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Superior oblique muscle

The superior oblique muscle, or obliquus oculi superior, is a fusiform muscle originating in the upper, medial side of the orbit which abducts and internally rotates the eye. It is the only extraocular muscle innervated by the trochlear nerve; the superior oblique muscle loops through a pulley-like structure and inserts into the sclera on the posterotemporal surface of the eyeball. It is the pulley system that gives superior oblique its actions, causing depression of the eyeball despite being inserted on the superior surface; the superior oblique arises above the margin of the optic foramen and medial to the origin of the superior rectus, passing forward, ends in a rounded tendon, which plays in a fibrocartilaginous ring or pulley attached to the trochlear fossa of the frontal bone. The contiguous surfaces of the tendon and ring are lined by a delicate mucous sheath, enclosed in a thin fibrous investment; the tendon is reflected caudally and inferiorly beneath the superior rectus to the lateral part of the bulb of the eye, is inserted onto the scleral surface, behind the equator of the eyeball, the insertion of the muscle lying between the superior rectus and lateral rectus.

The primary action of the superior oblique muscle is intorsion, the secondary action is depression and the tertiary action is abduction. The extraocular muscles rotate the eyeball around vertical and antero-posterior axes. Extraocular muscles other than the medial rectus and lateral rectus have more than one action due to the angle they make with the optical axis of the eye while inserting into the eyeball; the superior and inferior oblique muscles make an angle of 51 degrees with the optical axis. The depressing action of superior oblique is most effective; this is because as the eye is abducted, the contribution made by superior oblique to depression of the eye decreases, as the inferior rectus muscle causes this movement more directly and powerfully. The main muscle for abduction is the lateral rectus, so although superior oblique contributes to a downwards and lateral eye movement, testing this motion would not be specific enough as inferior and lateral recti muscles would be tested. Therefore, during neurological examinations, the superior oblique is tested by having the patient look inwards and downwards, testing only the depressing action of the muscle.

This is a source of confusion on the subject as although clinical testing asks the patient to adduct and depress the eye, anatomically the muscle depresses and abducts it. The great importance of intorsion and extorsion produced by the two oblique muscles can only be understood when it is considered with regards to the other muscle actions present; the two obliques prevent the eye from rotating about its long axis when the superior and inferior rectus muscles contract. This is because the orbit does not face directly forwards- the centre-line of the orbit is a little over 20 degrees out from the mid-line, but because the eyes do face forwards, when acting alone, as well as making the eye look up, superior rectus causes it to rotate about the long axis, so the top of the eye moves medially. In addition to making the eye look down, inferior rectus would cause the eye to rotate about the long axis so the top of the eye moves laterally, if acting alone; this is undesirable as our vision would rotate when we looked up and down.

For this reason, these two rectus muscles work in conjunction with the two obliques. When acting alone, superior oblique causes intorsion, inferior oblique, extorsion. Hence, when inferior rectus contracts so we look down, superior oblique contracts to prevent extorsion of the eye, when superior rectus contracts so we look up, inferior oblique contracts to prevent intorsion, thus the undesired rotatory actions of the inferior and superior recti about the long axis of the eye are cancelled out; this keeps our vision horizontally level, irrespective of eye position in the orbit. Superior oblique palsy is a common complication of closed head trauma. Restriction of superior oblique movement due to an inelastic tendon is found in Brown syndrome, leading to difficulty elevating the eye in the adducted position. Superior oblique myokymia is an uncommon neurological condition caused by vascular compression of the trochlear nerve resulting in repeated, involuntary episodes of movement of the eye. Operations of the superior oblique include tenotomy, silicone expander lengthening, split tendon lengthening and the Harada-Ito procedure.

This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 1022 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy figure: 29:01-03 at Human Anatomy Online, SUNY Downstate Medical Center

Anne Shilcock

Anne Shilcock is a British former tennis player, active in the 1950s. She won 1955 Wimbledon Championships in women's doubles with Angela Mortimer, becoming the first all-British team to win since 1937, she played singles in the Wightman Cup in 1954, losing to Doris Hart and Maureen Connolly, doubles in 1953 with Angela Mortimer, in 1957 with Ann Haydon, in 1958 with Pat Ward, the year Britain won for the first time since 1930. Shilcock was a forceful and effective attacking doubles player but by no means on fast courts, in 1953 winning the Lyons doubles with Susan Partridge Chatrier, Monte Carlo with Pat Ward, reaching the quarterfinals of the French Championships doubles with Mortimer and the mixed with Destremau, with Mortimer reaching the semifinals of Wimbledon, the final of the Eastern Grass Court tournament, taking a set from Doris Hart and Shirley Fry, winning the British Covered Court Championships doubles. In 1954 she won the Scandinavian Covered Courts doubles with Mortimer, the French Covered Courts and Lyons doubles with Susan Partridge Chatrier and reached the final of the British Hard Courts doubles with Helen Fletcher.

