Attack on Pearl Harbor
The attack, known as the Battle of Pearl Harbor, led to the United States entry into World War II. The Japanese military leadership referred to the attack as the Hawaii Operation and Operation AI, Japan intended the attack as a preventive action to keep the U. S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions they planned in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States. Over the next seven hours there were coordinated Japanese attacks on the U. S. -held Philippines and Wake Island and on the British Empire in Malaya, the attack commenced at 7,48 a. m. The base was attacked by 353 Imperial Japanese fighter planes, all eight U. S. Navy battleships were damaged, with four sunk. All but the USS Arizona were raised, and six were returned to service, the Japanese sank or damaged three cruisers, three destroyers, an anti-aircraft training ship, and one minelayer. 188 U. S. aircraft were destroyed,2,403 Americans were killed and 1,178 others were wounded.
Important base installations such as the station, maintenance. Japanese losses were light,29 aircraft and five midget submarines lost, one Japanese sailor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured. The surprise attack came as a shock to the American people. The following day, December 8, the United States declared war on Japan, the U. S. responded with a declaration of war against Germany and Italy. Domestic support for non-interventionism, which had been fading since the Fall of France in 1940, Roosevelt to proclaim December 7,1941, a date which will live in infamy. Because the attack happened without a declaration of war and without explicit warning, over the next decade, Japan continued to expand into China, leading to all-out war between those countries in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China and achieve sufficient resource independence to attain victory on the mainland, from December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on USS Panay, the Allison incident, and the Nanking Massacre swung public opinion in the West sharply against Japan.
Fearing Japanese expansion, the United States, the United Kingdom, in 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina in an effort to control supplies reaching China. The United States halted shipments of airplanes, machine tools, and aviation gasoline to Japan, an invasion of the Philippines was considered necessary by Japanese war planners. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with a 40 and this was opposed by Douglas MacArthur, who felt that he would need a force ten times that size, and was never implemented. By 1941, U. S. planners anticipated abandonment of the Philippines at the outbreak of war and orders to that effect were given in late 1941 to Admiral Thomas Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet
Lincoln Motor Company
The Lincoln Motor Company is a division of the U. S. -based Ford Motor Company that sells luxury vehicles under the Lincoln brand. Founded in 1917 by Henry M. Leland, Lincoln has been a subsidiary of Ford since 1922, while currently sold primarily in North America, Ford introduced the Lincoln brand to China in 2014. Lincoln vehicles are sold in the Middle East and South Korea. The current Lincoln model range in North America consists of two sedans, three crossover utility vehicles, and a utility vehicle. Lincoln sells two vehicles specifically for use, both based on the MKT. The Lincoln Motor Company was founded in August 1917 by Henry Leland, an engineer, Henry Leland named his new automobile company after Abraham Lincoln, the first presidential candidate for whom he had cast a vote. Following the end of the war, the Lincoln factory was retooled entirely for automobile production, during the early 1920s, Lincoln suffered severe financial issues, balancing the loss of revenue of Liberty engine production with the obsolete design of the expensive Model L.
For Henry Ford, the purchase of Lincoln was a personal triumph, the company, renamed Cadillac in 1902 was purchased by General Motors in 1909, serving as the chief competitor to Lincoln. While Henry Ford had previously introduced Ford-branded luxury vehicles, the company found little acceptance, with the acquisition of Lincoln, the nameplate became a top-selling rival alongside Pierce-Arrow, Peerless and Packard. Although the chassis itself saw few changes, the body saw significant updates. At the direction of Henrys son Edsel, in 1923 several body styles were introduced, that included two- and three-window, four-door sedans and they offered a two-passenger roadster and a seven-passenger touring sedan and limousine, which was sold for $5,200. A sedan, limo and town car were offered by coachbuilders Fleetwood and Dietrich. Murphy and Waterhouse were added in the 1930s, in 1924 large touring sedans began to be used by police departments around the country. They were known as Police Flyers, which were equipped with four-wheel brakes, Police whistles were coupled to the exhaust system and gun racks were fitted to these vehicles.
