Asteraceae or Compositae is a large and widespread family of flowering plants. The family has 32,913 accepted species names, in 1,911 genera and 13 subfamilies. In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae.. Nearly all members bear their flowers in dense heads surrounded by involucral bracts; when viewed from a distance, each capitulum may have the appearance of being a single flower. Enlarged outer flowers in the capitula may resemble petals, the involucral bracts may look like a calyx; the name Asteraceae comes from the type genus Aster, from the Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, meaning star, refers to the star-like form of the inflorescence. Compositae is an older name that refers to the "composite" nature of the capitula, which consist of many individual flowers. Most members of Asteraceae are annual or perennial herbs, but a significant number are shrubs, vines, or trees; the family has a worldwide distribution, from the polar regions to the tropics, colonizing a wide variety of habitats.
It is most common in the semiarid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes. The Asteraceae may represent as much as 10% of autochthonous flora in many regions of the world. Asteraceae is an economically important family, providing products such as cooking oils, sunflower seeds, sweetening agents, coffee substitutes and herbal teas. Several genera are of horticultural importance, including pot marigold, Calendula officinalis, various daisies, chrysanthemums, dahlias and heleniums. Asteraceae are important in herbal medicine, including Grindelia and many others. A number of species are considered invasive, most notably in North America, introduced by European settlers who used the young leaves as a salad green; the study of this family is known as synantherology. The name Asteraceae comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Aster, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy; the genus name comes from the Classical Latin word aster, "star", which came from Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, "star".
Compositae means "composite" and refers to the characteristic inflorescence, a special type of pseudanthium found in only a few other angiosperm families. The vernacular name daisy applied to members of this family, is derived from the Old English name of the daisy: dæġes ēaġe, meaning "day's eye"; this is because the petals close at dusk. Asteraceae species have a cosmopolitan distribution, are found everywhere except Antarctica and the extreme Arctic, they are numerous in tropical and subtropical regions. Compositae, the original name for Asteraceae, were first described in 1792 by the German botanist Paul Dietrich Giseke. Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Cichorioideae; the latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk updated in 2014, now includes the monotypic Famatinanthoideae; the diamond denotes a poorly supported node, the dot a poorly supported node.
It is noteworthy that the four subfamilies Asteroideae, Cichorioideae and Mutisioideae contain 99% of the species diversity of the whole family. Because of the morphological complexity exhibited by this family, agreeing on generic circumscriptions has been difficult for taxonomists; as a result, several of these genera have required multiple revisions. Members of the Asteraceae are herbaceous plants, but some shrubs and trees do exist, they are easy to distinguish from other plants because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics. However, determining genera and species of some groups such as Hieracium is notoriously difficult. Members of the Asteraceae produce taproots, but sometimes they possess fibrous root systems. Stems are herbaceous aerial branched cylindrical with glandular hairs erect but can be prostrate to ascending; some species have underground stems in the form of rhizomes. These can be woody depending on the species; the leaves and the stems often contain secretory canals with resin or latex.
The leaves can be opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are deeply lobed or otherwise incised conduplicate or revolute; the margins can be entire or toothed. In plants of the family Asteraceae, what appears to be a single flower is a cluster of much smaller flowers; the overall appearance of the cluster, as a single flower, functions in attracting pollinators in the same way as the structure of an individual flower in some other plant families. The older family name, comes from the fact that what appears to be a single flower is a composite of smaller flowers; the "petals" or "sunrays" in a sunflower head are individual strap-sha
Chewing tobacco is a type of smokeless tobacco product consumed by placing a portion of the tobacco between the cheek and gum or upper lip teeth and chewing. Unlike dipping tobacco, it is not ground and must be manually crushed with the teeth to release flavour and nicotine. Unwanted juices are expectorated. Chewing tobacco is manufactured as several varieties of product – most as loose leaf, "plug". Nearly all modern chewing tobaccos are produced via a process of leaf curing, cutting and processing or sweetening. Many American chewing tobacco brands were made with cigar clippings. Oral and spit tobacco increase the risk for a precursor to oral cancer. Chewing tobacco has been known to cause cancer of the mouth and throat. According to International Agency for Research on Cancer, "Some health scientists have suggested that smokeless tobacco should be used in smoking cessation programs and have made implicit or explicit claims that its use would reduce the exposure of smokers to carcinogens and the risk for cancer.