She and Angela Mortimer, seeded 3, reached the semifinals at Wimbledon. In America, playing with Helen Fletcher, she reached the semifinals of the US nationals, the finals of the Eastern and Essex tournaments and won the Maidstone. In mixed doubles, she won the Pacific Coast. In 1955 she won the Pierre Gillou doubles with Susan Partridge Chatrier, beating Pat Ward and Angela Buxton, the Scandinavian Covered Courts with Angela Mortimer with whom she lost the final of the British Hard Courts championships to Shirley Bloomer Brasher and Pat Ward Hales, a result triumphantly reversed in the Wimbledon final in the year. With Robert Howe, she won the mixed in the British Hard Courts Championships and in the Northern Tournament at Manchester where she won the doubles with Louise Brough, she won the doubles and mixed with Pat Ward Hales and Billy Knight in the British Covered courts championships at the end of the year. In 1956 she again won the Pierre Gillou doubles with Chatrier and the Scandinavian with Angela Mortimer, beating Althea Gibson and Joan Johnson.

She won the doubles at the Northern Manchester with Dorothy Knode, beating Angelas Buxton and Mortimer and Thelma Long and Betty Pratt. She and Angela Mortimer lost their Wimbledon title in the semifinals, losing to Fay Miller and Daphne Seeney: nonetheless this was the fourth consecutive year that the pair had reached the semifinals or beyond, she won the Coup Canet Paris with Pat Ward, the British Covered Courts championship doubles with Pat Ward, beating Shirley Bloomer and Angela Buxton and the mixed with Geoff Paish. In 1957 Shilcock won the German Covered Courts Championships with Pat Ward, beating Thelma Long and Erika Vollmer and won the mixed with legend Budge Patty in Monte Carlo, she and Pat Ward were narrowly beaten in the final of the British Hard Courts championships by Shirley Bloomer and Darlene Hard. In 1958 she won doubles in the British Covered Courts and Hard Courts Championships, where she won the mixed. With Pat Ward she beat Sandra Reynolds and Renee Schuurman in an International match vs South Africa.

They reached the quarterfinals at Wimbledon, losing to Thelma Long and Mary Hawton. In 1959 she and Susan Partridge Chatrier reached the quarterfinals at Wimbledon, losing rather to eventual champions Darlene Hard and Jeanne Arth. For 7 out of the 8 years from 1953 to 1959 inclusive, she had reached at least the quarterfinal of this event. Shilcock was a fine singles player, she reached the last 16 of the French Championships in 1953, of the Wimbledon championships in the same year and of the US Nationals in 1954. She was effective on covered courts, in singles as well as doubles, reaching the final of the Scandinavian championships in 1955, losing to Angela Mortimer, reaching the semifinals in 1956, losing to Althea Gibson and winning it in 1957 by beating Thelma Long and Angela Mortimer; that year Shilcock won the German Covered Courts title, beating Thelma Long and Christiane Mercelis. She won the British Covered Courts title in 1955 beating Pat Ward US finalist, 6–2, 6–4, reached the final by beating Shirley Bloomer in straight sets in 1956, losing to Angela Buxton, won it again in 1958, beating Pat Ward and the young Christine Truman.

In 56 she won the Pierre Gillou beating Susan Chatrier and beat Pat Ward to win Coup Canet Paris She was good on grass. In 1953 she reached the last 8 of the Eastern Grass Court tournament beating fourth seed Helen Perez before losing in three sets to Angela Mortimer, in 1954 reached the same stage of the same tournament and the semifinal of the Essex County Tournament. On grass, Shilcock had some notable wins in the Manchester Northern tournament, reaching the quarterfinals in 1954 before losing to Maureen Connolly, in 1955 the semifinal, losing to Lousie Brough, in 56 beating Sandra Reynolds, Betty Pratt and losing in three sets to Dorothy Knode in the quarterfinal. In 1957, she reached the final, losing to Althea Gibson and in 1958 beat Thelma Long, Dorothy Knode and Janet Hopps to reach the semifinal where she again lost to Althea Gibson. Surbiton was another grass court tournament. In 1954 she beat Angela Mortimer in straight sets to reach the semifinals, where she only lost in a three-set match to Shirley Fry.

