Justice League (TV series)
Justice League is an American animated television series which ran from 2001 to 2004 on Cartoon Network. It is part of the DC animated universe; the show was produced by Warner Bros. Animation, it is based on the Justice League of America and associated comic book characters published by DC Comics. After two seasons, the series was replaced by Justice League Unlimited, a successor series which aired for three seasons. Bruce Timm, who co-produced Batman: The Animated Series and Superman: The Animated Series in the 1990s, became producer on an animated series focusing on the Justice League; the roster consisted of Batman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, The Flash, Martian Manhunter, Hawkgirl. According to audio commentary on the DVD release of Season 2, the second season finale "Starcrossed" was expected to be the final episode of the series. However, in February 2004, Cartoon Network announced a follow-up series, Justice League Unlimited, which premiered on July 31, 2004 and featured a larger roster of characters.
Kevin Conroy reprised his voice role as Batman from Batman: The Animated Series, The New Batman Adventures, Batman Beyond. Batman's costume was redesigned, but this time, his costume was a combination of his last three costumes; the same costume from The New Batman Adventures is retained, but with the blue highlights from the Batman: The Animated Series costume and the long-ears from the Batman Beyond costume are added to the costume. Tim Daly, who voiced Superman in Superman: The Animated Series was involved but was unable to continue his role due to involvement with The Fugitive, was replaced by George Newbern. Superman was redesigned to have a bit of a squint to his eyes and slight wrinkles, meant to make him look older, in addition to having a noticeable shining streak to his hair. Fans did not like the older appearance and in the second season the streak was toned down to the point of disappearing and the squint was removed, in essence reverting Superman to his earlier animated look; as an in-joke, Superman's season one facial designs are used for an older Jor-El in the Justice League Unlimited episode "For the Man Who Has Everything".
Most of the characters retained their general comic book origins and continuity, with Wonder Woman being the notable exception. In the Justice League series continuity, the premiere story arc "Secret Origins" revises the plot of Diana's competition against her fellow Amazons to be the ambassador of peace to man's world, she is referred to as a "rookie" superhero during her first encounter with the League.. In an interview segment on the Season One DVD, Bruce Timm stated that he ran into some legal issues in using the Wonder Woman character, but was adamant that she be used in the series. Additionally, the character of The Flash was portrayed as somewhat younger and more brash than his comic book counterpart, taking on a number of personality traits of Plastic Man, who provides a similar comic relief function in the JLA comics. Charlie Schlatter, who voiced the Flash in one episode of Superman: The Animated Series, was unavailable to reprise the role and was replaced by Michael Rosenbaum. Major changes were made to the Hawkgirl character.
The character of Hawkgirl became romantically involved with the John Stewart Green Lantern as the series progressed. A romantic relationship between Batman and Wonder Woman was "shown" by the show's creators, who disliked pairing Wonder Woman with Superman despite fan requests. Robin is not paired with Batman in this animated series. Although the series itself is animated in traditional 2-dimensional style, the opening credits are rendered in 3D with toon shading; the intro is a "stock" intro used throughout the series until Justice League Unlimited premieres. List of DC animated universe characters Kevin Conroy – Batman / Bruce Wayne George Newbern – Superman / Clark Kent, D. J. Rubber Ducky Susan Eisenberg – Wonder Woman / Princess Diana Phil LaMarr – Green Lantern / John Stewart, Ed Reiss Michael Rosenbaum – Flash / Wally West, Arkkis Chumuck, Colonel Josef, André, Franzee Carl Lumbly – Martian Manhunter / J'onn J'onzz, Krizblack Maria Canals – Hawkgirl / Shayera Hol, Livewire, Py'tar From 2006-2011, Warner Home Entertainment released the entire series of Justice League on DVD and Blu-ray, presented in original broadcast version and story arc continuity order.
