A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance as compared to a general-purpose computer. The performance of a supercomputer is measured in floating-point operations per second instead of million instructions per second. Since 2017, there are supercomputers which can perform over a hundred quadrillion FLOPS. Since November 2017, all of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers run Linux-based operating systems. Additional research is being conducted in China, the United States, the European Union and Japan to build faster, more powerful and technologically superior exascale supercomputers. Supercomputers play an important role in the field of computational science, are used for a wide range of computationally intensive tasks in various fields, including quantum mechanics, weather forecasting, climate research and gas exploration, molecular modeling, physical simulations, they have been essential in the field of cryptanalysis. Supercomputers were introduced in the 1960s, for several decades the fastest were made by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation, Cray Research and subsequent companies bearing his name or monogram.
The first such machines were tuned conventional designs that ran faster than their more general-purpose contemporaries. Through the decade, increasing amounts of parallelism were added, with one to four processors being typical. From the 1970s, vector processors operating on large arrays of data came to dominate. A notable example is the successful Cray-1 of 1976. Vector computers remained the dominant design into the 1990s. From until today, massively parallel supercomputers with tens of thousands of off-the-shelf processors became the norm; the US has long been the leader in the supercomputer field, first through Cray's uninterrupted dominance of the field, through a variety of technology companies. Japan made major strides in the field in the 1980s and 90s, with China becoming active in the field; as of November 2018, the fastest supercomputer on the TOP500 supercomputer list is the Summit, in the United States, with a LINPACK benchmark score of 143.5 PFLOPS, followed by, Sierra, by around 48.860 PFLOPS.
The US has five of the top 10 and China has two. In June 2018, all supercomputers on the list combined broke the 1 exaFLOPS mark. In 1960 UNIVAC built the Livermore Atomic Research Computer, today considered among the first supercomputers, for the US Navy Research and Development Centre, it still used high-speed drum memory, rather than the newly emerging disk drive technology. Among the first supercomputers was the IBM 7030 Stretch; the IBM 7030 was built by IBM for the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which in 1955 had requested a computer 100 times faster than any existing computer. The IBM 7030 used transistors, magnetic core memory, pipelined instructions, prefetched data through a memory controller and included pioneering random access disk drives; the IBM 7030 was completed in 1961 and despite not meeting the challenge of a hundredfold increase in performance, it was purchased by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Customers in England and France bought the computer and it became the basis for the IBM 7950 Harvest, a supercomputer built for cryptanalysis.
The third pioneering supercomputer project in the early 1960s was the Atlas at the University of Manchester, built by a team led by Tom Kilburn. He designed the Atlas to have memory space for up to a million words of 48 bits, but because magnetic storage with such a capacity was unaffordable, the actual core memory of Atlas was only 16,000 words, with a drum providing memory for a further 96,000 words; the Atlas operating system swapped data in the form of pages between the drum. The Atlas operating system introduced time-sharing to supercomputing, so that more than one programe could be executed on the supercomputer at any one time. Atlas was a joint venture between Ferranti and the Manchester University and was designed to operate at processing speeds approaching one microsecond per instruction, about one million instructions per second; the CDC 6600, designed by Seymour Cray, was finished in 1964 and marked the transition from germanium to silicon transistors. Silicon transistors could run faster and the overheating problem was solved by introducing refrigeration to the supercomputer design.
Thus the CDC6600 became the fastest computer in the world. Given that the 6600 outperformed all the other contemporary computers by about 10 times, it was dubbed a supercomputer and defined the supercomputing market, when one hundred computers were sold at $8 million each. Cray left CDC in 1972 to form Cray Research. Four years after leaving CDC, Cray delivered the 80 MHz Cray-1 in 1976, which became one of the most successful supercomputers in history; the Cray-2 was released in 1985. It had eight central processing units, liquid cooling and the electronics coolant liquid fluorinert was pumped through the supercomputer architecture, it was the world's second fastest after M-13 supercomputer in Moscow. The only computer to challenge the Cray-1's performance in the 1970s was the ILLIAC IV; this machine was the first realized example of a true massively parallel computer, in which many processors worked together to solve different parts of a single larger problem. In contrast with the vector systems, which were designed to run a single stream of data as as possible, in this concept, the computer instead feeds separate parts
Blue Stahli is the eponymous second studio album and the first vocal album by American multi-genre project Blue Stahli, released on March 2, 2011, most of the tracks had been released as singles. The cover artwork was created by the producer of the debut Celldweller album. An instrumental version of the album was released on January 17, 2012. On November 27, 2018, a deluxe edition of the album was released for Digital Download; the deluxe edition featured new tracks such as the'ULTRAnumb' acoustic, the Entropy Zero remix of'Doubt,' and the long-awaited Celldweller remix of'ULTRAnumb'. In addition to these new tracks were songs of the album B-Sides And Other Things I Forgot, such as'Burning Bridges', the alternate version of Takedown featuring XINA on vocals, the acoustic version of'Scrape', the mariachi version of'ULTRAnumb.' All tracks are written by Blue Stahli
The 2018 College Hockey America Women's Ice Hockey Tournament was played between March 1 and March 3, 2018, at the Harborcenter in Buffalo, New York. Mercyhurst won their 12th tournament and earned College Hockey America's automatic bid into the 2018 NCAA Division I Women's Ice Hockey Tournament; the tournament was the 16th in league history. All six CHA Teams participate in the Tournament. On the first day of the Tournament, the top two seeds get a bye, while the #3 seed plays the #6 seed, the #4 seed plays the #5 seed in the Quarterfinal round. On the second day, the Semifinal games feature the #1 seed against the lowest remaining seed, while the #2 seed plays the highest remaining seed. On the third and final day, the CHA Championship is played between the two Semifinal winners. There are a total of five games. Rankings based on number of wins in the conferenceTournament Champion: Mercyhurst Note: * denotes overtime period Mercyhurst Forward Emma Nuutinen was named the Tournament MVP The Tournament Champion earns a berth in the NCAA Tournament to determine the national champion.
The Mercyhurst Lakers were the number 8 seed out of 8 in the tournament, lost to #1 seed Clarkson 3-2 in overtime on March 10, in Potsdam, New York