The Supercoppa Italiana is an annual football competition held the week before the season begins in Italy, or more in other countries during the winter. It is contested by the winners of the Serie A and the Coppa Italia in the previous season, as a curtain raiser to the new season. If the same team wins both the Serie A and Coppa Italia titles in the previous season, the Supercoppa is contested by the Serie A winner and the Coppa Italia runner-up, in essence becoming a rematch of the previous year's Coppa Italia final. Inaugurated in 1988, 18 of the first 21 Supercoppa Italiana contested were played at the home of the Serie A champions, the exceptions being in 1993 and 2003, when it was held in the United States cities of Washington, D. C. and East Rutherford, New Jersey, in 2002 when the game was played in the Libyan capital Tripoli. Since 2009, the venues chosen have been outside of Italy. Of the 32 finals played to date, the venues have been as follows: 19 times at the home of the Serie A champion 4 times in China twice in the United States twice in Doha, Qatar twice at the Stadio Olimpico in Rome acting as a "neutral venue".
Twice in Saudi Arabia once in Tripoli, LibyaSince the game was first established, the Serie A scudetto and Coppa Italia have been won by the same team eight times, thus making the Coppa Italia runner-up the second participant in the subsequent Supercoppa. This occurred in the following years: 1995, 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018, 2000, 2006 and 2010. Juventus holds the record for winning the cup a record eight times; the most frequent Supercoppa match-up has been Juventus against Lazio. On 23 December 2016, Milan became the first Coppa Italia runner-up to win Supercoppa Italiana after defeating Juventus on penalties. In 2018, the Serie A entered into a contract with the General Sports Authority, under which Jeddah, Saudi Arabia will host three out of the next five Supercoppa events; as of 22 December 2019 Supercoppa Italiana on RSSSF
Ion Ţurcanu is an author, historian, professor, former member of the Parliament and Romanian writer from Moldova. Ion Ţurcanu is one of the 277 MPs of the first parliament of the former RSS Republic, who voted for the Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova on 27 August 1991. Ion Ţurcanu was born on January 1946 in Upper Găurenii, former Lăpuşna county, he graduated from the State University of Moldova in 1969 and obtained his doctorate in history in 1975. He started work as a teacher in the village Bărboieni, Nisporeni. After getting his PhD, he became a senior lecturer lecturer at the Pedagogical Institute "Ion Creangă". In the years 1993-1997, he worked at the History Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova. Since 2001, he returned to his professorial career in higher education, this time at the State University of Moldova, he participated in the creation, in 1988, of the Democratic Movement in Support of the Perestroika. In the years 1987-1990 he published a series of articles in Chisinau press to inform the population on the thorny subjects of the history of Bessarabia, of the all Romanians.
In the same context he initiated a critique of the historiographical Soviet propaganda that falsified the historical themes mentioned above. In the years 1990-1994 he was a Secretary of the Parliament. In 1998, he established the New Moldavian National Party, which participated in the local elections in 1999 and parliamentary ones in 2001, but without obtaining significant results, he was the editor of the publishing house - "Moldovan Book", director of the publishing house "Universitas". In the 1990-1993 he published, as editor, the historical journals "Patrimoniu" "Magazine of History of Moldova." He published a number of studies and books on various historical subjects: the political events in Bessarabia in 1917-1918, Bessarabian agrarian relations during the interwar period, the Bessarabian famine of 1946-1947, the resistance movement against Soviet occupation of Bessarabia during 1944-1953, political and ethnic relations east of the Carpathians in the period preceding the founding of the Romanian state of Moldova, the Greco-Roman antiquity on the Lower Dniester and the neighboring territories, the philosophy of history from the perspective of some Romanian thinkers, historical bibliography of Bessarabia and Transnistria and political realities in modern Moldova etc.
He wrote several syntheses of Romanian history. He had some literary preoccupations, which occurred and with great interruptions. Развитие материальной базы культуры села Молдавской ССР, Chișinău, 1978. Satul basarabean. Studii social-economice, Chișinău, 1980. Relații agrare din Basarabia în anii 1918-1940, Chișinău, 1991. Foametea din Basarabia în anii 1946-1947. Mecanismul organizării ei, Chișinău, 1993. Creangă în contextul pedagogiei timpului său, Chișinău, 1994. Basarabia din nou în fața opțiunii istorice, Chișinău, 1994. Unirea Basarabiei cu România în anul 1918. Preludii, realizări, Chișinău, 1998. Moldova antisovietică. Aspecte din lupta basarabenilor împotriva ocupației sovietice. 1944-1953, Chișinău, 2000. Republica Moldova independentă, Chișinău, 2001. Istoricitatea istoriografiei. Observații asupra scrisului istoric basarabean, Chișinău, 2004. Bibliografia istorică a Basarabiei și Transnistriei, Chișinău, 2005. Cartea-album Ștefan cel Mare, Chișinău, 2005. Istoria relațiilor internaționale, Chișinău, 2005.