Optional equipment was not necessarily an issue with Lincolns sold during the 1920s, however, a nickel-plated radiator shell could be installed for $25, varnished natural wood wheels were $15, or Rudge-Whitworth center-lock wire wheels for another $100. Disteel steel disc wheels were available for $60. Lincoln chose not to make yearly model changes, used as a tool of the time. Lincoln customers of the time were known to more than one Lincoln with different bodywork
A convertible or cabriolet is an automobile body style that can convert between an open-air mode and an enclosed one, varying in degree and means by model. Convertibles evolved from the phaeton, an open vehicle without glass side windows that sometimes had removable panels of fabric or other material for protection from the elements. Historically, a retractable roof consisted of a frame covered with a folding. A lesser seen detachable hardtop provided a more weatherproof and secure alternative, as technology improved, a retractable hardtop which removes and stows its own rigid roof in its trunk appeared, increasingly becoming the most popular form. A semiconvertible known as a coach has a retractable or removable top which retains fully framed windows on its doors. A landaulet is a convertible with a fully enclosed front cabin. Other common terms include cabriolet, soft top, and drop top, and where the roof is more than emergency weather protection, open two-seater, rag top, spider. The erected top secures to the frame header with manual latches, semimanual latches.
The folded convertible top is called the stack, a tonneau cover provides a solution. A range of materials is available for soft tops, automakers had problems in securing raw materials to fulfill orders after World War II, including canvas in various shades for convertible tops and limiting their manufacture. Polyvinyl chloride material was used for many convertible tops, the material consists of two layers, a top layer made of PVC, which has a specific structure depending on the vehicle model, and a lower layer made of fabric. Side windows were not existent in open cars, which may have detachable side screens, rear windows have evolved similarly, with plastic rear windows appearing as late as the first-generation Porsche Boxster. Plastic windows can degrade, fade and crack over time, a windblocker or wind deflector minimizes noise and rushing air reaching the occupants. Mazda pioneered a version on the RX7 convertible which featured an integral rigid opaque panel that folded up from behind the front seats, current convertibles feature windblockers of various designs including detachable fold-up designs, vertically retractable glass, minimal flaps – or other integrated wind controlling systems.
According to the responsible for the 2008 Chrysler Sebring, its windblocker reduces wind noise by roughly 11 to 12 dB. Mercedes and Audi currently offer a heating duct to the area of the seat on SLK, SL. Windblockers are available on the aftermarket for use on convertibles that do not have them, the Volvo C70 retractable hardtop includes a door-mounted side-impact protection inflatable curtain which inflates upward from the interior belt-line – vs. downward like the typical curtain airbag. The curtain has an extra stiff construction with double rows of slats that are offset from each other
The Lincoln MKT is a full-size luxury crossover SUV built and marketed by the Ford Motor Companys Lincoln Motor Company division since the 2010 model year. Sharing a common platform with the Ford Flex, the MKT does not have a direct predecessor, the MKT and smaller MKX both serve as replacements of the Lincoln Aviator, as the division moved into the luxury crossover market. The Lincoln MKT was unveiled as a vehicle at the 2008 North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Largely a preview of the production vehicle, it featured a full-length glass roof. The MKT concept vehicle was announced to have the 415 hp 3, the MKT entered production at the Oakville Assembly plant in July 2009 for the 2010 model year. It shares the same unibody Volvo-designed D4 platform as the Ford Flex, the production version MKT comes standard with the normally aspirated, direct injection 268 hp 3.7 L Cyclone 37 V-6 as used in the Lincoln MKS sedan. The twin turbocharged 3.5 L Cyclone EcoBoost engine rated at 365 hp, both engines are mated to a 6-speed 6F automatic transmission.
The MKT features electric power steering over more-traditional hydraulic power steering, the electric steering system is combined with ultrasonic sensors to form a hands-off Active Park Assist system that steers the vehicle into parallel parking slots. The fuel economy of the MKT is enhanced by many advanced weight saving developments, the liftgate of the MKT is manufactured from an inner panel of cast magnesium and an outer panel of stamped aluminum. The MKT utilizes magnesium in the support, rear seat back. Mentioned competitors in the luxury crossover niche include the Acura MDX, Audi Q7, Infiniti QX60. The all wheel drive, 355-horsepower EcoBoost V-6 powered top of the line MKT model has better acceleration, the 2013 Lincoln MKT made its world debut at the 2011 LA Auto Show, with a newly refreshened exterior and interior. Horsepower of the base 3.7 L Cyclone 37 V-6 increased 12% to 303 hp, the 3.5 L Ecoboost V6 received an increase in power, up 10 hp to 365 hp. The MKT Town Car is available with the smaller 2.
