Super Rugby is a professional men's rugby union international club competition involving teams from Argentina, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa. Building on various Southern Hemisphere competitions dating back to the South Pacific Championship in 1986, with teams from a number of southern nations, the Super Rugby started as the Super 12 in the 1996 season with 12 teams from 3 nations: Australia, New Zealand and South Africa; the Super 12 was established by SANZAAR after the sport became professional in 1995. With the top players from nations that represent 16 of the 24 top-three finishes in the history of the Rugby World Cup, the competition is regarded as rugby union's toughest provincial competition; the name was changed to Super 14 with the addition of two teams for the 2006 season, with expansion to 15 teams in the three countries for the 2011 season, the competition was rebranded as Super Rugby. In 2016 two new teams, the Jaguares from Argentina and Sunwolves from Japan, joined the competition, playing in two newly separated African groups.
In 2018, the competition underwent another change in format, this time dropping two teams from the South African conference, one from the Australian conference. This left the competition with 15 teams; the competition has been dominated by New Zealand teams. The Crusaders have won most with ten titles. SANZAAR is the body that administers Super Rugby, has the Australian, New Zealand, South African and Argentine rugby unions as its sole members. SANZAAR runs the Rugby Championship tournament, contested by Argentina, New Zealand, South Africa following the conclusion of the Super Rugby tournament; the organisation was formed in 1996 to establish and run the Super 12, Tri-Nations Tournament. Prior to 2011, Super Rugby was a round-robin competition where each team played with every other team once; the winner received four competition points. The Rugby union bonus points system was used, where any team scoring four or more tries, and/or losing by seven points or less, receives an extra competition point.
In 2016, the try bonus changed. A team now has to score three more tries than their opponents; the top four teams at the end of the round-robin phase played semi-finals – the first placed team hosting the fourth placed team, the second placed team hosting the third placed team. The two winners played the final at the home ground of the top surviving seed. There were 91 regular season games in total. Games were held over 14 weekends with each team receiving one bye. From 2011 – 2015 the format changed, with each country forming its own conference; each team within a conference played each of the other teams in its conference twice, once at home and once away. Each team played four out of the five teams from each of the other conferences once. Competition points were awarded on a similar basis as before; the format of the finals changed. The four lower ranking teams were paired in two sudden death games; those winners played for the championship. For the 2016 and 2017 seasons the format changed again, with three more teams joining, one each from Argentina and South Africa.
There were four conferences, with Africa getting two conferences. The finals had eight teams with each conference winner getting a home quarter final, they were joined by four wild card teams, three from the Australasian group and one from the South African group. From 2018 season the format has changed once more, with two South African teams and an Australian team being dropped. There are three conferences, one of the five New Zealand teams, a South African one to include Argentina's team and an Australasian one including Japan's team. Before 1996, a number of transnational competitions involving regional and provincial rugby union teams had taken shape in the southern hemisphere; the earliest of these was the South Pacific Championship, launched in 1986 and continued until 1990. After the demise of the South Pacific Championship, with no tournament played in 1991, the competition was relaunched as the Super 6 in 1992; the original Super 6 competition consisted of three provincial teams from New Zealand: Auckland, Wellington.
In 1993, the Super Six competition was expanded into the Super 10 tournament. With South Africa being readmitted into international sport following the dismantling of apartheid, there was an opportunity to launch an expanded competition which would feature South Africa's top provincial teams; the inaugural competition featured the following teams: Waikato, Auckland and North Harbour. The Super 10 was won by Transvaal in 1993, by Queensland in 1994 and 1995; the official declaration of professionalism in rugby union in August 1995 led to a restructuring of the Super 10 competition. Following the success of the 1995 World Cup, the rugby boards of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa formed SANZAR (South African, New Zealand and A
Marlyn Glen is a Scottish Labour Party politician, was Member of the Scottish Parliament for the North East Scotland region from 2003 to 2011. Glen was educated at Kirkton High School, she attended the University of St Andrews and the University of Dundee, has completed several Open University degree courses. Prior to her election to Holyrood, she worked as a teacher in Liverpool, Ayr and Dundee and is a member of the Educational Institute of Scotland trade union, she was a Dundee District Council councillor. Her husband, Neil Glen, was a councillor and died in 2004, she was an Honorary Vice President of English-Speaking Union Scotland. Glen is on the left of the Scottish Labour Party and remains a supporter of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, she is a member of Campaign for Socialism that backed John McDonnell's Jeremy Corbyn's bids for the leadership of the UK Labour Party. Marlyn Glen Personal website Marlyn Glen MSP Old blog
Yuri Valentinovich Nesterenko is a Soviet and Russian mathematician who has written papers in algebraic independence theory and transcendental number theory. In 1997 he was awarded the Ostrowski Prize for his proof that the numbers π and eπ are algebraically independent. In fact, he proved the stronger result: the numbers π, eπ, Γ are algebraically independent over Q. the numbers π, e π 3, Γ are algebraically independent over Q. for all positive integers n, the numbers π, e π n are algebraically independent over Q. He is a professor at Moscow State University, where he completed the mechanical-mathematical program in 1969 the doctorate program in 1973, became a professor of the Number Theory Department in 1992, he studied under Andrei Borisovich Shidlovskii. Nesterenko's students have included Wadim Zudilin. Nesterenko, Y.. "Modular Functions and Transcendence Problems". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série I. 322: 909–914. Ostrowski Foundation. "Nesterenko and Pisier Share Ostrowski Prize".
Notices of the AMS. A picture Web page at Moscow State University. Yuri Valentinovich Nesterenko at the Mathematics Genealogy Project