Istoria: receptare, interpretare, Iași, 2006. Istoria românilor, Brăila, 2007. Istoria ilustrată a românilor. De la origini pînă la Marea Unire, Chișinău/București, 2007. Istoria contemporană ilustrată a românilor, Brăila, 2010. În căutarea originii numelui Basarabia, Chișinău, 2010. Descrierea Basarabiei, Chișinău, 2011. Bessarabiana. Teritoriul dintre Prut și Nistru în cîteva ipostaze istorice și reflecții istoriografice, Chișinău, 2012. Republica Moldova: a fi sau a nu fi, Chișinău, 2012. Istoria istoriilor mele, Chișinău, 2013. Istoria Basarabiei, Vol. 1: Preludii. Din paleolitic până la sfârşitul Antichităţii, Chișinău 2016. Bibliografia istorica a Basarabiei şi Transnistriei. Title in english: Historical Biography of Bessarabia and Transnistria Ion Ţurcanu Valorizarea şi vulgarizarea istoriei FOAMETEA DIN 1946 ŞI 1947 Ion Ţurcanu, "Poezia basarabeană din interbelic", in Convorbiri Literare, June 2006. Commemorating the victims of the Great Famine in the former USSR Pe culmile disperării istoria arată altfel
Guardian Project is a global collective of software developers, advocates and trainers who develop open-source mobile security software and operating system enhancements. They create customized mobile devices to help individuals communicate more and protect themselves from intrusion and monitoring; the effort focuses on users who live or work in high-risk situations and who face constant surveillance and intrusion attempts into their mobile devices and communication streams. Guardian Project was founded by Nathan Freitas in 2009 in Brooklyn, NY. Since it was founded, Guardian Project has developed more than a dozen mobile applications for Android and iOS with over two million downloads and hundreds of thousands of active users, it has partnered with prominent open source software projects, activists groups, NGOs, commercial partners and news organizations to support their mobile security software capabilities. In November 2014, "ChatSecure + Orbot" received a top score on the Electronic Frontier Foundation's secure messaging scorecard, along with Cryptocat, TextSecure, "Signal / RedPhone", Silent Phone, Silent Text.
"Jitsi + Ostel" scored 6 out of 7 points on the Electronic Frontier Foundation's secure messaging scorecard. They lost a point. In March 2016, Guardian Project announced a partnership with F-Droid and CopperheadOS with the goal of creating "a solution that can be verifiably trusted from the operating system, through the network and network services, all the way up to the app stores and apps themselves". Guardian Project has received funding from Google, UC Berkeley with the MacArthur Foundation, Internews, Open Technology Fund, WITNESS, the Knight Foundation, Benetech, ISC Project and Free Press Unlimited. Through work on partner projects like the Tor Project, Commotion mesh and StoryMaker, the Project has received indirect funding both from the US State Department and from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Orbot: A Tor client for Android. Tor uses Onion Routing to provide access to network services that may be blocked, censored or monitored, while protecting the identity of the user requesting those resources.
Orbot is installed with orWall, an app which takes the lead on the firewall and add the required iptables rules for traffic shaping in order to allow Orbot traffic, force the selected applications to be redirected to the Orbot TransPort. Instead of Orbot, AFWall+, available on F-Droid and Google Play app repository, is an alternative choice recommended for re-routing outbound traffic back through the local Tor port with iptables rules, with a Virtual Private Network like OpenVPN. NetCipher SDK is the app developed by Guardian Project for users interested in enabling theirs apps working directly with Orbot. ChatSecure: An instant messaging application integrated with the Off-the-Record encrypted chat protocol. Called Gibberbot, the app is built on Google’s open-source Talk app and modified to support the Jabber XMPP protocol. ObscuraCam: A secure camera app that can obscure, encrypt or destroy pixels within an image; this project is in partnership with WITNESS, a human rights video advocacy and training organization.
Ostel: A tool for having end-to-end encrypted VoIP calls. This is a public testbed of the Open Secure Telephony Network project, with the goal of promoting the use of free, open protocols and software, to power end-to-end secure voice communications on mobile devices, as well as with desktop computers. Haven – free and open-source Android security application designed to monitor activity happening around a device using its built-in sensors, to alert the device owner of such activity. Co-developed with Edward Snowden under the auspices of the Freedom of the Press Foundation. Orfox: A mobile counterpart of the Tor Browser. Guardian Project announced the stable alpha of Orfox on 30 June 2015. Orfox is built from Fennec code and the Tor Browser code repository, is given security hardening patches by the Tor Browser development team; some of the Orfox build. In Orfox, the project removed the WebRTC component, Chromecast connectivity, app permissions to access the camera, contacts, location data, NFC.
Orfox is to supersede the Orweb browser project. Orweb: A privacy enhanced web browser that supports proxies; when used with Orbot, Orweb protects against network analysis, blocks cookies, keeps no local browsing history, disables Flash to keep the user safe. Guardian Project offers downloads of its apps from Google Play, Amazon Appstore, directly from their website, through an F-Droid-compatible repository. Direct downloads can be verified with the developer's key. Official website