0L Turbo EcoBoost motor. Changes to the 2014 and 2015 models were limited to color choices. For 2016, a new Sync 3 infotainment system replaced the previous MyLincoln Touch, for 2017, the MKT has received a new horizontal grille design. 2 strength-to-weight ratio,4.29 The MKT has a risk of 15. 1% for the 4-wheel drive version. To increase rear-seat room, both versions have the third-row seat converted to an area and a three-passenger rear seat moved rearward to increase rear legroom
The Lincoln Capri is a full-size automobile that was sold by Lincoln for the 1952 through 1959 model years. It is this car that earned the “Hot Rod Lincoln” term, in 1954, the races final year, Lincolns took first and second place. Competing against the Cadillac Series 62, Chrysler New Yorker, and Packard 200,14,342 Capris were sold in its debut year and it readily outsold its stablemate, the Cosmopolitan, each year until the Cosmopolitans demise. The Capri had a new Lincoln 90 degree V8 engine, in the October,1952 issue of Popular Mechanics, a Lincoln Capri was tested. 0-60 mph time was 14.8 seconds, while the quarter-mile was 21.3 seconds, at 40 mph, fuel economy was recorded at 21mpg. In 1955, the Capri featured a new 225 hp 341 cu in Lincoln Y-Block V8, featuring a four-barrel carburetor, air conditioning became an option for the first time. Riding on a 123.0 in wheelbase and measuring 215.6 in overall, the Capri was one of the first vehicles to offer an automatic headlight dimmer as optional equipment.
It sold 23,673 copies, amounting to 87% of Lincolns total output that year, powered by the 317 cu in Lincoln Y-block V8, Lincolns won the top four spots in the Stock Car category of the Pan American Road Race in both 1952 and 1953. In 1954, the final year, Lincolns took first. The Capri moved down-market, becoming Lincolns entry-level model and the newly introduced Premier based on it became the upper level Lincoln-branded model, in addition, the convertible disappeared from the model range, which already lacked for a four-door hardtop. Sales dropped dramatically, to only 8,791 in 1956 and this is not to imply that over all sales did not increase for 1956. The total production for both Capri and Premier models was 50,322, the Capris appearance borrowed from the radically different concept cars, the Mercury XM-800 and the Lincoln Futura. A new camshaft and higher 10,1 compression boosted output to 300 hp, the new cam did not, increase compression, contrary to Florys misapprehension. Even so, sales declined again, to 5,900 units, a facelifted design for 1957 featured more pronounced fins.
Total production for 1957 for the Capri and Premier lines was 41,123 and these were the first Lincolns produced at the new Wixom, Michigan and were made on a unibody platform much like the Lincoln-Zephyr and the original Lincoln Continental. While advertising brochures made the case that Continental Division was still a separate make, the Lincoln Capri was the base model in the Lincoln product line, with the Lincoln Premiere positioned as higher level of standard equipment. Lincoln lost over $60 million during 1958-1960, partly reflecting the expense of developing perhaps the largest unibody car ever made, the 1958 full-size Lincoln sold poorly in all models because of the economic recession in the U. S. The all-new 375 hp 430 cu in MEL V8 was a welcome addition, the 63.1 inches front and 63.0 inches rear shoulder room they possessed set a record for Lincoln that still stands to this day
Official state car
A few countries bring their own official state car for state visits to other countries, for instance the USA, Russia and sometimes the UK. It may serve as an symbol of the head of state. Part of the criteria for a state car is to have adequate security, capability. A limousine, executive car or sport utility vehicle is usually selected, due to the high security risk for the passengers, these vehicles are often heavily secured and protected. Vehicles may be armored by the manufacturer or an after-market specialist, when carrying an important passenger, state vehicles may be surrounded by a motorcade consisting of police or military personnel. For state visits and international conferences, the host country usually supplies the ground transportation, however, a few countries transport their official state cars to the destination. It is considered an honour for a car manufacturer to be selected to provide a car for their respective country. Members of the British Royal Family are driven in Jaguars, though other makes may be used in other Commonwealth realms, for countries without major indigenous manufacturers, an official state car may be purchased from a suitable manufacturer in a nation with strong economic and diplomatic ties.
