planet, regent during the first hour of any day of the week gave its name to that day. During the 1st and 2nd century, the week of seven days was introduced into Rome from Egypt, the Roman names of the planets were given to each successive day.
Germanic peoples seem to have adopted the week as a division of time from the Romans, but they changed the Roman names into those of corresponding Teutonic deities. Hence, the dies Solis became Sunday; the English noun Sunday derived sometime before 1250 from sunedai, which itself developed from Old English Sunnandæg, cognate to other Germanic languages, including Old Frisian sunnandei, Old Saxon sunnundag, Middle Dutch sonnendach, Old High German sunnun tag, Old Norse sunnudagr. The Germanic term is a Germanic interpretation of Latin dies solis, a translation of the Ancient Greek heméra helíou; the p-Celtic Welsh language translates the Latin "day of the sun" as dydd Sul. In most Indian languages, the word for Sunday is Ravivāra or Adityavāra or its derived forms — vāra meaning day and Ravi both being a style for Surya i.e. the Sun and Suryadeva the chief solar deity and one of the Adityas. Ravivāra is first day cited in Jyotisha, which provides logical reason for giving the name of each week day.
In the Thai solar calendar of Thailand, the name is derived from Aditya, the associated colour is red. In Russian the word for Sunday is Воскресенье meaning "Resurrection". In other Slavic languages the word means "no work", for example Polish: Niedziela, Ukrainian: Недiля, Belorussian: Нядзеля, Croatian: nedjelja and Slovenian: Nedelja, Czech: Neděle, Bulgarian: Неделя; the Modern Greek word for Sunday, Greek: Κυριακή, is derived from Greek: Κύριος due to its liturgical significance as the day commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ, i.e. The Lord's Day. In Korean, Sunday is called 일요일 Il-yo-Il, meaning "day of sun"; the international standard ISO 8601 for representation of dates and times, states that Sunday is the seventh and last day of the week. This method of representing dates and times unambiguously was first published in 1988. In the Judaic, some Christian, as well as in some Islamic tradition, Sunday has been considered the first day of the week. A number of languages express this position either by the name for the day or by the naming of the other days.
In Hebrew it is called יום ראשון yom rishon, in Arabic الأحد al-ahad, in Persian and related languages یکشنبه yek-shanbe, all meaning "first". In Greek, the names of the days Monday, Tuesday and Thursday mean "second", "third", "fourth", "fifth" respectively; this leaves Sunday in the first position of the week count. The current Greek name for Sunday, Κυριακή, means "Lord's Day" coming from the word Κύριος, the Greek word for "Lord". In Portuguese, where the days from Monday to Friday are counted as "segunda-feira", "terça-feira", "quarta-feira", "quinta-feira" and "sexta-feira", while Sunday itself similar to Greek has the name of "Lord's Day". In Vietnamese, the working days in the week are named as: "Thứ Hai", "Thứ Ba", "Thứ Tư", "Thứ Năm", "Thứ Sáu", "Thứ Bảy". Sunday is called "Chủ Nhật", a corrupted form of "Chúa Nhật" meaning "Lord's Day"; some colloquial text in the south of Vietnam and from the church may still use the old form to mean Sunday. In German, Wednesday is called "Mittwoch" "mid-week", implying that weeks run from Sunday to Saturday.
The name is similar in the Romance Languages. In Italian, Sunday is called "domenica", which means "Lord's Day". One finds similar cognates in French, where the name is "dimanche", as well as Romanian and Spanish and Portuguese. Slavic languages implicitly number Monday as not two. Russian воскресение means "resurrection". In Old Russian Sunday was called неделя "free day" or "day with no work", but in the contemporary language this word means "week". Hungarian péntek is a Slavic loanword, so the correlation with "five" is not evident to Hungarians. Hungarians use Vasárnap for Sunday, which means "market day". In the Maltese language, due to its Siculo-Arabic origin, Sunday is called "Il-Ħadd", a corruption of "wieħed" meaning "one". Monday is "It-Tnejn" meaning "two". Tuesday is "It-Tlieta", Wednesday is "L-Erbgħa" and Thursday is "Il-Ħamis". In Armenian, Monday is meaning 2nd day of the week, Tuesday 3rd day, Wednesday 4th day, Thursday (Hingsh
Central London is the innermost part of London, in the United Kingdom, spanning several boroughs. Over time, a number of definitions have been used to define the scope of central London for statistics, urban planning and local government, its characteristics are understood to include a high density built environment, high land values, an elevated daytime population and a concentration of regionally and internationally significant organisations and facilities. Road distances to London are traditionally measured from a central point at Charing Cross, marked by the statue of King Charles I at the junction of the Strand and Cockspur Street, just south of Trafalgar Square; the London Plan defines the "Central Activities Zone" policy area, which comprises the City of London, most of Westminster and the inner parts of Camden, Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Lambeth, Kensington & Chelsea and Wandsworth. It is described as "a unique cluster of vitally important activities including central government offices and embassies, the largest concentration of London's financial and business services sector and the offices of trade, professional bodies, associations, publishing and the media".
