The Super Bowl is the annual championship game of the National Football League played between mid-January and early February. It is the culmination of a regular season; the game was created as part of the merger agreement between the NFL and its rival the American Football League. It was agreed that the two champion teams would begin playing in an annual AFL–NFL World Championship Game until the merger began in 1970; the first game was played on January 15, 1967 after both leagues had completed their respective 1966 seasons. After the merger, each league was re-designated as a "conference", the game has since been played between the conference champions to determine the NFL's league champion; the NFL restricts the use of its "Super Bowl" trademark, it is referred to as the "big game" or other generic terms by non-sponsoring corporations. The New England Patriots and the Pittsburgh Steelers have the most Super Bowl championship titles with six each; the Patriots have the most Super Bowl appearances with 11.
The National Football Conference and the American Football Conference are tied with 27 Super Bowl wins each. The Super Bowl is the second-largest day for U. S. food consumption, after Thanksgiving Day. In addition, the Super Bowl has been the most-watched American television broadcast of the year. In 2015, Super Bowl XLIX became the most-watched American television program in history with an audience of 114.4 million viewers, the fifth time in six years that the game had set a record. The Super Bowl is among the most-watched sporting events in the world, is second to the UEFA Champions League final as the most watched annual sporting event worldwide. Commercial airtime during the Super Bowl broadcast is the most expensive of the year because of the high viewership, leading to companies developing their most expensive advertisements for this broadcast. Watching and discussing the broadcast's commercials has become a significant aspect of the event. In addition, popular singers and musicians have performed during the event's pre-game and halftime ceremonies.
For four decades after its 1920 inception, the NFL fended off several rival leagues. In 1960, the NFL encountered its most serious competitor when the American Football League was formed; the AFL vied with the NFL for fans. The original "bowl game" was the Rose Bowl Game in Pasadena, first played in 1902 as the "Tournament East–West football game" as part of the Pasadena Tournament of Roses and moved to the new Rose Bowl Stadium in 1923; the stadium got its name from the fact that the game played there was part of the Tournament of Roses and that it was shaped like a bowl, much like the Yale Bowl in New Haven, Connecticut. The Tournament of Roses football game came to be known as the Rose Bowl Game. Exploiting the Rose Bowl Game's popularity, post-season college football contests were created for Miami, New Orleans, El Paso in 1935, for Dallas in 1937. By the time the first Super Bowl was played, the term "bowl" for any major American football game was well established. In the mid-1960's, Lamar Hunt, owner of the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs, first used the term "Super Bowl" to refer to the AFL–NFL championship game in the merger meetings.
Hunt said the name was in his head because his children had been playing with a Super Ball toy. In a July 25, 1966, letter to NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle, Hunt wrote, "I have kiddingly called it the'Super Bowl,' which can be improved upon." The leagues' owners chose the name "AFL–NFL Championship Game", but in July 1966 the Kansas City Star quoted Hunt in discussing "the Super Bowl — that's my term for the championship game between the two leagues", the media began using the term. Although the league stated in 1967 that "not many people like it", asking for suggestions and considering alternatives such as "Merger Bowl" and "The Game", the Associated Press reported that "Super Bowl" "grew and grew and grew—until it reached the point that there was Super Week, Super Sunday, Super Teams, Super Players, ad infinitum". "Super Bowl" became official beginning with the third annual game. Roman numerals are used to identify each Super Bowl, rather than the year in which it is held, since the fifth edition, in January 1971.
The sole exception to this naming convention tradition occurred with Super Bowl 50, played on February 7, 2016, following the 2015 regular season, the following year, the nomenclature returned to Roman numerals for Super Bowl LI, following the 2016 regular season. After the NFL's Green Bay Packers won the first two Super Bowls, some team owners feared for the future of the merger. At the time, many doubted the competitiveness of AFL teams compared with their NFL counterparts, though that perception changed when the AFL's New York Jets defeated the NFL's Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl III in Miami. One year the AFL's Kansas City Chiefs defeated the NFL's Minnesota Vikings 23–7 in Super Bowl IV in New Orleans, the final AFL–NFL World Championship Game played before the merger. Beginning with the 1970 season, the NFL realigned into two conferences; the champions of the two conferences would play each other in the Super Bowl. The winning team re