In some cases state cars may bear standard number plates, in special or no plates are used. The following information lists some state cars and their users of sovereign states and other territories, the President of Afghanistan travels in a convoy of armored Toyota Land Cruiser J200s without registration plates. The President of Argentina uses an armored Mercedes-Benz Vito and is escorted by Toyota Corollas and Volkswagen Jettas driven by the secret service, the Governor-General of Australia travels in a Rolls-Royce Phantom VI limousine for ceremonial occasions, such as the State Opening of Parliament. He more commonly uses a white ballistic and bullet-proof armoured BMW7 series when on official business, the official cars of the Governor-General fly the Flag of the Governor-General of Australia and display St. Edwards Crown instead of number plates. A similar arrangement is used for the Governors of the six states, when the Queen is in Australia, the Queens Personal Australian Flag is flown on the car in which she is travelling.
During the Queens 2011 visit to Australia, the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh were driven in a Range Rover Vogue. The official state car of the Prime Minister of Australia is a white ballistic and bullet-proof armoured BMW 7-Series, prior to 2013, vehicles in the Prime Ministerial fleet were white Ford Territory and Holden Caprice models. The Prime Ministerial vehicle is escorted by police vehicles from state, the Prime Ministers car bears the number plate C1 and a centrally mounted Australian flag. The Prime Ministerial car fleet operates as part of COMCAR, a division of the Australian Governments Department of Finance, the off-the-shelf replacements offer greater protection and better value for money. A BAE and GM-Holden Consortium bid for the contract, senior government figures in Austria use Audi A8, BMW7 Series and Mercedes-Benz S-Class models
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is a city in western New York state and the county seat of Erie County, on the eastern shores of Lake Erie at the head of the Niagara River. As of 2014, Buffalo is New York states 2nd-most populous city after New York City, the metropolitan area has a population of 1.13 million. After an economic downturn in the half of the 20th century, Buffalos economy has transitioned to sectors that include financial services, biomedical engineering. Residents of Buffalo are called Buffalonians, the citys nicknames include The Queen City, The Nickel City and The City of Good Neighbors. The city of Buffalo received its name from a creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to Buffalo Creek in his journal of 1764, there are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name. In 1804, as principal agent opening the area for the Holland Land Company, Joseph Ellicott, designed a radial street and grid system that branches out from downtown like bicycle spokes similar to the street system he used in the nations capital.
Although Ellicott named the settlement New Amsterdam, the name did not catch on, during the War of 1812, on December 30,1813, Buffalo was burned by British forces. The George Coit House 1818 and Samuel Schenck House 1823 are currently the oldest houses within the limits of the City of Buffalo, on October 26,1825, the Erie Canal was completed with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward. At the time, the population was about 2,400, the Erie Canal brought about a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832. In 1845, construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church, an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement, Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom. During the 1840s, Buffalos port continued to develop, both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo.
Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor, in 1843, the worlds first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar. Darts Elevator enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, by 1850, the citys population was 81,000. At the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River, the city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting. It was part of the revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow. President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded by an anarchist at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6,1901, McKinley died in the city eight days and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in at the Wilcox Mansion as the 26th President of the United States. The Great Depression of 1929–39 saw severe unemployment, especially working class men
United States Secret Service
The United States Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. Until 2003, the Service was part of the U. S. Department of the Treasury, the Secret Services initial responsibility was to investigate counterfeiting of U. S. currency, which was rampant following the U. S. Civil War. The agency evolved into the United States first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency, the Secret Service has two primary missions, investigation of financial crimes and physical protection of designated protectees. After the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley, Congress directed the Secret Service to protect the President of the United States, Protection remains the other key mission of the United States Secret Service. From 1997 until 2013, legislation became effective limiting Secret Service protection to former Presidents, President Barack Obama signed legislation reversing this limit and reinstating lifetime protection on January 10,2013.
The Secret Service investigates thousands of incidents a year of individuals threatening the President of the United States, the Director of Secret Service is appointed by the President of the United States. With a reported one third of the currency in circulation being counterfeit at the time, Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. It was commissioned in Washington, D. C. as the Secret Service Division of the Department of the Treasury with the mission of suppressing counterfeiting, the legislation creating the agency was on Abraham Lincolns desk the night he was assassinated. At the time, the other federal law enforcement agencies were the United States Park Police. Post Office Departments Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations, and the U. S. Marshals Service, the Marshals did not have the manpower to investigate all crime under federal jurisdiction, so the Secret Service began to investigate everything from murder to bank robbery to illegal gambling.