These claims, are not supported by the available evidence." Chewing is one of the oldest methods of consuming tobacco. Indigenous peoples of the Americas in both North and South America chewed the leaves of the plant long before the arrival of Europeans mixed with the mineral lime, in the same way as coca leaves; the southern United States was distinctive for its production of tobacco, which earned premium prices from around the world. Most farmers traded with neighbours who grew it. Commercial sales became important in the late 19th century as major tobacco companies rose in the South, becoming one of the largest employers in cities like Winston-Salem, NC, Durham, NC and Richmond, VA. Southerners dominated the tobacco industry in the United States. In 1938 R. J. Reynolds marketed eighty-four brands of chewing tobacco, twelve brands of smoking tobacco, the top-selling Camel brand of cigarettes. Reynolds sold large quantities of chewing tobacco, though that market peaked about 1910. A historian of the American South in the late 1860s reported on typical usage in the region where it was grown, paying close attention to class and gender: The chewing of tobacco was well-nigh universal.
This habit had been widespread among the agricultural population of America both North and South before the war. Soldiers had found the quid a solace in the field and continued to revolve it in their mouths upon returning to their homes. Out of doors where his life was principally led the chewer spat upon his lands without offence to other men, his homes and public buildings were supplied with spittoons. Brown and yellow parabolas were projected to right and left toward these receivers, but often without the careful aim which made for cleanly living; the pews of fashionable churches were to contain these familiar conveniences. The large numbers of Southern men, these were of the better class who presented themselves for the pardon of President Johnson, while they sat awaiting his pleasure in the ante-room at the White House, covered its floor with pools and rivulets of their spittle. An observant traveller in the South in 1865 said that in his belief seven-tenths of all persons above the age of twelve years, both male and female, used tobacco in some form.
Women could be seen at the doors of their cabins in their bare feet, in their dirty one-piece cotton garments, their chairs tipped back, smoking pipes made of corn cobs into which were fitted reed stems or goose quills. Boys of eight or nine years of age and half-grown girls smoked. Women and girls "dipped" in their houses, on their porches, in the public parlours of hotels and in the streets. Chewing tobacco is still used, predominantly by young males in some parts of the American Southeast, but in other areas and age groups. In September 2006 both the Republican and Democratic candidates for Senator from Virginia admitted to chewing tobacco and agreed that it sets a bad example for children. In the late 19th century, during the peak in popularity of chewing tobacco in the western United States, a device known as the spittoon was a ubiquitous feature throughout places both private and public; the purpose of the spittoon was to provide a receptacle for excess juices and spittle accumulated from the oral use of tobacco.
As chewing tobacco's popularity declined throughout the years, the spittoon became a relic of the Old West and is seen outside museums. To this day, spittoons are still present on the floor of the U. S. Senate's old chamber. Chewing tobacco comes in several different varieties. Loose leaf chewing tobacco is the most available and most used type of chewing tobacco, it consists of shredded tobacco leaf sweetened and sometimes flavored, sold in a sealed pouch weighing on average 3oz. Loose leaf chewing tobacco has a sticky texture due to the sweeteners added. Common loose leaf chewing tobaccos include Red Man, Levi Garrett and Stoker's. Plug chewing tobacco is pressed tobacco leaves into a brick-like mass of tobacco. From this, bites are taken from the plug, or can be cut off and chewed. Plug tobacco is declining in popularity, thus is less available than loose leaf chewing tobacco; some brands include Cannon
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Brittle is a type of confection consisting of flat broken pieces of hard sugar candy embedded with nuts such as pecans, almonds, or peanuts. It has many variations around the world, such as pasteli in Greece, croquant in France, gozinaki in Georgia, gachak in Indian Punjab, chikki in other parts of India and kotkoti in Bangladesh. In parts of the Middle East, brittle is made with pistachios, while many Asian countries use sesame seeds and peanuts. Peanut brittle is the most popular brittle recipe in the US; the term brittle first appears in print in 1892, though the candy itself has been around for much longer. Traditionally, a mixture of sugar and water is heated to the hard crack stage corresponding to a temperature of 300 °F, although some recipes call for ingredients such as corn syrup and salt in the first step. Nuts are mixed with the caramelized sugar. At this point spices, leavening agents, peanut butter or butter are added; the hot candy is poured out onto a flat surface for cooling, traditionally a marble slab.
