Kjetil André Aamodt
Kjetil André Aamodt is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Norway, a champion in the Olympics, World Championships, World Cup. He is the most decorated ski racer from Norway. Born in Oslo, Aamodt is the only alpine skier to win 8 Olympic medals, has won 5 World Championship gold medals as well as 21 individual World Cup events. Described as an all-round alpine skier, Aamodt participated in all alpine skiing disciplines in the World Cup and World Championships, is one of only 5 male alpine skiers to have won a World Cup race in all five disciplines. Aamodt's combined career total of twenty World Championship and Olympic medals is an all-time best, he is the second-youngest male alpine skier. Until 2014, he was the oldest alpine skier to win an Olympic gold medal. For six years, Aamodt led the all-time Marathon World Cup ranking, with a total of 13,252 points earned from 1989 to 2006 – until 14 March 2012, when Austrian Benjamin Raich overtook him with a fifth place in the downhill at the 2012 World Cup final in Schladming to total 13,281 points, earned from 1998.
Another all-time best is his 231 World Cup top-ten results, 9 ahead of Benjamin Raich. By winning the super-G race at the 2006 Olympics, Aamodt became the first male alpine skier to win four gold medals in the Olympics. Aamodt had 19 Olympic and World Championship medals stolen from him; the medals were taken in August 2003 by burglars. The five-time world champion and winner of four Olympic gold medals revealed they were recovered by an anonymous helper over the internet. Aamodt announced the conclusion of his career on live television on 6 January 2007, with hundreds of fellow athletes in attendance, at the Norwegian Sports Gala where he had been selected as awardee of the year for 2006. Aamodt now runs a ski race camp in Gaustablikk and does public speaking. In February 2015 Aamodt were selected as recipients of the Legends of Honor by the Vail Valley Foundation, inducted into the International Ski Racing Hall of Fame. 1 overall, 1 super-G, 1 giant slalom, 1 slalom ^official season title in the combined disciplinewas not awarded until the 2007 season 21 wins 63 podiums, 231 top tens.
Kjetil André Aamodt at the International Ski Federation Kjetil André Aamodt – World Cup season standings at FIS-ski.com Kjetil André Aamodt – results at Ski-db.com Kjetil André Aamodt at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Kjetil André Aamodt at the International Olympic Committee Official website
Crans-Montana is a municipality in the district of Sierre in the canton of Valais, Switzerland. On 1 January 2017 the former municipalities of Chermignon, Mollens and Randogne merged to form the new municipality of Crans-Montana. Crans-Montana is a ski resort, created through the fusion of the two centers of Crans and Montana and belonged to six municipalities, four of which merged to form the municipality of Crans-Montana. Chermignon is first mentioned in 1228 as Chirminon, it became an independent municipality in 1905. Mollens is first mentioned about 1250 as Molaen. In 1286 it was mentioned as Moleing; the municipality was known by its German name Molei, that name is no longer used. Montana is first mentioned in 1243 as Montana. In 1905 it separated from Lens to form an independent municipality. Randogne is first mentioned in 1224 as Randonni; the resort is located in the heart of the Swiss Alps in the French-speaking part of the canton of Valais. It is located on a plateau above Sierre at an elevation of about 1,500 m above sea level, allowing good view over the Valais Alps and Weisshorn in particular.
The resort belongs to 6 municipalities. The skiing area of Crans-Montana is composed of 140 km of pistes, includes the Plaine Morte Glacier, it is topped by the Pointe de la Plaine Morte at 2,927 m. Crans-Montana is famous in alpine ski racing for the 1987 World Championships and is on the World Cup schedule for women's speed events, it hosts the only winter mountain pop rock festival Caprices Festival and the second largest European golf event Omega European Masters, which takes place each September. The resort has been used for bicycle racing, hosting stage finishes of the Tour de Suisse seven times and of the Tour de Romandie eight times as of 2013. In addition Crans-Montana hosted the finish of the 20th stage of the 1984 Tour de France, won by Laurent Fignon, who took the overall race win that year. Crans-Montana has an area, as of 2009, of 59.66 km2. The new municipality has a population of 10,565; the historical population is given in the following chart: The Roches des Fées and the Hotel Bella Lui are listed as Swiss heritage site of national significance.
Between 1961 and 1990 Montana had an average of 110.5 days of rain or snow per year and on average received 982 mm of precipitation. The wettest month was December during which time Montana received an average of 120 mm of rain or snow. During this month there was precipitation for an average of 9.9 days. The month with the most days of precipitation was January, with an average of 10.4, but with only 108 mm of rain or snow. The driest month of the year was September with an average of 51 mm of precipitation over 6.8 days. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Montana has a marine west coast. English actor Roger Moore owned a chalet at the ski resort for many years after moving from Gstaad, he lived there until his death in 2017. Vojislav Stanimirović, journalist businessman from NYC, father of Pavle "PUNCH" Stanimirović & Alex Olmsted. Sophia Loren had an apartment overlooking the 8th green of the resort's golf course, Crans-Sur-Sierre. Grand-Duke Henri of Luxembourg French chef and restaurateur Michel Roux Golfers Adam Scott, Ángel Gallardo, Sergio García along with Francesco and Edoardo Molinari are residents.