After the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901, Congress informally requested that the Secret Service provide presidential protection, a year later, the Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for presidential protection. In 1902, William Craig became the first Secret Service agent to die while serving, the Secret Service was the first U. S. domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Domestic intelligence collection and counterintelligence responsibilities were vested in the Federal Bureau of Investigation upon the FBIs creation in 1908, the Secret Service assisted in arresting Japanese American leaders and in the Japanese American internment during World War II. Secret Service is not a part of the U. S, on October 16, the day of the summit, Burnham discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route. Burnham signaled a Texas Ranger, Private C. R. Moore, in 1950, President Harry S. Truman was residing in Blair House while the White House, across the street, was undergoing renovations.
On November 1,1950, two Puerto Rican nationalists, Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola, approached Blair House with the intent to assassinate President Truman and Torresola opened fire on Private Leslie Coffelt and other White House Police officers. Though mortally wounded by three shots from a 9 mm German Luger to his chest and abdomen, Private Coffelt returned fire, as of 2017, Coffelt is the only member of the Secret Service killed while protecting a US president against an assassination attempt. Collazo was shot, but survived his injuries and served 29 years in prison before returning to Puerto Rico in late 1979, in 1968, as a result of Robert F. Kennedys assassination, Congress authorized protection of major presidential and vice presidential candidates and nominees
The Lincoln MKX is a mid-size luxury crossover SUV manufactured and sold by Lincoln. Having debuted as a 2007 model in December 2006, the MKX is a variant of the Ford Edge using Fords CD3 platform for the first generation. The MKX features unibody construction and front-wheel-drive with available all-wheel-drive and it is manufactured at Oakville Assembly in Oakville, Canada. The Lincoln MKX made its first appearance as a car at the 2004 North American International Auto Show as a successor to the Lincoln Aviator. The Concept vehicle was smaller and more car-like with a V6 was rated at 245 hp and 240 lb·ft, the Aviator Concept differed from the production Aviator stylistically and with its panoramic sunroof. The production model received the MKX, with Lincoln management suggesting a Mark-Eks pronunciation during the 2006 auto show circuit, the 2007 MKX debuted in December 2006 as a rebadged variant of the Ford Edge. In addition to the grille, the MKXs front fascia features projector-beam headlight assemblies with standard chrome-accented fog lights mounted in the lower fascia.
The MKX features an optional adaptive headlight system that pivots the aim of the projectors to match the steering inputs of the driver. In the rear, the MKX features dual chrome exhaust tips, the optional sunroof, marketed as a Panoramic Vista Roof, is the production version of the glass roof feature shown on the 2004 Aviator Concept. The Vista Roof features a power sunroof and a fixed rear moonroof with dual power sunshades. The interior of the MKX features leather seating surfaces and wood accents in the wheel, dash area. MKXs safety features include a tire pressure monitoring system, three-point seat belts, dual airbags, front seat-deployed side airbags. Both the front and rear suspensions feature an isolated subframe and stabilizer bar, four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes are standard in all models with Fords AdvanceTrac traction control system with Roll Stability Control optional. Front-wheel drive is standard and all-wheel drive is optional, the MKX comes with standard 18-inch machined aluminum wheels with 18-inch chrome wheels optional.
The sole powertrain in the MKX is an all-aluminum,3.7 L Duratec DOHC V6 mated to Fords 6F50 6-speed automatic transmission, the MKX, and Lincoln MKZ were the first recipients of Fords 3.5 L Duratec V6. Front-wheel drive versions of the MKX come with a 19 US gal fuel tank while all-wheel drive models come with a 20 US gal fuel tank. The MKX has a curb weight of 4,220 lb when front-wheel drive only and 4,420 lb when equipped with all-wheel drive. No major changes were made for the 2009 MKX, the second generation Lincoln MKX was revealed as a concept vehicle at the 2014 Beijing Auto Show
Life was an American magazine that ran weekly from 1883 to 1936 as a humor magazine with limited circulation. Time owner Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936, solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name, Life was published weekly until 1972, as an intermittent special until 1978, and as a monthly from 1978 to 2000. After 2000 Time Inc. continued to use the Life brand for special, Life returned to regularly scheduled issues when it became a weekly newspaper supplement from 2004 to 2007. The website life. com, originally one of the channels on Time Inc. s Pathfinder service, was for a time in the late 2000s managed as a joint venture with Getty Images under the name See Your World, LLC. On January 30,2012 the LIFE. com URL became a channel on Time. com. When Life was founded in 1883, it was developed as similar to the British magazine and it was published for 53 years as a general-interest light entertainment magazine, heavy on illustrations and social commentary. The Luce Life was the first all-photographic American news magazine, the magazines role in the history of photojournalism is considered its most important contribution to publishing.
