Superman: Escape from Krypton is a steel shuttle roller coaster located at Six Flags Magic Mountain in Valencia, California. When it opened in 1997, it was the tallest roller coaster in the world, its speed of 100 mph was tied for the fastest with Tower of Terror II, a similar roller coaster which opened two months earlier at Dreamworld in Australia; these two coasters were the first to utilize Linear Synchronous Motor technology to propel vehicles to top speed. As of January 2020, it is the only reverse freefall coaster left in operation since the closure of Tower of Terror II in November of 2019; the park intended to open the ride in 1996, but the opening was delayed because of several issues with the launch system. The ride was closed in late 2010 for refurbishment, it emerged in 2011 as "Superman: Escape from Krypton"; the refurbished ride featured new trains which face backward, speeds of up to 104 mph, it was painted with a new color scheme. As of 2013, Superman: Escape from Krypton has the third-tallest structure, the fifth-fastest speed and the third-longest drop of any roller coaster in the world.
While in the planning stages, the ride was going to be named Velocetron and themed as The Man of Steel. The ride was announced on January 5, 1996 as Superman: The Escape, breaking records as the first roller coaster to reach 100 miles per hour, passing Desperado and Phantom's Revenge at 82 miles per hour; the ride was designed by a Swiss roller coaster firm. It was intended to open on June 1, 1996. However, due to a range of problems with the launch system, its opening was delayed. In late 1996, there was a preview for season pass holders. After 10 months of testing and reengineering, the ride opened on March 15, 1997. After its opening, the media claimed Superman to be the fastest roller coaster in the world. However, since it was delayed, a similar roller coaster known as Tower of Terror, which has a 100-mile-per-hour launch, had opened about a month earlier at Dreamworld in Australia. Superman therefore lost its claim as being the first roller coaster to reach 100 miles per hour, although it was tied with Tower of Terror as the fastest roller coaster in the world.
However, the ride became the first roller coaster in the world to go over 400 ft, therefore becoming the tallest roller coaster in the world at the time. In June 2004, Superman: The Escape's seat belts were modified because of an incident on the Superman – Ride of Steel roller coaster at Six Flags New England. California State Regulators asked the park to make modifications to the rides' restraint systems to prevent a similar incident in the future. Just after July 4 weekend of 2010, Superman: The Escape ceased operations with no reason given. A sign posted in front of the ride indicated that it would not reopen until the 2011 season, with hints that there would be improvements made to the ride experience. After Superman: The Escape's sister ride, the Tower of Terror II at Dreamworld, underwent a major refurbishment in 2010 which entailed a new vehicle which launches backward, speculation turned to the possibility of a similar modification to the Magic Mountain ride. Six Flags Magic Mountain officials denied rumors that it would receive a Bizarro retheming, similar to roller coasters at other Six Flags parks.
On October 20, 2010, Six Flags Magic Mountain announced the refurbishment and re-theming of Superman: The Escape, in addition to the construction of two new roller coasters. As part of the refurbishment, the ride was renamed to Superman: Escape from Krypton and featured new backward launching cars and a new color scheme; the upgraded ride reopened to the public on March 19, 2011. Superman: Escape from Krypton closed again on February 5, 2012, to prepare for the new 2012 attraction Lex Luthor: Drop of Doom. Two drop towers built by Intamin, were integrated into the existing sides of Superman: Escape from Krypton's structure; the ride reopened when construction was finished on July 7, 2012. To enable the construction of the park's 2013 roller coaster, Full Throttle, Superman: Escape from Krypton was temporarily closed from December 2012, it reopened in mid-January with Six Flags Magic Mountain stating the ride may have intermittent closures as the construction of Full Throttle continued. At the entrance to the ride, the Superman "S" shield is now painted onto the ground.
The entrance area and queue are modeled after the Fortress of Superman's headquarters. The station is lit green, modeled as Krypton, the planet, full of Kryptonite rock that can take away Superman's powers. Inside is a crystalline-looking environment. If the Velocetron name had been chosen, the queue and station would have had ancient ruins and a giant laser. A page on display in the Sky Tower, the park's observation tower, shows the concept art for Velocetron; the roller coaster has two parallel tracks. The vehicle is accelerated by Linear Synchronous Motors in reverse out of the station from 0 to 100 miles per hour in 7 seconds. Riders experience a g-force of 4.5 during the launch. The vehicle climbs up 415 feet at a 90 degree angle. Riders climb this vertical section facing directly downward, before stopping near the top of the tower. During the vertical section of the ride, riders experience weightlessness for about 6.5 seconds. The vehicle is slowed down before re-entering the station; the roller coaster featured two vehicles, each with three rows of four seats and one row of three seats for a total of 15 riders per vehicle.