Season releases Warner Home Video released another DVD title Justice League The Complete Animated Series. It contained all 91 episodes of Justice League and Justice League Unlimited on a 15 disc set with the 15th disc containing a bonus documentary. Individual releases A 4-disc soundtrack of musical highlights from both seasons of Justice League was released by La-La Land Records in July 2016, it can be ordered at the La-La Land Records website. The set includes tracks from fan-favorite episodes like A Better World, Wild Cards and Starcrossed. La-La Land are hoping to release a soundtrack for Justice League Unlimited as well, provided that sales of the Justice League soundtrack improve and that there is sufficient demand from fans. A second Justice League volume may follow if fans support the existing release; the show was aired in the Republic of Ireland on TG4 from 2002 to 2007. The series has received acclaim. In January
John Byrne (comics)
John Lindley Byrne is a British-born, Canadian raised, American writer and artist of superhero comics. Since the mid-1970s, Byrne has worked on many major superheroes, with noted work on Marvel Comics' X-Men and Fantastic Four and the 1986 relaunch of DC Comics' Superman franchise, the first issue of which featured comics' first variant cover. Coming into the comics profession as penciller, inker and writer on his earliest work, Byrne began co-plotting the X-Men comics during his tenure on them, launched his writing career in earnest with Fantastic Four. During the 1990s he produced a number of creator-owned works, including Next Men and Danger Unlimited, he scripted the first issues of Mike Mignola's Hellboy series and produced a number of Star Trek comics for IDW Publishing. In 2015, Byrne and his X-Men collaborator Chris Claremont were entered into the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame, he is the co-creator of such Marvel characters as Kitty Pryde, Emma Frost, Shadow King, Scott Lang, Omega Red and Rachel Summers.
Byrne was born in Walsall and raised in West Bromwich in Staffordshire, where he lived with his parents and his maternal grandmother. While living there, prior to his family emigrating to Canada when Byrne was 8, he was first exposed to comics, saying in 2005, y'journey into comics' began with George Reeves' Superman series being shown on the BBC in England when I was about 6 years old. Not long after I started watching that series I saw one of the hardcover and white'Annuals' that were being published over there at the time, soon after found a copy of an Australian reprint called Super Comics that featured a story each of Superboy, Johnny Quick and Batman; the Batman story hooked me for life. A couple of years my family emigrated to Canada and I discovered the vast array of American comics available at the time, his first encounter with Marvel Comics was in 1962 with Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four #5. He commented that "the book had an'edge' like nothing DC was putting out at the time".
Jack Kirby's work in particular had a strong influence on Byrne and he has worked with many of the characters Kirby created or co-created. Besides Kirby, Byrne was influenced by the naturalistic style of Neal Adams. In 1970, Byrne enrolled at the Alberta College of Design in Calgary, he created the superhero parody Gay Guy for the college newspaper, which poked fun at the campus stereotype of homosexuality among art students. Gay Guy is notable for featuring a prototype of the Alpha Flight character Snowbird. While there, he published his first comic book, ACA Comix #1, featuring "The Death's Head Knight". Byrne left the college in 1973 without graduating, he broke into comics with a "Fan Art Gallery" piece in Marvel's promotional publication FOOM in early 1974 and by illustrating a two-page story by writer Al Hewetson in Skywald Publications' black-and-white horror magazine Nightmare #20. He began freelancing for Charlton Comics, making his color-comics debut with the E-Man backup feature "Rog-2000", starring a robot character he'd created in the mid-1970s that colleagues Roger Stern and Bob Layton named and began using for spot illustrations in their fanzine CPL.