Life was wildly successful for two generations before its prestige was diminished by economics and changing tastes, Life was founded January 4,1883, in a New York City artists studio at 1155 Broadway, as a partnership between John Ames Mitchell and Andrew Miller. Mitchell held a 75 per cent interest in the magazine with the remainder by Miller, both men retained their holdings until their deaths. Miller served as secretary-treasurer of the magazine and was very successful managing the side of the operation. Mitchell, a 37-year-old illustrator who used a $10,000 inheritance to invest in the weekly magazine, Mitchell created the first Life name-plate with cupids as mascots, he drew its masthead of a knight leveling his lance at the posterior of a fleeing devil. Mitchell took advantage of a new printing process using zinc-coated plates. This edge helped because Life faced stiff competition from the humor magazines Judge and Puck. Edward Sandford Martin was brought on as Lifes first literary editor, the motto of the first issue of Life was, While theres Life, theres hope.
The new magazine set forth its principles and policies to its readers and we shall try to domesticate as much as possible of the casual cheerfulness that is drifting about in an unfriendly world. The magazine was a success and soon attracted the leading contributors. Among the most important was Charles Dana Gibson, three years after the magazine was founded, the Massachusetts native first sold Life a drawing for $4, a dog outside his kennel howling at the moon. Encouraged by a publisher who was an artist, Gibson was joined in Life early days by such illustrators as Palmer Cox
The Lincoln Navigator is a full-size luxury SUV marketed and sold by the Lincoln brand of Ford Motor Company since the 1998 model year. Sold primarily in North America, the Navigator is the Lincoln counterpart of the Ford Expedition, while not the longest vehicle ever sold by the brand, it is the heaviest production Lincoln ever built. Considering its Ford counterpart, it is the Lincoln with the greatest cargo capacity, the Lincoln Navigator was the first Lincoln to be produced in a factory outside the Wixom Assembly Plant since 1958. From 1997 to 2009, production was sourced at the Michigan Assembly Plant in Wayne, since 2007, production has been sourced from the Kentucky Truck Plant in Louisville, Kentucky. At the end of the 1980s, in the United States, sport-utility vehicles gradually began to transition from dedicated off-road vehicles towards dedicated family vehicles, in 1991, the Jeep Grand Wagoneer ended its 28-year production run. However, by the time of its discontinuation, the vehicle had gained a reputation for its high content.
Following its official entry into the United States in 1987, the Range Rover was upgraded in trim corresponding with its higher price, as a response, General Motors introduced the Oldsmobile Bravada in 1991, convincing several other manufacturers to introduce mid-size luxury SUVs. As full-size SUVs such as the Chevrolet Suburban and Ford Expedition are highly profitable vehicles, the Lincoln Navigator was launched on July 1,1997 for the 1998 model year, with the first vehicle rolling off the assembly line on May 14,1997. Based directly on the Ford Expedition, introduced the year before, in its first calendar year of sales, Navigator contributed to an unprecedented event of recent decades - the overtaking of the Lincoln brand by perennial rival Cadillac in annual sales volume. A subsequent audit resulted in a retraction/apology in May 1999, attributing the error to overzealous low-level employees, the Lincoln Navigator was developed under the Ford program code name UN173, with the Expedition developed under the UN93 program code name.
A full-size body-on-frame vehicle, the Navigator was mechanically related to the Ford Expedition, as with many high-end SUVs, the Navigator featured independent front suspension, the rear suspension was of a live rear axle design. Although technically available with rear-wheel drive, the drivetrain on the Lincoln Navigator was ControlTrac. As with the Expedition, the Navigator was fitted with four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes, using the same 230hp 5. 4L Triton V8 as the Expedition/F-150 paired with the 4-speed 4R100 automatic transmission, the 1998 Lincoln Navigator came with a towing capacity of 7,700 pounds. During 1999, Lincoln would fit two different engines in the Navigator in an effort to better match full-size SUVs from General Motors. At the beginning of the year, the Triton V8 was upgraded to 260hp, as a running change during the model year, Lincoln would replace the SOHC Triton with a 300hp DOHC5. 4L V8. Due to the increase in power, towing capacity would increase to over 8,500 lb. Forward of the windshield, the Lincoln Navigator shares no body panels with its Ford counterpart, with its own front fascia, roof rack, lower body trim, and taillights.
The interior of the two shared more commonality, with the dashboard common to both vehicles, the Navigator was given its own seat design