The 1867 Canadian federal election was held from August 7 to September 20, 1867, was the first election for the new nation of Canada. It was held to elect members representing electoral districts in the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Quebec to the House of Commons of the 1st Canadian Parliament; the provinces of Manitoba and British Columbia were created during the term of the 1st Parliament of Canada and were not part of this election. Sir John A. Macdonald had been sworn in as prime minister by the Governor General, Lord Monck, when the new Canadian nation was founded on 1 July 1867; as leader of the Conservative Party of Canada, he led his party in this election and continued as Prime Minister of Canada when the Conservatives won a majority of the seats in the election, including majorities of the seats in the new provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The Liberal Party of Canada won the second largest number of seats overall, including a majority of the seats in the province of New Brunswick.
The Liberals did not have a party leader in the election. George Brown, the leader of the Liberal Party of Ontario, was considered the "elder statesman" of the national party. Brown ran concurrently for seats in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario and the House of Commons of Canada, might well have been Prime Minister in the unlikely event that the Liberals prevailed over the Conservatives in the national election. Brown failed to win a seat in either body, the national Liberals remained leaderless until 1873; the Anti-Confederation Party, led by Joseph Howe, won the third largest number of seats overall, based on a majority of seats in the province of Nova Scotia. Their main desire was the reversal of the decision to join Confederation, which had become unpopular in that province; the goals of the Anti-Confederation Members of Parliament were supported by five of the Liberal MPs of New Brunswick. The Anti-Confederation MPs sat with the Liberal caucus; when the government in Britain refused to allow Nova Scotia to secede, a majority of the Anti-Confederation MPs moved to the Conservatives.
Halifax was a two-member riding at the time of the election, while the City of Saint John was represented by its own district and the County of Saint John. The election in Kamouraska, Quebec was delayed due to rioting. Acclamations The following MPs were acclaimed: Ontario: 3 Conservative, 3 Liberal-Conservatives, 9 Liberals Quebec: 14 Conservatives, 5 Liberal-Conservatives, 4 Liberals New Brunswick: 1 Conservative, 3 Liberals Nova Scotia: 4 Anti-ConfederatesVacancy The election in Kamouraska, was cancelled due to rioting at the polling places. No member was elected for the riding until a by-election in 1869. List of elections in the Province of Canada 1st Canadian Parliament permanent dead link] Map of electoral districts coloured for each party Ridings and candidates
The Israeli Institute of Commercial Arbitration was founded in 1991 by the Federation of Israeli Chambers of Commerce. The IICA is considered the leading arbitration institution in Israel; the late Prof. Smadar Ottolenghi was one of the founders of the IICA, she served as its first President for nearly thirteen years; the current President of the IICA is the Honorable Judge Ayala Procaccia. The prior President was Amnon Straschnov. In addition to providing arbitration services, the IICA provides mediation services; the IICA’s list of arbitrators and mediators includes those from different backgrounds and disciplines: retired Israeli judges, accountants, engineers and economists. From 1991 until 2007, the IICA maintained only one set of arbitration rules, in Hebrew. In 2007, the IIICA adopted a special set of rules, for international disputes; the chairman of the IICA Rules Committee is Advocate David Golan. The principal draftsman of the IICA's International Rules was Advocate Eric Sherby. Throughout the world, the lack of appealability is considered one of the drawbacks of arbitration.
One of the unique aspects of the IICA's General Rules is that it addresses the concern as to appealability. In 2004, the IICA amended the General Rules to allow the parties to an arbitration to agree on an appellate level to review the award of the arbitrator; the appellate procedure does not have any effect on the parties' rights under Israeli law to file a motion to confirm an arbitral award under Israeli law. The IICA is believed to be one of few arbitral institutions globally that has adopted an institutional procedure for appealing arbitral awards; the IICA's International Rules are not like the UNCITRAL Rules. The IICA's International Rules provide that, whenever an arbitration agreement is in English, absent the parties' agreement otherwise, the language of the arbitration will be English. In such respect, the IICA is believed to be the only national arbitral institution to provide for English as the "default" language of arbitration; the International Rules respect the parties' pre-dispute agreement to use multiple arbitrators, subject to the party's prompt notification of the desire for a multiple arbitrator adjudication.
The IICA's International Rules provide that certain rulings concerning a claim of privilege that relies upon substantive law other than Israeli law may be appealed to the President of the IICA. www.borerut.com - Website of the Israeli Institute of Commercial Arbitration