Sundown towns known as sunset towns or gray towns, are all-white municipalities or neighborhoods in the United States that practiced a form of segregation by enforcing restrictions excluding non-whites via some combination of discriminatory local laws and violence. Entire sundown counties and sundown suburbs were created by the same process; the term came from signs posted. The practice was not restricted to the southern states, as "t least until the early 1960s...northern states could be nearly as inhospitable to black travelers as states like Alabama or Georgia."Discriminatory policies and actions distinguished sundown towns from towns that have no black residents for demographic reasons. Towns have been confirmed as sundown towns using newspaper articles, county histories, Works Progress Administration files, corroborated by tax or U. S. Census records showing an absence of black people or sharp drop in the black population between two censuses. Following the end of the Reconstruction Era, many thousands of towns and counties across the United States became sundown localities, as part of the imposition of Jim Crow laws and other racist practices.
In most cases, the exclusion was official town policy or was promulgated by the community's real estate agents via exclusionary covenants governing who could buy or rent property. In others, the policy was enforced through intimidation; this intimidation could occur in a number including harassment by law enforcement officers. Though believed to be a thing of the past, many hundreds of sunset towns continue to exclude blacks and other minorities to the present day. In 1844 Oregon banned African Americans from the territory altogether; those who failed to leave could expect to receive lashings under a law known as the "Peter Burnett Lash Law", named for California's first governor, Peter Hardeman Burnett. No persons were lashed under the law. However, additional laws aimed at African Americans entering Oregon were ratified in 1849 and 1857, the last of, not repealed until 1926; this law in Oregon was the foreshadowing of future laws restricting where minorities could live, not only in Oregon but other jurisdictions.
Outside Oregon, other places looked to laws and legislation to help restrict blacks from residing within cities and states. One example is Louisville, whose mayor proposed a law in 1911 that would restrict blacks from owning property in different parts of the city; this city ordinance reached public attention when it was challenged in the U. S. Supreme Court case Buchanan v. Warley in 1917; the court decided that the laws passed in Louisville were unconstitutional, thus setting the legal precedent that similar laws could not exist or be passed in the future. This one legal victory did not stop towns from developing into sundown towns. City planners and real estate companies used their power and authority to ensure that white communities remained white, black communities remained black; these were private individuals making decisions to benefit themselves, their companies' profits, or their cities' alleged safety, so their methods in creating sundown towns were ignored by the courts. In addition to unfair housing rules, citizens turned to violence and harassment in making sure blacks would not remain in their cities after sundown.
Whites in the North felt that their way of life was threatened by the increased minority populations moving into their neighborhoods and racial tensions started to build. This boiled over into violence, sometimes extreme, such as the 1943 Detroit race riot. Since the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s, since the Fair Housing Act of 1968's prohibition of racial discrimination in the sale and financing of housing, the number of sundown towns has decreased. However, as sociologist James W. Loewen writes in his book, Sundown Towns: A Hidden Dimension of American Racism, it is impossible to count the number of sundown towns at any given time, because most towns have not kept records of the ordinances or signs that marked the town's sundown status, he further notes that hundreds of cities across America have been sundown towns at some point in their history. Additionally, Loewen writes that sundown status meant more than just that African Americans were unable to live in these towns. Any blacks who entered or were found in sundown towns after sunset were subject to harassment and violence, including lynching.
The Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education ruled segregation of schools unconstitutional in 1954. Loewen argues that the case caused some municipalities in the South to become sundown towns: Missouri and Kentucky saw drastic drops in African-American populations living in the states following the decision. African Americans were not the only minority group not allowed to live in white towns. One example, according to Loewen, is that in 1870, Chinese people made up one-third of Idaho's population. Following a wave of violence and a 1886 anti-Chinese convention in Boise none remained by 1910. In another example, the town of Gardnerville, Nevada, is said to have blown a whistle at 6 p.m. daily alerting Native Americans to leave by sundown. Three additional examples of the numerous road signs documented during the first half of the 20th century include: In Colorado: "No Mexicans After Night". In Connecticut: "Whites Only Within City Limits After Dark". In Nevada, the ban was expanded to include Japanese.
