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Super Bowl XXII

Super Bowl XXII was an American football game between the National Football Conference champion Washington Redskins and American Football Conference champion Denver Broncos to decide the National Football League champion for the 1987 season. The Redskins defeated the Broncos by the score of 42–10, winning their second Super Bowl; the game was played on January 31, 1988 at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego, the first time that the Super Bowl was played in that city. This Super Bowl came at the end of a season, shortened by a players' strike; each team only missed one regular season game due to the labor dispute, but three games were played with replacement players until the dispute was settled. The Broncos were making their second consecutive Super Bowl appearance, after posting a 10–4–1 regular season record through the strength of their quarterback, John Elway; the Redskins, who were making their fourth Super Bowl appearance, posted an 11–4 regular season record. Washington was led by quarterback Doug Williams, who entered the season as a backup, was 0-2 as a starter during the regular season.

He ended up leading Washington to their two playoff victories. In doing so, he became the first African American quarterback to start in an NFL league championship game, let alone a Super Bowl. After trailing 10–0 at the end of the first quarter of Super Bowl XXII, the Redskins scored 42 unanswered points, including a record-breaking 35 points in the second quarter, setting several other Super Bowl records. Williams, named the Super Bowl MVP, completed 18 of 29 passes for a Super Bowl record 340 yards and four touchdowns, with one interception, he became the first player in Super Bowl history to pass for four touchdowns in a single quarter, four in a half. Williams became the first African American starting quarterback to win a Super Bowl. NFL owners voted to award Super Bowl XXII to San Diego on May 24, 1984 during their May 23–25, 1984 meetings in Washington, D. C; this was the first Super Bowl played at Jack Murphy Stadium in California. Fourteen cities were part of the bidding process, scheduled to award four Super Bowls.

The bidding cities included: Anaheim, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, Philadelphia, San Francisco, San Diego, Seattle and Tempe. The Philadelphia host committee assembled what was considered a strong, but long-shot bid, hoping to win the first outdoor Super Bowl in a cold weather city. Jacksonville and Tempe had no NFL team at the time. After the balloting for XXI took over two hours to complete, XXII was voted on, but the voting for XXIII and XXIV was postponed. San Diego was awarded the game, marking the second time consecutive Super Bowls were played in the same state, with Pasadena hosting Super Bowl XXI; this has now happened three times in NFL history. The primary storyline surrounding Super Bowl XXII was that Washington's Doug Williams was the first African-American quarterback to start in a Super Bowl; this was more meaningful given that the Redskins had once been among the league's most racist teams, being the last team to sign a black player after they reentered the league. Williams had taken a rather unconventional route to the Super Bowl.

He began his career as the first round draft pick of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers in 1978. After five seasons, a contract dispute caused him to leave the team and sign with the Oklahoma Outlaws of the newly formed USFL; when that league folded a few years Williams found himself out of a job until Redskins coach Joe Gibbs asked him to join the team to be the backup for quarterback Jay Schroeder. Williams played just one game in 1986, spent most of the 1987 season on the bench, but injuries and inconsistent play from Schroeder made Gibbs promote Williams to starting quarterback. Williams had played well in his five regular season games, passing for 1,156 yards, 11 touchdowns and five interceptions; the Redskins' main receiving threat was wide receiver Gary Clark, who caught 56 passes for 1,066 yards, an average of 19 yards per catch. Wide receivers Ricky Sanders and Art Monk were deep threats, combining for 80 receptions and 1,130 yards. Running back George Rogers was Washington's leading rusher with 613 yards.