In 1956 Shilcock reached the final, beating that year's Wimbledon finalist Angela Buxton, extended Althea Gibson to 6–3, 13–11. In the same year she also

Toronto streetcar system

The Toronto streetcar system is a network of ten streetcar routes in Toronto, Canada, operated by the Toronto Transit Commission. It is the third busiest light-rail system in North America; the network is concentrated in Downtown Toronto and in proximity to the city's waterfront. Much of the streetcar route network dates from the 19th century. Most of Toronto's streetcar routes operate on street trackage shared with vehicular traffic, streetcars stop on demand at frequent stops like buses. Toronto's streetcars provide most of the downtown core's surface transit service. Four of the TTC's five most used surface routes are streetcar routes. In 2016, ridership on the streetcar system totalled 65 million. In 1861, the City of Toronto issued a thirty-year transit franchise for a horse-drawn street railway, after the Williams Omnibus Bus Line had become loaded. Alexander Easton's Toronto Street Railway opened the first street railway line in Canada on September 11, 1861, operating from Yorkville Town Hall to the St. Lawrence Market.

At the end of the TSR franchise, the City government ran the railway for eight months but ended up granting a new thirty-year franchise to the Toronto Railway Company in 1891. The TRC was the first operator of horseless streetcars in Toronto; the first electric car ran on August 15, 1892, the last horse car ran on August 31, 1894, to meet franchise requirements. There came to be problems with interpretation of the franchise terms for the City. By 1912, the city limits had extended with the annexation of communities to the north and the east and the west. After many attempts to force the TRC to serve these areas, the City created its own street railway operation, the Toronto Civic Railways to do so, built several routes. Repeated court battles forced the TRC to build new cars; when the TRC franchise ended in 1921, the Toronto Transportation Commission was created, combining the city-operated Toronto Civic Railways lines into its new network. The TTC began in 1921 as a streetcar operation, with the bulk of the routes acquired from the private TRC and merged with the publicly operated Toronto Civic Railways.

In 1923, the TTC took over the Lambton and Weston routes of the Toronto Suburban Railway and integrated them into the streetcar system. In 1925, routes were operated on behalf of the Township of York, but the TTC was contracted to operate them. One of these routes was the former TSR Weston route. In 1927, the TTC became the operator of three radial lines of the former Toronto and York Radial Railway; the TTC connected these lines to the streetcar system in order to share equipment and facilities, such as carhouses, but the radials had their own separate management within the TTC's Radial Department. The last TTC-operated radial closed in 1948. After the Second World War, many cities across North America and Europe began to eliminate their streetcar systems in favour of buses. During the 1950s, the TTC continued to invest in streetcars and the TTC took advantage of other cities' streetcar removals by purchasing extra PCC cars from Cleveland, Kansas City, Cincinnati. In 1966, the TTC announced plans to eliminate all streetcar routes by 1980.

Streetcars were considered out of date, their elimination in all other cities made it hard to buy new vehicles and maintain the existing ones. Metro Toronto chair William Allen claimed in 1966 that "streetcars are as obsolete as the horse and buggy". Many streetcars were removed from service when Line 2 Bloor–Danforth opened in February 1966; the plan to abolish the streetcar system was opposed by many people in the city, a group named "Streetcars for Toronto" was formed to work against the plan. The group was led by Professor Andrew Biemiller and transit advocate Steve Munro, it had the support of city councillors William Kilbourn and Paul Pickett, urban advocate Jane Jacobs. Streetcars for Toronto presented the TTC board with a report that found retaining the streetcar fleet would, in the long run, be cheaper than converting to buses; this combined with a strong public preference for streetcars over buses changed the decision of the TTC board. The busiest north–south and east–west routes were replaced by the Yonge–University and the Bloor–Danforth subway line, the northernmost streetcar lines, including the North Yonge and Oakwood routes, were replaced by trolley buses.

Two lines that operated north of St. Clair Avenue were abandoned for other reasons; the Rogers Road route was abandoned to free up streetcars for expanded service on other routes. The Mount Pleasant route was removed because of complaints that streetcars slowed automobile traffic. Earlier, the TTC had contemplated abandonment because replacement by trolleybuses was cheaper than replacing the aging tracks. However, the TTC maintained most of its existing network, purchasing new custom-designed Canadian Light Rail Vehicles and Articulated Light Rail Vehicles, with the first CLRV entering service in 1979, it continued to rebuild and maintain the existing fleet of PCC streetcars until they were no longer roadworthy. When Kipling station opened in 1980 as the new western terminus of Line 2 Bloor–Danforth, it had provision for a future streetcar or LRT platform opposite the bus platforms. However, there was no further development for a surface rail connection there. In the early 1980s, a streetcar line was planned to connect Kennedy station to Scarborough Town Centre.