A Rog-2000 story written by Stern, with art by Byrne and Layton, had gotten the attention of Charlton Comics editor Nicola Cuti, who extended Byrne an invitation. Written by Cuti, "Rog-2000" became one of several alternating backup features in the Charlton Comics superhero series E-Man, starting with the eight-page "That Was No Lady" in issue #6. While, Byrne's first published color-comics work, "My first professional comic book sale was to Marvel, a short story called Dark Asylum'... which languished in a flat file somewhere until it was used as filler in Giant-Size Dracula #5, long after the first Rog story." The story was written by David Anthony Kraft. After the Rog-2000 story, Byrne went on to work on the Charlton books Wheelie and the Chopper Bunch, Space: 1999, Emergency!, co-created with writer Joe Gill the post-apocalyptic science-fiction series Doomsday + 1. Byrne additionally drew a cover for the supernatural anthology The Many Ghosts of Doctor Graves #54. Byrne said he broke into Marvel comics after writer Chris Claremont...saw my work and began agitating for me to draw something he had written.
When Pat Broderick missed a deadline on the'Iron Fist' series in Marvel Premiere, John Verpoorten fired him and offered the book to me.... I turned around the first script in time to meet the deadline, so started getting more work from Marvel, until I was able to leave Charlton and focus on the Marvel stuff." Byrne soon went on to draw series including The Champions and Marvel Team-Up. Byrne first drew the X-Men in Marvel Team-Up #53. For many issues, he was paired with Claremont, with whom he teamed for some issues of the black-and-white Marvel magazine Marvel Preview featuring Star-Lord; the Star-Lord story was inked by Terry Austin, who soon afterward teamed with Claremont and Byrne on X-Men. Byrne joined Claremont beginning with The X-Men #108, their work together, along with inker Terry Austin, on such classic story arcs as "Proteus", "Dark Phoenix Saga", "Days of Future Past" would make them both fan favorites. Byrne insisted that the title keep its Canadian character and contributed a series of story elements to justify Wolverine's presence which made the character among the most popular in Marvel's publishing history.
With issue #114, Byrne beg
James Timothy Daly is an American actor and producer. He is known for his role as Joe Hackett on the NBC sitcom Wings and his voice role as Clark Kent/Superman in Superman: The Animated Series, as well as his recurring role as the drug-addicted screenwriter J. T. Dolan on The Sopranos, he starred as Pete Wilder on Private Practice from 2007 to 2012. Since 2014, he has portrayed Henry McCord, husband of the titular character, on the CBS drama Madam Secretary. Daly was born March 1, 1956, at Mount Sinai Hospital in Manhattan, the only son and youngest of four children of actor James Daly and actress Mary Hope Daly, he is the younger brother of actress Tyne Daly. He has Mary Glynn and Pegeen Michael. Daly attended The Putney School. Daly began his professional career while a student at Vermont's Bennington College, where he studied Theatre and Literature, in which he now holds a Bachelor of Arts degree, acted in summer stock, he graduated from college in 1979, returned to New York to continue studying acting and singing.
Daly debuted on stage when he was seven years old in Jenny Kissed Me by Jean Kerr, together with his parents and two sisters. He appeared for the first time on TV when he was 10 years old in an American Playhouse adaptation of An Enemy of the People by Henrik Ibsen, which starred his father James Daly, he dreamed about a sports or music career and considered becoming a doctor or a lawyer, but decided to become an actor. Daly started his professional acting career when he appeared in a 1978 adaptation of Peter Shaffer's play Equus, his first leading film role was in the film Diner, directed by Barry Levinson, in which he shared screen time with actors including Kevin Bacon and Mickey Rourke. Starring roles soon followed in Alan Rudolph's feature, Made in Heaven, the American Playhouse production of The Rise & Rise of Daniel Rocket, the CBS dramatic series, Almost Grown created by David Chase. In theatre he has starred in the Broadway production of Coastal Disturbances by playwright Tina Howe opposite Annette Bening and received a 1987 Theatre World Award for his performance.