However, Rogers saw limited action in Super Bowl XXII due to injuries that forced him into early retirement. Rookie running back Timmy Smith started in his place. Fullback Kelvin Bryant was a big contributor, rushing for 406 yards, catching 43 passes for 490 yards during the 1987 season; the Redskins had an excellent defensive unit, led by defensive backs Barry Wilburn, who recorded nine interceptions for 135 return yards and one touchdown. Their line was anchored by defensive ends Charles Mann, who led the team with 9.5 sacks and recovered a fumble. The Redskins finished the 1987 strike-shortened regular season as NFC East champions with an 11–4 record and the third seed in the NFC playoffs; the Broncos advanced to their second consecutive Super Bowl, overall the third appearance in team history. Quarterback John Elway had another excellent season, passing for 19 touchdowns, he was the team's second leading rusher with 304 yards and


Dalanzadgad is the capital of SouthGobi Aimag in Mongolia. It is located 540 kilometers south of the national capital Ulaanbaatar; the altitude of the city center is 1,470 meters. As of 2011, its population is 19,396; the Dalanzadgad Airport is served by regular domestic flights to Ulaanbaatar. There are winter timetables. In 2007 the Mongolian Civil Aviation Authority built a new airport with a paved runway; the runway is second longest in the country after Chinggis Khaan International Airport. Before that, the airport had only one gravel runway; the Dalanzadgad town has a paved road connecting it with capital Ulaanbaatar city. Dalanzadgad experiences a cold desert climate with warm summers. By Mongolian standards it is one of the warmest places in the country during winter. Along with Tsetserleg and Arvaikheer it was warmer than Hohhot in January 2014 and 2015. A unique steppe micro-climate with running streams and lush grass can be found in the nearby Yolyn Am valley. There is GSM coverage in the city the same as in other major locations - the coverage is good for about a mile out of the city.

The city is supplied with electric power 24 hours a day. Near Dalanzadgad, at 43°31′54.38″N 104°24′4.16″E, there is a longwave broadcasting station working on 209 kHz with 75 kW. An extended Market Research on Dalanzadgad

Lamentation of Christ (van der Weyden)

The Lamentation of Christ is an oil-on-panel painting of the common subject of the Lamentation of Christ by the Netherlandish artist Rogier van der Weyden, dating from around 1460–1463 and now in the Uffizi Gallery, Italy. The work is the "altarpiece Our Lord's sepulchre and other five figures" which appear in the inventory made in 1492 at the death of Lorenzo de' Medici, which decorated his Villa at Careggi since as early as 1482; the panel was thus one of the works commissioned by the Medici to van der Weyden, including the Medici Madonna now at Städel of Frankfurt, assigned to the artist's trip to Italy in 1450. Another hypothesis is that the panel was part of a lost triptych painted for Lionello d'Este of Ferrara, mentioned in 1449, or that it was the painting described by Giorgio Vasari as Hans Memling's; the panel adopts the same scheme in Fra Angelico's Pietà for the predella of the San Marco Altarpiece, now at the Alte Pinakothek, confirming that the Flemish artist visited Florence during his pilgrimage in Italy of 1449–1450, as mentioned in De viribus illustribus by Bartolomeo Facio.

The work was part of the collections of cardinal Carlo de' Medici, being moved to the Uffizi Gallery in 1666. Filippo Baldinucci described it as a work by Albrecht Dürer. In 1989 it was still assigned to Hans Memling by some scholars, but in 1992 reflex photography showed the underlying drawing, executed by van der Weyden; the painting has a rectangular shape, shows Christ being buried with the weeping Mary and John the Evangelist holding his hands. The corpse is supported by Joseph of Arimathea and by Nicodemus dressed in refined clothing of the times and gazing out towards the spectator, once thought to be a self-portrait of the artist, now known to portray Cosimo the elder. A kneeling Mary Magdalene is depicted in the low foreground; the composition is similar to Angelico's Pietà, but the scene here is more complex and crowded, with less geometrically ordered lines and more anguished faces. The use of oil paint allowed van der Weyden to obtain deeper colours and a more brilliant light; the attention to details is typical of the early Netherlandish painting school.