However, as that line was being built, the Provin

Luke Duke

Lucas K. "Luke" Duke was born on November 6, 1951, Luke is a fictional character in the American television series The Dukes of Hazzard which ran from 1979 to 1985. Luke was played by Tom Wopat. Luke, his younger cousin Bo Duke live in an unincorporated area of the fictional Hazzard County, in Georgia. Luke and Bo own a 1969 Dodge Charger, nicknamed The General Lee, painted orange, with the Confederate Flag on top, 01 painted on the sides. Luke and Bo evade the corrupt politicians of Hazzard County, such as Boss Hogg and Sheriff Rosco P. Coltrane along with his deputy; the Duke family, including cousin Daisy Duke and Uncle Jesse Duke, was well known for their role in the moonshine business among other interests. Bo and Luke had both been sentenced to probation for illegal transportation of moonshine; as a result, neither was permitted to use firearms, instead preferring to use bow and arrows. The terms of Bo and Luke's probation included staying within the boundaries of Hazzard County. Prior to the start of the show, Luke served in the U.

S. Marine Corps. Luke's famous "hood slide" is the trick most associated with the character. In a subsequent TV interview, Tom Wopat admitted that the move was a mistake; the move caught on and became the character's hallmark. Additionally, in this initial slide, Wopat caught his hand on the hood radio aerial, leading to the aerial being removed from all examples of the car to avoid risk of injury. In the pilot episode of the series, Bo commented that Luke was the father of at least two of the children who live at the Hazzard County Orphanage. Luke left Hazzard County, along with his cousin Bo, to join the NASCAR circuit, his cousin Vance replaced him during that time. According to the 1997 film The Dukes of Hazzard: Reunion!, Luke would leave Hazzard for good, put his military training to good use by becoming a fire jumper for the U. S. Forest Service. During training in Montana, he met and fell in love with a woman named Anita Blackwell, a talented singer, he convinced her to leave to pursue her dreams, she became a successful country music star.

Luke met her again in The Dukes of Hazzard: Hazzard in Hollywood, although by she was married to another man. Luke Duke was played by Johnny Knoxville in the subsequent cinematic version and Randy Wayne in the prequel television film, The Dukes of Hazzard: The Beginning. Tom Wopat on IMDb

3 ft 6 in gauge railways

Railways with a track gauge of 3 ft 6 in / 1,067 mm were first constructed as horse-drawn wagonways. From the mid-nineteenth century, the 3 ft 6 in gauge became widespread in the British Empire, was adopted as a standard in Japan and Taiwan. There are 112,000 kilometres of 1,067 mm gauge track in the world, which are classified as narrow gauge railways. 1795 One of the first railways to use 3 ft 6 in gauge was the Little Eaton Gangway in England, constructed as a horse-drawn wagonway in 1795. Other 3 ft 6 in gauge wagonways in England and Wales were built in the early nineteenth century. 1809 The Silkstone Waggonway was opened, connecting the Barnsley Canal to collieries including the Huskar Pit 1862 In 1862 the Norwegian engineer Carl Abraham Pihl constructed the first 3 ft 6 in gauge railway in Norway, the Røros Line. 1865 In 1865 the Queensland Railways were constructed. Its 3 ft 6 in gauge was promoted by the Irish engineer Abraham Fitzgibbon and consulting engineer Charles Fox. 1867 In 1867, the construction of the railroad from the Castillo de Buitrón mine to the pier of San Juan del Puerto, Spain, began.

The width was 3 ft 6 in. 1868 In 1868 Charles Fox asks civil engineer Edmund Wragge to survey a 3 ft 6 in railway in Costa Rica. 1871 In 1871 the Canadian Toronto and Bruce Railway and the Toronto and Nipissing Railway were opened, promoted by Pihl and Fitzgibbon and surveyed by Wragge as an engineer of Fox. 1872 In January 1872 Robert Fairlie advocated the use of 3 ft 6 in gauge in his book Railways Or No Railways: Narrow Gauge, Economy with Efficiency v. Broad Gauge, Costliness with Extravagance. 1872 saw the opening of the first 3 ft 6 in gauge railway in Japan, proposed by the British civil engineer Edmund Morel based on his experience of building railways in New Zealand. 1873 On 1 January 1873, the first 3 ft 6 in gauge railway was opened in New Zealand, constructed by the British firm John Brogden and Sons. Earlier built 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in and broad gauge railways were soon converted to the narrower gauge. In 1873 the Cape Colony adopted the 3 ft 6 in gauge. After conducting several studies in southern Europe, the Molteno Government selected the gauge as being the most economically suited for traversing steep mountain ranges.