He has starred in Oliver, Oliver at the Manhattan Theatre Club, Mass Appeal by Bill C. Davis and Bus Stop by William Inge at Trinity Square Repertory, The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams at the Santa Fe Festival Theatre, A Knife in the Heart and A Study in Scarlet at the Williamstown Playhouse, Paris Bound at the Berkshire Theatre Festival. During this time, Daly starred in the CBS television miniseries I'll Take Manhattan as Toby Amberville. Daly describes himself as being self-critical in regard to his career. In an interview with New Zealand'ZM' radio personality Polly Gillespie, Daly was quoted as saying, "I think part of it is passed down to me from my parents who are actors; the theatre was our temple... When you entered you were expected to live up to the example of this glorious place." Wings is an American sitcom that ran on NBC from April 19, 1990, to May 14, 1997. It starred Steven Weber as brothers Joe and Brian Hackett; the show was set at the fictional Tom Nevers Field, a small airport in Nantucket, where the Hackett brothers operated the one-plane airline, Sandpiper Air.
Daly became noted for voicing Clark Kent/Superman in Superman: The Animated Series during this time. In 1997, he and J. Todd Harris formed Daly-Harris Productions, through which he produced such movies as: Execution of Justice and Tick Tock. In 1998, Daly appeared in several episodes of the Emmy award-winning, Tom Hanks-produced HBO mini-series From the Earth to the Moon playing astronaut Jim Lovell, whom Hanks himself had portrayed in the film Apollo 13. During the 2000–2001 television season, Daly starred as Dr. Richard Kimble in a remake of the classic television series The Fugitive; the series lasted only one season. In 2002, Daly guest-starred as himself in the TV series Monk in the episode "Mr. Monk and the Airplane" reuniting him with his Wings castmate Tony Shalhoub. In 2006, Daly returned to Broadway when he appeared on stage opposite David Schwimmer and Željko Ivanek in the Broadway revival of The Caine Mutiny Court Martial. Daly made several appearances on The Sopranos as J. T. Dolan, an AA buddy of Christopher Moltisanti.
Daly received a 2007 Emmy nomination for his work on the series. He appeared on the midseason ABC crime series Eyes, which got good reviews but was canceled after only five episodes. In 2006, Daly played the role of Nick Cavanaugh on the new ABC drama The Nine. From 2007 to 2012, Daly played a love interest for Kate Walsh's character on the TV series Private Practice; as a voice-actor, Daly portrayed superhero Superman and his alter ego Clark Kent in Superman: The Animated Series, but was unable to return as Superman, as he was under contract to star in a remake of the 1960s TV drama The Fugitive. He reprised his role as Superman in the video game Superman: Shadow of Apokolips and the direct-to-video releases Superman: Brainiac Attacks, Superman/Batman: Public Enemies, Superman/Batman: Apocalypse and Justice League: Doom. Daly reprised his role as Superman in an animated remake of the trailer for the 2013 film Man of Steel by the Hub Network to celebrate the release of the film and to promote the network's upcoming marathon of Superman episodes.
Daly heads Red House Entertainment. Movies produced through the company include Edge of America, which won a Peabody Award and a Humanitas Prize, Daly's directing debut, the independent film Bereft. Daly created W
Superhero fiction is a genre of speculative fiction examining the adventures and ethics of costumed crime fighters known as superheroes, who possess superhuman powers and battle powered criminals known as supervillains. The genre falls between hard fantasy and soft science fiction spectrum of scientific realism. Superhero fiction originated from the cultural intermingling of United States literature, it is most associated with American comic books, though it has expanded into other media through adaptations and original works. A superhero is most the protagonist of superhero fiction, although some titles, such as Marvels by Kurt Busiek and Alex Ross, use superheroes as secondary characters. A superhero is a type of stock character possessing "extraordinary or superhuman powers" and dedicated to protecting the public. Since the debut of the prototypical superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes—ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas—have dominated American comic books and crossed over into other media.