For strategic planning, since 2011 there has been a Central London sub-region comprising the boroughs of Camden, Islington and Chelsea, Southwark and the City of London. From 2004 to 2008, the London Plan included a sub-region called Central London comprising Camden, Islington and Chelsea, Southwark and Westminster, it had a 2001 population of 1,525,000. The sub-region was replaced in 2008 with a new structure which amalgamated inner and outer boroughs together; this was altered in 2011 when a new Central London sub-region was created, now including the City of London and excluding Wandsworth. However, districts at the outer edge of this subregion such as Streatham and Dulwich are not considered as Central London; the 1901 census defined Central London as the City of London and the metropolitan boroughs of Bermondsey, Bethnal Green, Holborn, Southwark, Stepney, St Marylebone and Westminster. During the Herbert Commission and the subsequent passage of the London Government Bill, three unsuccessful attempts were made to define an area that would form a central London borough.
The first two were detailed in the 1959 Memorandum of Evidence of the Greater London Group of the London School of Economics. "Scheme A" envisaged a central London borough, one of 25, consisting of the City of London, Holborn and the inner parts of St Marylebone, St Pancras, Chelsea and Lambeth. The boundary deviated from existing lines to include all central London railway stations, the Tower of London and the museums, such that it included small parts of Kensington, Shoreditch and Bermondsey, it had an estimated population of 350,000 and occupied 7,000 acres."Scheme B" delineated central London, as one of 7 boroughs, including most of the City of London, the whole of Finsbury and Holborn, most of Westminster and Southwark, parts of St Pancras, St Marylebone, Paddington and a small part of Kensington. The area occupied 8,000 acres. During the passage of the London Government Bill an amendment was put forward to create a central borough corresponding to the definition used at the 1961 census.
It consisted of the City of London, all of Westminster and Finsbury. The population was estimated to be 270,000
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
History of education in England
The history of education in England is documented from Saxon settlement of England, the setting up of the first cathedral schools in 597 and 604. Education in England remained linked to religious institutions until the nineteenth century, although charity schools and "free grammar schools", which were open to children of any religious beliefs, became more common in the early modern period. Nineteenth century reforms expanded education provision and introduced widespread state-funded schools. By the 1880s education was compulsory for children aged 5 to 10, with the school leaving age progressively raised since most to 18 in 2015; the education system was expanded and reorganised multiple times throughout the 20th century, with a Tripartite System introduced in the 1940s, splitting secondary education into grammar schools, secondary technical schools and secondary modern schools. In the 1960s this began to be phased out in favour of comprehensive schools. Further reforms in the 1980s introduced the National Curriculum and allowed parents to choose which school their children went to.
Academies became the main type of secondary school in the 2010s. Prior to the arrival of Augustine of Canterbury in England in 597 education was an oral affair, or followed the Roman model in diaspora and integrated families; the earliest known organised schools in England were connected to the church. Augustine established a church in Canterbury in 598, which included a school for the study of religious texts, in 604 this was joined by another school at what is now Rochester Cathedral. Further schools were established throughout the British Isles in the seventh and eighth centuries following one of two forms: grammar schools to teach Latin, song schools to train singers for cathedral choirs. During the Middle Ages, schools were established to teach Latin grammar to the sons of the aristocracy destined for priesthood or monastic work with the ministry of government or the law. Two universities were established in affiliation with the church: the University of Oxford, followed by the University of Cambridge, to assist in the further training of the Catholic Christian clergy.
A reformed system of "free grammar schools" was established in the reign of Edward VI. Apprenticeship was the main way for youths to enter practical occupations; the Protestant Reformation had a major influence on education and literacy in England, as it encouraged the reading of the Bible in English.. However, the availability of Bibles printed in English had spurred the reformation and can be seen as a more reliable cause of that change. Independent schools have a long history in England; the oldest is King's School, founded in 597. Many were charity schools. A group of these schools, much invoked the name "public school" to indicate that they were open to the public regardless of religious beliefs. In Tudor England, Edward VI reorganised grammar schools and instituted new ones so that there was a national system of "free grammar schools." In theory these were open to all. The vast majority of poor children did not attend these schools since their labour was economically critical to their families.