Beginning in 1873, under supervision of Railway engineer of the Colony William Brounger, the Cape Government Railways expanded and the gauge became the standard for southern Africa. 1876 Natal converted its short 10 kilometres long Durban network from 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge prior to commencing with construction of a network across the entire colony in 1876. Other new railways in Southern Africa, notably Mozambique, the Rhodesias and Angola, were constructed in 3 ft 6 in gauge during that time. After 1876 In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century numerous 3 ft 6 in gauge tram systems were built in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. In Sweden, the gauge was nicknamed Blekinge gauge, as most of the railways in the province of Blekinge had this gauge. An alternate name for this gauge, Cape gauge, is named after the Cape Colony in what is now South Africa, which adopted it in 1873; the term Cape Gauge is used in other languages, such as the Dutch kaapspoor, German Kapspur, Norwegian kappspor and French voie cape.

After metrication in the 1960s, the gauge was referred to in official South African Railways publications as 1,065 mm instead of 1067 mm. The gauge name. In Australia the imperial term 3 foot 6 inch is used. In some Australian publications the term medium gauge is used, while in Australian states where 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in or 5 ft 3 in is the norm, 1,067 mm gauge is referred to as narrow gauge. In Japan 1,067 mm gauge is referred to as kyōki, it is defined in metric units. Similar, but incompatible without wheelset adjustment, rail gauges in respect of aspects such as cost of construction, practical minimum radius curves and the maximum physical dimensions of rolling stock are: 1,100 mm, 1,093 mm, 1,055 mm, 1,050 mm, 1,000 mm metre gauge. Cape Government Railways Heritage railway List of track gauges South African Trains – A Pictorial Encyclopaedia Why Did Japan Choose the 3'6" Narrow Gauge

Huw T. Edwards

Huw Thomas Edwards was a Welsh trade union leader and politician. Edwards was born in Rowen near the top of North Wales, he was the youngest of seven children. Edwards' father was a quarryman who grew up with no education, being taught how to read and write by Edward's mother, she died. After her death, the family moved and Edwards' father remarried within a year. From the age of ten, Edwards went to the quarry at Penmaenmawr with his father, at least during his holidays from school, he soon began to start working on a farm in Talybont near Bangor, where one of his brothers worked. Before he was eighteen, Edwards left for Tonypandy in the South Wales coalfields, he travelled by rail, via Chester, became aware of the urban, middle-class world outside of North Wales. When he arrived in Trealaw, he found lodgings and a job as a dustman on the night shift at Clydach Vale No. 2 Pit in the Rhondda mines. Working at the mines, Edwards became familiar with various English-speaking migrants, picked up the language.

Before Edwards arrived in the area, his cousin had been one of ten people killed in an explosion at Clydach Vale. Another cousin, with whom Edwards had become close friends, was killed in the Senghenydd colliery disaster: Edwards was a member of one of the rescue parties that recovered bodies, following the explosion. Edwards joined the South Wales Miners' Federation, but did not always involve himself with strike action. Edwards went away to fight in August 1914, at the age of twenty-one, he returned from the Western Front in March 1918 wounded and made to spend months in hospital. In September 1918, he was discharged and spent the last weeks of the war teaching gas drill to new recruits. After returning to civilian life on 10 December 1918, he stayed in Aberfan for a week, before returning to Penmaenmawr quarry, he joined the Independent Labour Party. After representing the quarry workers in a case of pay, Edwards joined the Dockers' Union in around 1920, leaving the Amalgamated Union of Quarryworkers and Steelworkers, which represented most quarry workers.

Edwards was dismissed from his job at the quarry, due to refusing to rejoin the quarryworkers' union after strike action. In 1923, Edwards became secretary of the Penmaenmawr branch of the Transport and General Workers' Union, which allowed him to meet with other union leaders. In 1927, he was elected to Penmaenmawr council, he was appointed the first chair of the Council for Wales and Monmouthshire in 1949. He was in favour of a Welsh Parliament but did not support the Parliament for Wales campaign in the early 1950s although he did join the campaign, he opposed the decision to flood the Tryweryn valley to create a reservoir to service Liverpool. In 1956 he bought Y Faner, in order to save it from liquidation. In 1958 he resigned from the Council for Wales and in 1959 he left the Labour Party to join Plaid Cymru although he returned to the Labour fold in 1965, he was the first President of the Welsh Language Society. He published two autobiographical volumes in Tros y Tresi and Troi' r Drol, he was a poet.

In March 1920, Edwards married Margaret Owen, a Welsh-speaking woman from Rachub, Gwynedd. They had known each other since Edwards was a boy, as she was his sister's best friend