Campbell, Lorne. Van der Weyden. London: Chaucer Press. ISBN 1-904449-24-7. Page at Florence's Museums website

Butyriboletus regius

Butyriboletus regius known as the royal bolete or red-capped butter bolete, is a basidiomycete fungus of the genus Boletus found in China and Europe. B. regius has a pink cap, yellow flesh, a reticulate pattern on the stem. Harry D. Thiers described a similar mushroom from California as B. regius, though it is not the same species. B. regius in Europe does not stain when exposed to air, or stains weakly, but the California species stains blue. Both European and California species are considered choice edibles; the species was first described and illustrated by Julius Vincenz von Krombholz in 1832. Common names for the mushroom include the royal bolete. Butyriboletus regius was classified as a member of the section Appendiculati of the genus Boletus. Molecular analysis demonstrated that this and related "butter bolete" species, including Boletus appendiculatus, are phylogenetically distinct from Boletus, the new genus Butyriboletus was created to contain them; the fruit bodies of Butyriboletus regius have caps that are convex before flattening out in maturity, reaching a diameter of 7–20 cm wide.

The cap surface is pink to red with hints of yellow or brown, more so around the margin. Velvety to tomentose when young, these minute hairs tend to slough off with age, the cap develops wrinkles and pits; the cap flesh is yellow and erratically bruises blue in North American specimens. The pores on the underside of the cap are angular, measure about 1–2 per millimetre; the color of the pore surface is bright yellow to start, but darkens somewhat, will stain blue with damage. The depth of the tubes comprising the pores extends to 0.8–2.5 cm. The stem measures 5–13 cm long by 2.5–5 cm thick, has a thick, bulbous base. It is solid, a bright yellow color with reddish tones near the base of the stem; the stem surface can be covered with fine yellow reticulations either throughout its length, or just on the upper portion. Butyriboletus regius produces an olive-brown spore print, its smooth, hyaline spores are elliptical to somewhat fusoid to more or less cylindrical, have dimensions of 12–17 by 4–5 μm.

Chemical tests can be used to help identify Butyriboletus regius in the field. The cap cuticle will stain a pale purple color. Butyriboletus regius is an ectomycorrhizal species with a broad host range, associates with oak and conifers fir. Fruit bodies grow singly, grouped together. In North America, they appear from August to November, although they appear between May and June; the North American distribution includes the Pacific Northwest states of California and Washington, where its frequency of occurrence ranges from "rare to locally abundant". It is rare in Europe, appearing on the Regional Red List of several countries, is considered endangered in the Czech Republic; the species has been recorded from China. List of North American boletes Butyriboletus regius in Index Fungorum

Grady Hatton

Grady Edgebert Hatton Jr. was an American baseball player, coach and executive. Although the bulk of his playing career was as the third baseman and second baseman of the Cincinnati Reds, Hatton is most identified with his native Texas: he was born in Beaumont, attended the University of Texas at Austin, managed minor league teams in Houston and San Antonio, was an important contributor to the early years of Major League Baseball's Houston Astros. Hatton threw right-handed, standing 5 ft 8 in and weighing 170 lb, he came to the Majors in 1946 without any minor league seasoning after serving in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. Hatton made his MLB debut against the Chicago Cubs on April 16, going three for five with two runs batted in in a 4–3 loss. Hatton would bat.254 with 91 home runs and 1,068 hits over his 12-year big league career in 1,312 games played. He appeared in 116 games in 1946, the first of his six consecutive seasons as Cincinnati's regular third baseman. In 1952, Hatton moved to second base and was selected to the National League All-Star team, although he didn't play in the July 8 game at Shibe Park.

However, in 1954, his tenure in Cincinnati came to an abrupt end when he appeared in only one game for the Redlegs before being traded to the Chicago White Sox on April 18. The ChiSox in turn sent him to the Boston Red Sox five weeks later—swapping him and cash for eventual Hall of Fame third baseman George Kell, he was Boston's regular third baseman in 1954–55 spent 1956 in a utility role for the Red Sox, St. Louis Cardinals and Baltimore Orioles. In 1957 he played in the minor leagues, for the San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League. From 1958–60, Hatton was the player-manager of the Double-A San Antonio Missions, he started the 1961 campaign as manager of the Triple-A Houston Buffs, but he resigned early in the season to become the director of player personnel for the expansion Houston Colt.45s of the National League, set to begin play in 1962. He moved back into uniform as manager of Houston's Triple-A Oklahoma City 89ers farm in the Pacific Coast League from 1963–65 and was named minor league manager of the year for 1965 by The Sporting News.