The hot candy may be troweled to uniform thickness. When the brittle cools, it is broken into pieces. Almond Roca Caramel Chikki Frankfurter Kranz Gajak Ka'í Ladrillo List of peanut dishes Nougat Pé-de-moleque Praliné Turrón Toffee Yeot Food portal Media related to Peanut brittle at Wikimedia Commons Peanut Brittle recipe at Wikibooks Microwave Peanut Brittle recipe at Wikibooks
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein. Fats molecules consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms, thus they are all hydrocarbon molecules. Examples include cholesterol and triglycerides; the terms "lipid", "oil" and "fat" are confused. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not a triglyceride. "Oil" refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains, liquid at room temperature, while "fat" refers to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are hydrophobic, are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, fats serve both structural and metabolic functions, they are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs and are the most energy dense, thus the most efficient form of energy storage. Some fatty acids that are set free by the digestion of fats are called essential because they cannot be synthesized in the body from simpler constituents.
There are two essential fatty acids in human nutrition: linoleic acid. Other lipids needed by the body can be synthesized from other fats. Fats and other lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas. Fats and oils are categorized according to the number and bonding of the carbon atoms in the aliphatic chain. Fats that are saturated fats have no double bonds between the carbons in the chain. Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonded carbons in the chain; the nomenclature is based on the non-acid end of the chain. This end is called the n-end, thus alpha-linolenic acid is called an omega-3 fatty acid because the 3rd carbon from that end is the first double bonded carbon in the chain counting from that end. Some oils and fats are therefore called polyunsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats can be further divided into cis fats, which are the most common in nature, trans fats, which are rare in nature. Unsaturated fats can be altered by reaction with hydrogen effected by a catalyst.
This action, called hydrogenation, tends to break all the double bonds and makes a saturated fat. To make vegetable shortening liquid cis-unsaturated fats such as vegetable oils are hydrogenated to produce saturated fats, which have more desirable physical properties e.g. they melt at a desirable temperature, store well, whereas polyunsaturated oils go rancid when they react with oxygen in the air. However, trans fats are generated during hydrogenation as contaminants created by an unwanted side reaction on the catalyst during partial hydrogenation. Saturated fats can stack themselves in a packed arrangement, so they can solidify and are solid at room temperature. For example, animal fats tallow and lard are solids. Olive and linseed oils on the other hand are liquid. Fats serve both as energy sources for the body, as stores for energy in excess of what the body needs immediately; each gram of fat when burned or metabolized releases about 9 food calories. Fats are broken down in the healthy body to release their constituents and fatty acids.
Glycerol itself can be converted to glucose by the liver and so become a source of energy. There are many different kinds of fats. All fats are derivatives of fatty acids and glycerol. Most fats are glycerides triglycerides. One chain of fatty acid is bonded to each of the three -OH groups of the glycerol by the reaction of the carboxyl end of the fatty acid with the alcohol. Water is eliminated and the carbons are linked by an -O- bond through dehydration synthesis; this process is called esterification and fats are therefore esters. As a simple visual illustration, if the kinks and angles of these chains were straightened out, the molecule would have the shape of a capital letter E; the fatty acids would each be a horizontal line. Fats therefore have "ester" bonds; the properties of any specific fat molecule depend on the particular fatty acids. Fatty acids form a family of compounds that are composed of increasing numbers of carbon atoms linked into a zig-zag chain; the more carbon atoms there are in any fatty acid, the longer its chain will be.
Long chains are more susceptible to intermolecular forces of attraction, so the longer ones melt at a higher temperature. Fatty acid chains may differ by length categorized as short to long. Short-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of fewer than six carbons. Medium-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 6–12 carbons, which can form medium-chain triglycerides. Long-chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 13 to 21 carbons. Long chain fatty acids are fatty acids with aliphatic tails of 22 or more carbons. Any of these aliphatic fatty acid chains may be glycerated and the resultant fats may have tails of different lengths from short triformin to long, e.g. cerotic acid, or hexacosanoic acid, a 26-carbon long-chain saturated fatty acid. Long chain fats are exemplified by tallow. Most fats found in foo
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l