Elizabeth von Arnim, Australian-born British novelist, lived in Randogne 1910–1930 Media related to Crans-Montana at Wikimedia Commons Official website Crans-Montana ski resort Cordona in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Luxembourg the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a small landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, France to the south, its capital, Luxembourg City, is one of the three official capitals of the European Union and the seat of the European Court of Justice, the highest judicial authority in the EU. Its culture and languages are intertwined with its neighbours, making it a mixture of French and German cultures, as evident by the nation's three official languages: French and the national language, Luxembourgish; the repeated invasions by Germany in World War II, resulted in the country's strong will for mediation between France and Germany and, among other things, led to the foundation of the European Union. With an area of 2,586 square kilometres, it is one of the smallest sovereign states in Europe. In 2018, Luxembourg had a population of 602,005, which makes it one of the least-populous countries in Europe, but by far the one with the highest population growth rate.
Foreigners account for nearly half of Luxembourg's population. As a representative democracy with a constitutional monarch, it is headed by Grand Duke Henri and is the world's only remaining grand duchy. Luxembourg is a developed country, with an advanced economy and one of the world's highest GDP per capita; the City of Luxembourg with its old quarters and fortifications was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994 due to the exceptional preservation of the vast fortifications and the old city. The history of Luxembourg is considered to begin in 963, when count Siegfried I acquired a rocky promontory and its Roman-era fortifications known as Lucilinburhuc, ′little castle′, the surrounding area from the Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin in nearby Trier. Siegfried's descendants increased their territory through marriage and vassal relations. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg reigned over a considerable territory. In 1308, Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg became King of the Germans and Holy Roman Emperor.
The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors during the high Middle Ages. In 1354, Charles IV elevated the County to the Duchy of Luxembourg. Since Sigismund had no male heir, the Duchy became part of the Burgundian Circle and one of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the City and Fortress of Luxembourg, of great strategic importance situated between the Kingdom of France and the Habsburg territories, was built up to be one of the most reputed fortifications in Europe. After belonging to both the France of Louis XIV and the Austria of Maria Theresia, Luxembourg became part of the First French Republic and Empire under Napoleon; the present-day state of Luxembourg first emerged at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. The Grand-Duchy, with its powerful fortress, became an independent state under the personal possession of William I of the Netherlands with a Prussian garrison to guard the city against another invasion from France. In 1839, following the turmoil of the Belgian Revolution, the purely French-speaking part of Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium and the Luxembourgish-speaking part became what is the present state of Luxembourg.
Luxembourg is a founding member of the European Union, OECD, United Nations, NATO, Benelux. The city of Luxembourg, the country's capital and largest city, is the seat of several institutions and agencies of the EU. Luxembourg served on the United Nations Security Council for the years 2013 and 2014, a first in the country's history; as of 2018, Luxembourgish citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 186 countries and territories, ranking the Luxembourgish passport 5th in the world, tied with Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the United States. The recorded history of Luxembourg begins with the acquisition of Lucilinburhuc situated on the Bock rock by Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, in 963 through an exchange act with St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier. Around this fort, a town developed, which became the centre of a state of great strategic value. In the 14th and early 15th centuries, three members of the House of Luxembourg reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. In 1437, the House of Luxembourg suffered a succession crisis, precipitated by the lack of a male heir to assume the throne, which led to the territories being sold by Duchess Elisabeth to Philip the Good of Burgundy.
In the following centuries, Luxembourg's fortress was enlarged and strengthened by its successive occupants, the Bourbons, Habsburgs and the French. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1815, Luxembourg was disputed between Prussia and the Netherlands; the Congress of Vienna formed Luxembourg as a Grand Duchy within the German Confederation. The Dutch king became, in the grand duke. Although he was supposed to rule the grand duchy as an independent country with an administration of its own, in reality he treated it to a Dutch province; the Fortress of Luxembourg was manned by Prussian troops for the German Confederation. This arrangement was revised by the 1839 First Treaty of London, from which date Luxembourg's full independence is reckoned. At the time of the Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839, by the 1839 Treaty establishing full independence, Luxembourg's territory was reduced by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium. In 1842 Luxembourg joined the German Customs Union (Zoll
Giant slalom is an alpine skiing and alpine snowboarding discipline. It involves skiing between sets of poles spaced at a greater distance from each other than in slalom but less than in Super-G. Giant slalom and slalom make up the technical events in alpine ski racing; this category separates them from the speed events of downhill. The technical events are composed of two runs, held on different courses on the same ski run; the vertical drop for a GS course must be 250–450 m for men, 250–400 m for women. The number of gates in this event is 46 -- 58 for women; the number of direction changes in a GS course equals 11–15% of the vertical drop of the course in metres, 13–18% for children. As an example, a course with a vertical drop of 300 m would have 33–45 direction changes for an adult race. Although giant slalom is not the fastest event in skiing, on average a well-trained racer may reach average speeds of 40 km/h. Giant slalom skis are shorter than super-G and downhill skis, longer than slalom skis.