The word itself dates to at least 1917. A female superhero is sometimes called a superheroine. "SUPER HEROES" is a trademark co-owned by Marvel Comics. By most definitions, characters do not require actual superhuman powers to be deemed superheroes, although terms such as costumed crime fighters or masked vigilantes are sometimes used to refer to those such as Batman and Green Arrow without such powers who share other common superhero traits; such characters were referred to as "mystery men" in the so-called Golden Age of Comic Books to distinguish them from characters with super-powers. Superheroes use their powers to counter day-to-day crime while combating threats against humanity by their criminal counterparts, supervillains. Long-running superheroes such as Superman, Spider-Man and Iron Man have a "rogues gallery" of such enemies. One of these supervillains might be the superhero's archenemy. Superheroes will sometimes combat other threats such as aliens, magical/fantasy entities, natural disasters, political ideologies such as Nazism or communism, godlike or demonic creatures.
A supervillain or supervillainess is a variant of the villain character type found in comic books, action movies, science fiction in various media. They are sometimes used as foils to other heroes. Whereas superheroes wield fantastic powers, the supervillain possesses commensurate powers and abilities so that he can present a daunting challenge to the hero. Without actual physical, superhuman or superalien powers, the supervillain possesses a genius intellect that allows him to draft complex schemes or create fantastic devices. Another common trait is possession of considerable resources to help further his aims. Many supervillains share some typical characteristics of real-world dictators and terrorists and have aspirations of world domination or universal leadership. Superheroes and supervillains mirror each other in their powers, abilities, or origins. In some cases, the only difference between the two is that the hero uses his extraordinary powers to help others, while the villain uses his powers for selfish, destructive or ruthless purposes.
Both superheroes and supervillains use alter egos while in action. While sometimes the character's real name is publicly known, alter egos are most used to hide the character's secret identity from their enemies and the public. With superheroes, the duality of their identities is kept a secret and guarded to protect those close to them from being harmed and to prevent them from being called upon even for problems not serious enough to require their attention; this can be a source of drama with the superhero being forced to devise means of getting out of sight to change without revealing their identity, or bearing the price of keeping such a secret. In addition, this narrative trope can allow fantasy character to be in occasional realistic stories without the fantasy element of the sub-genre appearing. With supervillains, by contrast, the duality of their identities is kept a secret and guarded to conceal their crimes from the general public, so that they may inflict greater harm on the general public, to enable them to act and hence illegally, without risk of arrest by law-enforcement authorities.
Death in superhero fiction is permanent, as characters who die are brought back to life through supernatural means or via retcons, the alteration of established facts in the continuity of a fictional work. Fans have termed the practice of bringing back dead characters "comic book death". Another common trait of superhero fiction is the killing off of a superhero's significant other by a supervillain to advance the plot. Comic book writer Gail Simone has coined the term "Women in Refrigerators" to refer to this practice. Many works of superhero fiction occur in a shared fictional universe, sometimes establishing a fictional continuity of thousands of works spread over many decades. Changes to continuity are common, ranging from small changes to established continuity called retcons, to full reboots, erasing all previous continuity, it is common for stories works of superhero fiction to contain established characters and setting while occurring outside of the main canon
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
DC Comics, Inc. is an American comic book publisher. It is the publishing unit of DC Entertainment, a subsidiary of Warner Bros. since 1967. DC Comics is one of the largest and oldest American comic book companies, produces material featuring numerous culturally iconic heroic characters including: Superman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern,Aquaman,Martian Manhunter, Green Arrow, Hawkman and Supergirl. Most of their material takes place in the fictional DC Universe, which features teams such as the Justice League, the Justice Society of America, the Suicide Squad, the Teen Titans, well-known villains such as The Joker, Lex Luthor, Darkseid, Brainiac, Black Adam, Ra's al Ghul and Deathstroke; the company has published non-DC Universe-related material, including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, many titles under their alternative imprint Vertigo. The initials "DC" came from the company's popular series Detective Comics, which featured Batman's debut and subsequently became part of the company's name.