Jews were excluded from living in some sundown towns, such as Darien and Lake F
Twin Barrels Burning is the 12th studio album by British rock band Wishbone Ash. It was recorded at Sol Studios and released in 1982, it was the highest charting Wishbone Ash album in years, reaching No. 22 in the UK Albums Chart. Conversely, it was the final album to appear in that listing to date, it is the only Wishbone Ash album to feature Uriah Heep bassist Trevor Bolder, a member of the band for three years. All tracks are written by Steve Upton and Andy Powell. Andy Powell – guitar, vocals Laurie Wisefield – guitar, vocals Trevor Bolder – bass, vocals Steve Upton – drums Ashley Howe, Stuart Epps - producers, engineers Nigel Gray - producer and engineer on track 4 John Sherry - executive producer
William Rule was an American newspaper editor and politician, best known as the founder of the Knoxville Journal, published in Knoxville, from 1870 until 1991. A protégé of vitriolic newspaper editor William G. "Parson" Brownlow, Rule established the Journal as a successor to Brownlow's Knoxville Whig. Rule twice served as mayor of Knoxville, published the city's first comprehensive history, Standard History of Knoxville, in 1900. Rule was born in rural Knox County, about 7 miles south of Knoxville, the son of Frederick and Sarah Brakebill Rule, he attended county schools, but was self-educated. In 1858, Rule and his brother, opened a general store at the corner of State Street and Cumberland Avenue in Knoxville. By 1860, this store had closed, William joined the staff of Brownlow's Knoxville Whig, a radical and controversial pro-Union newspaper. On November 10, 1861, in the early days of the Civil War, Rule eluded Knoxville's Confederate occupiers to carry news and messages to Brownlow, hiding out in Wears Valley.
Rule fled to Kentucky and enlisted in Company A of the 6th Tennessee Infantry, rising to the rank of captain before he was mustered out in 1865. After the war, Rule rejoined this time serving as the paper's City Editor, he was elected to his first office, Knox County Court Clerk, in 1866, was reelected in 1870, but resigned after one year. In 1869, the Whig, the only pro-Republican newspaper in the post-bellum South, was sold to Knoxville businessman Joseph Mabry, who attempted to rebrand it as a Democratic Party newspaper. To ensure the survival of Knoxville's pro-Republican newspaper tradition, Rule left the Whig in 1870 and formed the Knoxville Chronicle, which he considered the true successor to Brownlow's paper; when Brownlow returned to Knoxville after his Senate term had ended in 1875, he purchased a half stake in the Chronicle, the paper was published as the Whig and Chronicle until Brownlow's death in 1877. Rule was first elected Mayor of Knoxville in 1873, he spearheaded a successful initiative to establish a city waterworks, which Knoxville voters approved in June of that year.
He opened a small pox hospital on the outskirts of town, appointed a board of health. During the 1880s, the Chronicle quarreled with the pro-Democratic Knoxville Tribune. On the morning of March 11, 1882, the Chronicle featured an article accusing the Tribune of publishing obscene material; that evening, James W. Wallace, editor of the Tribune, angrily accosted Rule on Gay Street, demanded he issue a retraction; when Rule refused, Wallace proceeded to loudly issue a "formal denunciation" of Rule. As Wallace spoke, Rule bashed him over the head with a cane, whereupon Wallace drew a pistol and fired three shots, all of which missed. Both Wallace and Rule were arrested, but no charges were filed, both editors blamed one another for the incident. Throughout the 1880s, Rule's newspaper was the mouthpiece for the so-called "Houk Machine," a Republican political syndicate headed by Leonidas C. Houk that dominated East Tennessee politics. In 1887, Rule published a speech, "The Loyalists of Tennessee in the Late War," which detailed the actions of East Tennessee's Unionists during the Civil War.