In 1562 the Statute of Artificers and Apprentices was passed to regulate and protect the apprenticeship system, forbidding anyone from practising a trade or craft without first serving a 7-year period as an apprentice to a master. Guilds controlled many trades and used apprenticeships to control entry.. Following the Act of Uniformity in 1662, religious dissenters set up academies to educate students of dissenting families, who did not wish to subscribe to the articles of the established Church of England; some of these ` dissenting academies' still survive. Several Oxford colleges are descendents of this movement. From 1692,'parish' apprenticeships under the Elizabethan Poor Law came to be used as a way of providing for poor and orphaned children of both sexes alongside the regular system of skilled apprenticeships, which tended to provide for boys from more affluent backgrounds; these parish apprenticeships, which could be created with the assent of two Justices of the Peace, supplied apprentices for occupations of lower status such as farm labouring and menial household service.
Until as late as the nineteenth century, all university fellows and many schoolmasters were expected or required to be in holy orders. Schoolmistresses taught the three Rs in dame schools, charity schools, or informal village schools. Historian David Mitch argues that private philanthropy was a major source of funding by the 1640s, in that regard England was distinctive among modern nations; the endowments were permanent, were still active in the 19th century. In addition to the landed elites in gentry and clergy Were generous in supporting educational philanthropy; the national system, developed in the last two thirds of the 19th century incorporated the earlier endowments philanthropies. In the early years of the Industrial Revolution entrepreneurs began to resist the restrictions of the apprenticeship system, a legal ruling established that the Statute of Apprentices did not apply to trades that were not in existence when it was passed in 1563, thus excluding many new 18th century industries.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Society for Promoting
Buckinghamshire, abbreviated Bucks, is a ceremonial county in South East England which borders Greater London to the south east, Berkshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the west, Northamptonshire to the north, Bedfordshire to the north east and Hertfordshire to the east. Buckinghamshire is one of the home counties and towns such as High Wycombe, Amersham and the Chalfonts in the east and southeast of the county are parts of the London commuter belt, forming some of the most densely populated parts of the county. Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford; some areas without direct rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham and near Olney in the northeast, are much less populous. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the surrounding area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire.
The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, four district councils. In national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party. A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers and cyclists from London. In this area older buildings are made from local flint and red brick. Many parts of the county are quite affluent and like many areas around London this has led to problems with housing costs: several reports have identified the market town of Beaconsfield as having among the highest property prices outside London. Chequers, a mansion estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury and around the Great Ouse; the Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary. Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake and part of Silverstone race track on the Northamptonshire border.
Many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries; the name Buckinghamshire means The district of Bucca's home. Bucca's home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, is named after an Anglo-Saxon landowner; the county has been so named since about the 12th century. The history of the area predates the Anglo-Saxon period and the county has a rich history starting from the Celtic and Roman periods, though the Anglo-Saxons had the greatest impact on Buckinghamshire: the geography of the rural county is as it was in the Anglo-Saxon period. Buckinghamshire became an important political arena, with King Henry VIII intervening in local politics in the 16th century and just a century the English Civil War was reputedly started by John Hampden in mid-Bucks; the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, when a combination of cholera and famine hit the rural county, forcing many to migrate to larger towns to find work.
Not only did this alter the local economic situation, it meant a lot of land was going cheap at a time when the rich were more mobile and leafy Bucks became a popular rural idyll: an image it still has today. Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence; the expansion of London and coming of the railways promoted the growth of towns in the south of the county such as Aylesbury and High Wycombe, leaving the town Buckingham itself to the north in a relative backwater. As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, rather than in Buckingham; the county can be split into two sections geographically. The south leads from the River Thames up the gentle slopes of the Chiltern Hills to the more abrupt slopes on the northern side leading to the Vale of Aylesbury, a large flat expanse of land, which includes the path of the River Great Ouse; the county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England.
The River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties. The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes and Olney; the main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury and Buckingham. The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes; the southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods at 267 metres above sea level, Coombe Hill near Wendover at 260 metres. Quarrying has taken clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint extracted from quarries, was used to build older local buildings. Several former quarries, now flooded, have become nature reserves; as can be seen from the table, the Vale of Aylesbury and the Borough of Milton Keynes have been identified as growth areas, with a projected population surge of 40,000 in Aylesbury Vale between 2011 and 2026 and 75,000 in Milton Keynes within the same 15 years.
The population of the Borough of Milton Keynes is expected to reach 350,000 by 2031. Buckinghamshire is sub-divided into civil parishes. Today Bucking