Baystate was a Japanese jazz record label. Some of these album were released on the Japanese labels Victor and Horo Records. None have been reissued on LP or CD. RVJ-6001: M'Boom - Re: Percussion RVJ-6003: Charles Greenlee - I Know About the Life RVJ-6005: Toshiko Akiyoshi – Lew Tabackin Big Band - Live at Newport'77 RVJ-6006: Woody Shaw, Azar Lawrence, David Schnitter - Black Renaissance 1976 RVJ-6009: Zenzile Featuring Marion Brown - Zenzile Featuring Marion Brown RVJ-6011: Hannibal and Sunrise Orchestra - Live in Lausanne RVJ-6013: Warren Smith - Folks Song RVJ-6015: Kalaparusha - Kwanza Kalaparusha RVJ-6016: Max Roach & Dollar Brand - Streams of Consciousness RVJ-6021: Max Roach - Solos RVJ-6022: Robert Ruff - Shaza-Ra RVJ-6023: Hannibal and Sunrise Orchestra - The Light RVJ-6024: Marion Brown - Passion Flower RVJ-6025: Charles Tolliver - New Tolliver RVJ-6026: Matt Dennis - Angel Eyes RVJ-6027: Hidefumi Toki & the Super Jazz Trio - City RVJ-6028: Roy Brooks & The Artistic Truth - Live at Town Hall RVJ-6029: Max Roach Quartet - Live in Amsterdam RVJ-6030: Sunny Murray's Untouchable Factor - Apple Cores RVJ-6031: Toshiko Akiyoshi – Lew Tabackin Big Band - Salted Gingko Nuts RVJ-6033: Tommy Flanagan, Reggie Workman, Joe Chambers - The Super Jazz Trio RVJ-6036: Marion Brown - Soul Eyes RVJ-6037: Charles Mingus - The Music of Charles Mingus RVJ-6043: Hannibal Marvin Peterson - Tribute RVJ-6052: Art Matthews - It's Easy to Remember RVJ-6056: Art Farmer with the Super the Jazz Trio - Something Tasty RVJ-6066: Marion Brown - November Cotton Flower RVJ-6083: Billy Harper - The Believer RVJ-6088: Toshiko Akiyoshi – Lew Tabackin Big Band - Live at Newport II RVJ-6089: Super Jazz Trio - The Standards RJL-8005: Karin Krog, Red Mitchell - But Three's a Crowd RJL-8013: Benny Golson featuring Curtis Fuller - California Message RJL-8018: Joe Chambers - New York Concerto RJL-8025: Kazu Matsui - Time No Longer RJL-8026: Benny Golson Quintet featuring Curtis Fuller - One More Mem'ry RJL-8033: Art Blakey - Art Blakey and the Allstar Jazz Messengers RJL-8039: Kenny Drew - Moonlit Desert RJL-8040: Guanabara - The Brazilian Beat of Guanabara RJL-8054: Benny Golson - Time Speaks RJL-8057: Timeless All Stars - Timeless Heart RJL-8065: Thomas Clausen - The Shadow of Bill Evans RJL-8071: Art Blakey - Caravan RJL-8074: Kenny Drew Trio - Fantasia RJL-8085: Cedar Walton - The All American Trio RJL-8089: The New Jazztet - Nostalgia RJL-8092: Benny Golson - This Is for You, John RJL-8096: Bobby Hutcherson & the Super Four - Nice Groove RJL-8099: Guanabara - On the Move RJL-8095: Freddie Hubbard - The Rose Tattoo RJL-8103: Kenny Barron - Landscape RJL-8104: Eugen Cicero - Jazz Bach RJL-8105: Art Blakey - On the New Tradition RJL-8106: Kenny Drew Trio - By Request RJL-2608: Don Friedman - Later Circle RJL-2609: Toshiko Akiyoshi – Lew Tabackin Big Band - March of the Tadpoles RJL-2678: Toshiko Akiyoshi-Lew Tabackin Big Band - Live at Newport'77 RJL-2684: Hannibal and Sunrise Orchestra - The Light RVJ-9005/06: Max Roach - The Loadstar RDC15: Roy Brooks - The Smart Set
John Vernon Sheardown was a Canadian diplomat who played a leading role in the "Canadian Caper". He and his wife Zena sheltered Americans hiding in Iran during the Iran hostage crisis. Sheardown was born on October 1924 in Sandwich, Ontario. At the age of 18, he enlisted in the Royal Canadian Air Force and piloted an Avro Lancaster heavy bomber in World War II, surviving having to bail out over England returning from a mission, he remained in the military after the war and served in Korea. He worked for the Canadian immigration service, beginning around 1962 in the foreign service for 27 years, retiring in 1989. On November 4, 1979, the Iran hostage crisis began. At the time, Sheardown was the chief immigration officer, the second-ranking official at the Canadian Embassy there. A group of five Americans had escaped capture. After hiding for six days, one of them, Robert Anders, telephoned Sheardown, a friend he had played tennis with, for help. Sheardown contacted his superior, Ambassador Ken Taylor, who apprised the Canadian government.
Approval was given. Sheardown and his wife Zena hid three of the Americans in their rented 20-room home for 79 days at great personal risk, while Taylor sheltered two others. On November 27, Taylor received a call from the Swedish ambassador Kaj Sundberg, asking him to take in American Lee Schatz. Schatz had been staying with a Swedish diplomat, but the Swedish ambassador felt he could better impersonate a Canadian. Taylor agreed, placed Schatz in the Sheardown residence; the Sheardowns left Tehran days before the CIA smuggled the six Americans out of the country under fake Canadian passports on January 27, 1980. For his part in the Canadian Caper, Sheardown was made a member of the Order of Canada, he lobbied for his wife, ineligible as a British citizen who had never lived in Canada, to be awarded the same honour, which she received in 1981 on an honorary basis through the intervention of Flora MacDonald. John and Zena Sheardown were portrayed in the 1981 Canadian-American television movie Escape from Iran: The Canadian Caper by Chris Wiggins and Diana Barrington, respectively.
After the big-budget Hollywood movie Argo about the Canadian Caper was released in 2012, director Ben Affleck called to apologize to the Sheardowns for having to leave them out due to plot and time constraints, stating in a interview, "It did break my heart a bit." Sheardown was married twice. He and his first wife, Kathleen Benson, divorced, he was married to his second wife, Zena Khan, from 1975 until his death in Ottawa on December 30, 2012. He had battled Alzheimer's disease and other ailments, he was survived by two sons