During the same period, Rule spoke out against Appalachian stereotypes, arguing that people from the region had normal levels of intelligence, but suffered due to Southern states' lack of funding for schools. On January 29, 1888, another violent incident involving the Rule family took place in Knoxville. After the Journal published an article questioning the competence of Dr. A. T. West, appointed city physician by the Board of Aldermen, West's sons and William, confronted Rule's brother, outside St. John's Episcopal Church, demanded he reveal the article's author; when Rule refused, the Wests attacked him. Rule was shot through the wrist and stabbed before he managed to draw a pistol and fire blindly, killing John West. In 1900, Rule cowrote and edited the Standard History of Knoxville, the city's first comprehensive history. After Rule was again elected mayor in 1898, he sold his ownership stake in the Journal, but continued as the paper's editor. After his death from appendicitis in 1928, he was described as having been the "oldest active editor in the U.
S." by Time magazine. Rule is buried with his family in Old Gray Cemetery. In the 1870s, future New York Times publisher Adolph Ochs began his newspaper career at Rule's Chronicle as a "printer's devil." Ochs's biographer suggests that Ochs harbored superstitions about cemeteries, as his walk home passed the First Presbyterian Church Cemetery, he stayed at the Chronicle office all night, passed the time learning the printer's trade. Rule High School, named after William Rule, operated in Knoxville from 1927 until 1991. A house built by Rule at 1604 Clinch Avenue in the Fort Sanders neighborhood is now a contributing property within the National Register of Historic Places-listed Fort Sanders Historic District. Rule's grandson, Gunby Rule, worked as an editor for the Journal and the News-Sentinel into the latter half of the 20th century. Portrait of William Rule, circa 1900 — Calvin M. McClung Historical Collection Rule family portrait, c. 1868 — Calvin M. McClung Historical Collection Standard History of Knoxville — Google Books The Loyalists of Tennessee in the Late War — Google Books
The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library is an Indian digital knowledge repository of the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants and formulations used in Indian systems of medicine. Set up in 2001, as a collaboration between the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and the MINISTRY OF AYUSH the objective of the library is to protect the ancient and traditional knowledge of the country from exploitation through biopiracy and unethical patents, by documenting it electronically and classifying it as per international patent classification systems. Apart from that, the non-patent database serves to foster modern research based on traditional knowledge, as it simplifies access to this vast knowledge of remedies or practices; as of 2010, it had transcribed 148 books on Ayurveda, Unani and Yoga in public domain, into 34 million pages of information, translated into five languages — English, French and Japanese. Data on 80,000 formulations in Ayurveda, 1,000,000 in Unani and 12,000 in Siddha had been put in the TKDL.
Plus it has signed agreements with leading international patent offices such as European Patent Office, United Kingdom Trademark & Patent Office and the United States Patent and Trademark Office to protect traditional knowledge from biopiracy, by giving patent examiners at international patent offices access to the TKDL database for patent search and examination. The issue of biopiracy and unethical bioprospecting made headlines after the government of India revoked or limited turmeric and basmati rice patents granted by United States Patent and Trademark Office and the neem patent granted by European Patent Office in the late 1990s. Soon more such patent claims came to light. India’s vast traditional medicine knowledge existed in languages like Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and Tamil, making it inaccessible for examiners at international patent offices to verify claims; this experience prompted the Department of AYUSH, government of India to create a task force of experts in the areas of traditional medicine systems of India, patent examiners, IT experts and technical officers, for the creation Traditional Knowledge Digital Library.
It was initiated in 2001. The tasks included, for example, transcribing Sanskrit shlokas which describe an Ayurvedic formulation in text, using Traditional Knowledge Resource Classification devised for the purpose, so that it is understandable to any patent examiner, anywhere in the world. For this reason, the entire 34 million pages of text is available in English, French and Japanese; as the database project reached its completion, in 2006 the government allowed access to the library to international patent offices, including European Patent Office and the UK, subject to a non-disclosure clause. This allows patent examiners to evaluate patent applications and stop attempts to patent traditional knowledge as "new" inventions. Agreements were signed with EPO in February 2009, with United Kingdom Trademark & Patent Office in January 2010, with the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office after the summit meeting between US President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in January 2010. With patent examiners getting access to the TKDL database, legal cases regarding unethical patent claims, which had taken years and vast expenditure for each case, could be avoided.