In an attempt to increase safety for the 2003–04 season, the International Ski Federation increased the minimum sidecut radius for giant slalom skis to 21 m and for the first time imposed minimum ski lengths for GS: 185 cm for men and 180 cm for women. A maximum stand height of 55 mm was established for all disciplines. In May 2006, the FIS announced further changes to the rules governing equipment. Beginning with the 2007–08 season, the minimum radius for GS skis was increased to 27 m for men and 23 m for women. Additionally, the minimum ski width at the waist was increased from 60 to 65 mm, the maximum stand height for all disciplines was reduced to 50 mm; the best skiers tended to use a bigger sidecut radius, like Ted Ligety at 29 m, Lindsey Vonn at 27 m. For the 2012–13 season, the FIS increased the sidecut radius to 35 m and the minimal length to 195 cm. Many athletes criticized this decision. David Dodge was cited. Dodge argues, he states that it is well known that if one tips the ski 7° more the 35 m ski will have the same turning radius as the 28 m ski.
He states as well that knee injuries are decreasing since the 1990s, when carving skis started to be used. The first giant slalom was set in 1935 on the Mottarone in Italy, over the Lake Maggiore, near Stresa, on January 20. After one month, the second giant slalom was set on the Marmolada in Italy's Dolomite mountains, by Guenther Langes; the giant slalom was added to the world championships in 1950 at Aspen and debuted at the Winter Olympics in 1952 at Oslo, run at Norefjell. The GS has been run in every world Olympics since. A one-run event, a second run was added for men at the world championships in 1966, run on consecutive days, at the Olympics in 1968; the second run for women was added at the world championships in 1978, made its Olympic debut in 1980. The world championships changed to a one-day format for the giant slalom in 1974, but the Olympics continued the GS as a two-day event through 1980. Scheduled for two days in 1984, both giant slaloms became one-day events after repeated postponements of the downhills.
Following the extra races added to the program in 1988, the GS has been scheduled as a one-day event at the Olympics. Upon its introduction, giant slalom displaced the combined event at the world championships; the combined returned in 1954 in Åre, but as a "paper race," using the results of the three events, a format used through 1980. The combined returned as a stand-alone event at the world championships in 1982 at Schladming, at the 1988 Calgary Olympics, it was changed to the super-combined format at the world championships in 2007 and the Olympics in 2010. In the following table men's giant slalom World Cup podiums from the World Cup first edition in 1967. Skiers having most podium in FIS Alpine Ski World Cup. Updated to 15 February 2019. List of Olympic medalists in men's giant slalom List of Olympic medalists in women's giant slalom List of Paralympic medalists in men's giant slalom List of Paralympic medalists in women's giant slalom List of World Champions in giant slalom Media related to Giant slalom skiing at Wikimedia Commons
Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing, which use skis with free-heel bindings. Whether for recreation or sport, it is practised at ski resorts, which provide such services as ski lifts, artificial snow making, snow grooming and ski patrol. "Off-piste" skiers—those skiing outside ski area boundaries—may employ snowmobiles, helicopters or snowcats to deliver them to the top of a slope. Back-country skiers may use specialized equipment with a free-heel mode for hiking up slopes and a locked-heel mode for descents. Alpine skiing has been an event at the Winter Olympic Games since 1936; as of 1994, there were estimated to be 55 million people worldwide. The estimated number of skiers, who practised alpine, cross-country skiing, related snow sports, amounted to 30 million in Europe, 20 million in North America, 14 million in Japan; as of 1996, there were 4,500 ski areas, operating 26,000 ski lifts and enjoying skier visits.
The predominant region for downhill skiing was Europe, followed by Japan and the US. The ancient origins of skiing can be traced back to prehistoric times in Russia, Finland and Norway where varying sizes and shapes of wooden planks were preserved in peat bogs. Skis were first invented to cross marshes in the winter when they froze over. In the 1760s, skiing was recorded as being used in military training; the Norwegian army held skill competitions involving skiing down slopes, around trees and obstacles while shooting. The birth of modern alpine skiing is dated to the 1850s. Skiing was an integral part of transportation in colder countries for thousands of years. In the late 19th century skiing converted from a method of transportation to a competitive and recreational sport. Norwegian legend Sondre Norheim first began the trend of skis with curved sides, bindings with stiff heel bands made of willow, the slalom turn style. Sondre Norheim was the champion of the first downhill skiing competition held in Oslo, Norway in 1868.