Hatton succeeded Luman Harris as the Astros' manager for 1966, while carrying the additional title of club vice president and sharing general manager duties with Spec Richardson and Tal Smith. It was expected that Hatton would be able to harness the young talent he had developed at Triple-A, but the three-headed general manager experiment ended after 1966, with Richardson assuming sole GM duties, Hatton's Astros compiled a record of only 164–221 in 2½ years. He was replaced as skipper by Harry Walker midway through the 1968 campaign, on June 17. At the time, Houston was last in the National League, he remained with the Astros as a scout from 1968–72, as a Major League coach in 1973–74. He was still active in baseball in the late 1980s as a scout for the San Francisco Giants. Hatton died from natural causes on April 11, 2013, he was 90. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Grady Hatton at Find a Grave


Ceratomyrmex is an extinct genus of ant in the Formicidae subfamily Haidomyrmecinae, is one of only five genera placed in the tribe Haidomyrmecini. The genus contains a single described species Ceratomyrmex ellenbergeri and is known from several Late Cretaceous fossils which have been found in Asia. Ceratomyrmex is known from a total of four adult fossils; the holotype is specimen number "NIGP164022" of the Nanjing Institute of Paleontology. BU-002" of the University of Rennes is designated as paratype; the two additional specimens described but not designated as paratypes were residing in the private collection of Sieghard Ellenberger, Germany. The described specimens are of worker caste adults which have been preserved as inclusions in transparent chunks of Burmese amber; the amber specimens were recovered in Myanmar. Burmese amber has been radiometrically dated using U-Pb isotopes, yielding an age of 98.79 ± 0.62 million years old, close to the AptianCenomanian boundary, in the earliest Cenomanian.

The fossils were first studied by paleoentomologists Vincent Perrichot, Wang Bo and Michael Engel with the group's 2016 type description of the new genus and species being published in the journal Current Biology. The genus name Ceratomyrmex was coined as a combination of the Greek suffix "myrmex" which means "ant" and is a used suffix in genus names, meaning "horn" in reference to the unique head modification; the specific epithet ellenbergeri is a patronym honoring Sieghard Ellenberger who allowed study of several of the specimens. Ceratomyrmex is one of several ant genera described from Burmese amber, the others being Burmomyrma, Gerontoformica, Linguamyrmex and Zigrasimecia. Perrichot et al. suggested several different functions for the specialized mouthparts. Based on the behaviors of modern trap-jaw ant genera such as Odontomachus and Acanthognathus poinari, Perrichot et al. noted that the setae on the horn would provide a soft cushion for moving pupae and larvae in a nest. With the mandibles closed, the trigger hairs are long enough.

There is the possibility that the jaws could have been used as a defense mechanism, being used to knock predators away or stun prey though a rapid opening of the mandibles. The horn and setae would not be used at all in those maneuvers, so defense was not the sole function. While the structure may have been used for moving food and nest materials, the likelihood of that being the only function is low, as the trigger hairs would not be needed then; the most use for the horn and mandibles would have been trapping large prey with the setae providing sensory information on the prey position and creating friction to prevent movement. The size of the horn and mandibles makes the capture of small prey unlikely, as the prey would have time to move before the mandibles were shut; the workers of Ceratomyrmex range between 4.5–5.9 mm long, while queens and drones were unknown at the time of description. The workers are distinguished from all other haidomyrmecines in the distinctly modified clypeus that forms a horn projecting up from between the bases of the antennae.

The horn curves forward with a spatula like apex. The underside of the horn is covered in a dense arrangement of long setae that trail down from the apex into a single row towards the base; the curve of the spatula has a grouping of spicules rimming its edges. Like other members of Haidomyrmecini the mandibles of Ceratomyrmex are modified into elongated scythe like shapes; the mandibles are enlarged to reach over the head to the apex of the horn creating a trap-jaw. Near the point where the closed mandibles rest, four long trigger hairs are placed, with two on each side of the head. Media related to Ceratomyrmex ellenbergeri at Wikimedia Commons