Another project to include data relating to 1,500 postures in yoga began in 2008, after new reports of a large number of false gurus and yoga masters, who attempted to patent this ancient knowledge in their own countries. For example, 131 yoga-related patents were traced in the US alone in 2007. After an uproar in the parliament and media, the government of India took up the issue with the USPTO. Thereafter, a team of yoga gurus from nine schools working with government officials and 200 scientists from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research scanned 35 ancient texts including the Hindu epics, the Mahabharata and the Bhagwad Gita, Patanjali's Yoga Sutras to register each native pose. At the end of 2009, 1500 asanas were to be added. In 2010, Union Environment Minister, Jairam Ramesh stated that over eight years 34 million pages of information have been collected at an estimated cost of Rs 7 crore; as a future project, a people’s Register of Biodiversity, is being set up by the government, to document and protect, traditional knowledge passed down through the oral tradition, under India’s National Biodiversity Act of 2002.
Alikhan, Shahid. Intellectual property and competitive strategies in the 21st century. Kluwer Law International. ISBN 90-411-2119-6. Dutz, Mark Andrew. Unleashing India's innovation: toward inclusive growth. World Bank Publications. ISBN 0-8213-7197-5. Sengupta, Nirmal. Economic Studies of Indigenous and Traditional Knowledge. Academic Foundation. ISBN 81-7188-586-1
Hu Weiyong was the first chancellor of the Ming dynasty, from 1373 to 1380. Hu was a main member of Huaixi meritorious group, he was well known as the central character of the case which named after himself, it caused about thirty thousand of deaths. Besides, his biography topped the Biographies of the Treacherous Courtiers, History of Ming. Hu was born in Haozhou. In 1363 Hu contributed a large number of warships to Zhu Yuanzhang to use for battle with Chen Youliang. Li Shanchang, chief of warship production, recommended Hu to Zhu Yuanzhang. In the Hongwu Emperor's elimination of the traditional offices of grand councilor, the primary impetus was Hu Weiyong's alleged attempt to usurp the throne. Hu was a capable administrator. In 1380, the Hongwu Emperor had Hu and his entire family arrested and executed on charges of treason. Using this as an opportunity to purge his government, the Hongwu Emperor ordered the execution of countless other officials, as well as their families, for associating with Hu.
The purge resulted in more than 30,000 executions. Some accounts narrate the dubious legends about Hu, it was said that some stalagmites emerged from the water of well, which located at the yard of his former residence. Moreover, the tombs of his ancestors were glowed in the night. While he seemed to preened himself on that and conspired to coups. Chancellor Hu Weiyong arrogated all authority to himself and accepted bribes, which stirred the wrath of other officers and the people. In 1380, a subordinate of Hu Weiyong reported to the Hongwu Emperor that Hu Weiyong met with the envoy of another country secretly, attempting to rebel. Four days Zhu executed Hu Weiyong; the emperor soon abolished the Chancellery of China, taking over direct responsibility of the Three Departments and Six Ministries. The Grand Secretariat assumed responsibility for aiding the emperor in managing the state. Together with the other members of his clique, their offences were compiled a book tilted Zhaoshi Jiandang Lu, at the behest of the emperor.