Two to three decades the sport spread to the rest of Europe and the U. S; the first slalom ski competition occurred in Mürren, Switzerland in 1922. A skier following the fall line will reach the maximum possible speed for that slope. A skier with skis pointed perpendicular to the fall line, across the hill instead of down it, will accelerate more slowly; the speed of descent down any given hill can be controlled by changing the angle of motion in relation to the fall line, skiing across the hill rather than down it. Downhill skiing technique focuses on the use of turns to smoothly turn the skis from one direction to another. Additionally, the skier can use the same techniques to turn the ski away from the direction of movement, generating skidding forces between the skis and snow which further control the speed of the descent. Good technique results in a flowing motion from one descent angle to another one, adjusting the angle as needed to match changes in the steepness of the run; this looks more like a single series of S's than turns followed by straight sections.
The oldest and still common form of alpine ski turn is the stem, turning the front of the skis sideways from the body so they form an angle against the direction of travel. In doing so, the ski pushes snow forward and to the side, the snow pushes the skier back and to the opposite side; the force backwards directly counteracts gravity, slows the skier. The force to the sides, if unbalanced, will cause the skier to turn. Carving is based on the shape of the ski itself; the contact between the arc of the ski edges and the snow causes the ski to tend to move along that arc, slowing the skier and changing their direction of motion. The snowplow turn is the simplest form of turning and is learned by beginners. To perform the snowplow turn one must be in the snowplow position while going down the ski slope. While doing this they apply more pressure to the inside of the opposite foot of which the direction they would like to turn; this type of turn allows the skier to keep a controlled speed and introduces the idea of turning across the fall line.
Modern alpine skis are shaped to enable carve turning, have evolved since the 1980's, with variants such as powder skis, freestyle skis, all-mountain skis, kid's skis and more. Powder skis are used when there is a large amount of fresh snow, as the shape of a powder ski is wide allowing the ski to float on top of the snow compared to a normal downhill ski which would most sink into the snow. Freestyle skis are used by skiers; these skis are meant to help a skier who skis jumps and other features placed throughout the terrain park. Freestyle skis are fully symmetric, meaning they are the same dimensions from the tip of the ski to the backside of the ski. All-mountain skis are the most common type of ski, tend to be used as a typical alpine ski. All-mountain skis are built to do a little bit of everything. Slalom race skis referred to as race skis are short, narrow skis, which tend to be stiffer because they are meant for those who want to go fast as well as make quick sharp turns; the binding is a device used to connect the skier's boot to the ski.
The purpose of the binding is to allow the skier to stay connected to the ski, but if the skier falls the binding can safely release them from the ski to prevent injury. There are two types of bindings: the heel and toe system and the plate system binding
Marina Kiehl is a German former Alpine skier. Competing for West Germany, she won her first World Cup victory in a Super-G competition in the 1983/1984 season. In 1985 and 1986 Kiehl won the discipline World cups in Giant slalom and Super-G; the major highlight in Kiehl's career came at the 1988 Olympics in Calgary, when she won a gold medal in the downhill ahead of Brigitte Oertli and Karen Percy. Kiehl retired from competitions after the Calgary Olympics, aged 23
2008–09 FIS Alpine Ski World Cup
The 43rd World Cup season began in late October 2008 in Sölden and concluded in mid-March 2009, at the World Cup finals in Åre, Sweden. Aksel Lund Svindal of Norway won the overall title by two points over Benjamin Raich of Austria. Svindal returned from a season-ending injury in December 2007, took the season title in super-G. Lindsey Vonn of the U. S. repeated as women's overall champion, taking the title by a substantial 384 points over Maria Riesch of Germany. Vonn repeated as the season downhill champion, added the season title in super-G. Being an odd-numbered year, a break in the World Cup schedule was for the biennial World Championships; the 2009 World Championships were held 2–15 February in Val-d'Isère, France. No pre-Olympic World Cup alpine events were run at Whistler Mountain, during the 2009 season. In late February 2008, a women's downhill and super-combined were run on Franz's Run, the women's Olympic course; the most recent men's World Cup events on the Dave Murray Downhill course were held in late February 1995.
The World Cup races in North America were switched to the early part of the season in the fall of 1995, the men's speed events at Whistler were canceled three consecutive years due to weather issues, which prompted the switch to Lake Louise in Alberta in December 1999. FIS-ski.com – World Cup standings Ski Racing.com – U. S.-based magazine – alpine racing news U. S. Ski Team.com – alpine news