Mason Ellsworth Hale, Jr. was one of the most prolific lichenologists of the 20th century. Many of his scholarly articles focused on the taxonomy of the family Parmeliaceae. Hale was one of the first lichen experts to incorporate secondary chemistry and technology such as computers and scanning electron microscopy into taxonomic work. Mason Hale published two hundred articles and books on various aspects of lichen biology including taxonomy, anatomy and ecology. Hale wrote several books aimed at education and increasing accessibility to lichens. Mason Hale Jr. grew up on a farm outside of Connecticut. He had an affinity towards biology from experiences from living on his family's farm; as an undergraduate, Hale was not able to take specialized classes. Instead, he earned an undergraduate degree studying biology at Yale University, where he studied lichens under Alexander W. Evans, a bryophyte and lichen expert. Hale earned his Masters and Ph. D. at the University of Wisconsin–Madison under the supervision of prominent lichenologist John W. Thomson, an arctic lichen expert.
For his master's degree, Hale studied the lichen flora of the Baffin Islands, located in northeastern Canada. He collected lichens on the island working with Pierre Dansereau, a prominent Canadian ecologist; the resulting publications from the Baffin Islands contained both a checklist of all species collected, dichotomous keys. Baffin Island was the first of many expeditions around the world. For his Ph. D. Hale studied the lichens of southern Wisconsin; the paper, published in the journal Ecology, exemplifies Hale's ability to use technology to innovate new ideas. He studied, he examined host specificity of species. Hale found that there are different communities at the base of the tree compared to 1.3 meters high on the tree trunk. Another significant finding was that the cryptogamic community differed between habitats due to light and other stand level variables; this was an important study because it was one of the first lichen experiments that utilized statistics for ecological conclusions as opposed to observations.
Hale placed the data for each tree on IBM punch cards to better analyze the data. Hale met his an ecologist, while at the University of Wisconsin, they married in 1952 and had three children, Janet and Robert. Hale befriended William Culberson, a fellow graduate student, a lichen expert at Duke University. Hale and Culberson collaborated on many chemistry and taxonomic endeavors including the first lichen checklist of North America. After earning his Ph. D. Hale worked for two years each at University of Wichita and University of West Virginia, he became an Associate Curator at the Smithsonian Institution, where he worked from 1957 until his death. In 33 years at the Smithsonian, Hale collected close to 80,000 specimens and made the Smithsonian Institution one of the largest lichen herbariums in the world. Hale made numerous expeditions to tropical regions including the Caribbean and South America and Africa. One of his favorite expeditions was to collect endolithic lichens in Antarctica. Hale was appointed a Senior Botanist at the Smithsonian.
Mason Hale was a taxonomist, but his taxonomic framework and methodology for describing new species was dependent on modern technology. Hale was one of the first lichen experts to use chemical tests to study species delineations, he learned the techniques from his professor at Alexander W. Evans; the techniques that he utilized included spot tests, early thin layer chromatography, fluorescence. Hale both cataloged the presence of chemicals from numerous North American species and described new chemicals. One example, is Hale's study on fluorescence in which he linked fluoresced colors to specific chemicals using paper chromatography. In addition to chemistry, Hale incorporated scanning electron microscopy characteristics such as cortical structure into his species concepts. Another technical advance Hale utilized was punch card computers to keep track of morphological and ecological data; the use of computers was important to keep track of the many traits and taxonomic revisions in the Parmeliaceae.
Mason Hale was an expert of a large family of foliose lichens. Hale wrote numerous articles describing new genera and species. Before Hale, Parmelia was a large genus containing a wide range of morphological traits. Hale became interested in the Parmeliaceae because there was a number of undescribed species in the southeastern United States. Hale revised the family three times; the first time required reviewing type specimens and collected material to examine subgeneric concepts and synonyms. The second and third revisions broke the subgenera into more specific genera based on differences in chemistry and morphological characteristics using scanning electron microscopy. While met with resistance, most of the taxonomic changes are now accepted. Hale's taxonomic divisions are considered to be one of his most important contribution to lichenology. Hale widely collected and described crustose lichens in the Graphidaceae and Thelotremataceae. Hale pioneered numerous ecological measurements with lichens.
In addition to his work on community ecology of lichens, Hale examined the yearly growth rate of lichens in Aton Forest. Hale examined use of lichens as an indicator of floods and high water. Lastly in the 1980s Hale and James Lawrey published articles examining how car exhaust (spec