In Manhattan at 432 Fourth Avenue, the DC Comics offices have been located at 480 and 575 Lexington Avenue. DC had its headquarters at 1700 Broadway, Midtown Manhattan, New York City, but it was announced in October 2013 that DC Entertainment would relocate its headquarters from New York to Burbank, California in April 2015. Random House distributes DC Comics' books to the bookstore market, while Diamond Comic Distributors supplies the comics shop specialty market. DC Comics and its longtime major competitor Marvel Comics together shared 70% of the American comic book market in 2017. Entrepreneur Major Malcolm Wheeler-Nicholson founded National Allied Publications in autumn 1934; the company debuted with the tabloid-sized New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine #1 with a cover date of February 1935. The company's second title, New Comics #1, appeared in a size close to what would become comic books' standard during the period fans and historians call the Golden Age of Comic Books, with larger dimensions than today's.
That title evolved into Adventure Comics, which continued through issue #503 in 1983, becoming one of the longest-running comic-book series. In 2009 DC revived Adventure Comics with its original numbering. In 1935, Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, the future creators of Superman, created Doctor Occult, the earliest DC Comics character to still be in the DC Universe. Wheeler-Nicholson's third and final title, Detective Comics, advertised with a cover illustration dated December 1936 premiered three months late with a March 1937 cover date; the themed anthology series would become a sensation with the introduction of Batman in issue #27. By however, Wheeler-Nicholson had gone. In 1937, in debt to printing-plant owner and magazine distributor Harry Donenfeld—who published pulp magazines and operated as a principal in the magazine distributorship Independent News—Wheeler-Nicholson had to take Donenfeld on as a partner in order to publish Detective Comics #1. Detective Comics, Inc. was formed, with Wheeler-Nicholson and Jack S. Liebowitz, Donenfeld's accountant, listed as owners.
Major Wheeler-Nicholson remained for a year, but cash-flow problems continued, he was forced out. Shortly afterwards, Detective Comics, Inc. purchased the remains of National Allied known as Nicholson Publishing, at a bankruptcy auction. Detective Comics, Inc. soon launched a fourth title, Action Comics, the premiere of which introduced Superman. Action Comics #1, the first comic book to feature the new character archetype—soon known as "superheroes"—proved a sales hit; the company introduced such other popular characters as the Sandman and Batman. On February 22, 2010, a copy of Action Comics #1 sold at an auction from an anonymous seller to an anonymous buyer for $1 million, besting the $317,000 record for a comic book set by a different copy, in lesser condition, the previous year. National Allied Publications soon merged with Detective Comics, Inc. forming National Comics Publications on September 30, 1946. National Comics Publications absorbed an affiliated concern, Max Gaines' and Liebowitz' All-American Publications.
In the same year Gaines let Liebowitz buy him out, kept only Picture Stories from the Bible as the foundation of his own new company, EC Comics. At that point, "Liebowitz promptly orchestrated the merger of All-American and Detective Comics into National Comics... Next he took charge of organizing National Comics, Independent News, their affiliated firms into a single corporate entity, National Periodical Publications". National Periodical Publications became publicly traded on the stock market in 1961. Despite the official names "National Comics" and "National Periodical Publications", the company began branding itself as "Superman-DC" as early as 1940, the company became known colloquially as DC Comics for years before the official adoption of that name in 1977; the company began to move aggressively against what it saw as copyright-violating imitations from other companies, such as Fox Comics' Wonder Man, which Fox started as a copy of Superman. This extended to DC suing Fawcett Comics over Captain Marvel, at the time comics' top-selling character.
Faced with declining sales and the prospect of bankruptcy if it lost, Fawcett capitulated in 1953 and ceased publishing comics. Years Fawcett sold the rights for Captain Marvel to DC—which in 1972 revived Captain Marvel in the new title Shazam
Silver Age of Comic Books
The Silver Age of Comic Books was a period of artistic advancement and widespread commercial success in mainstream American comic books, predominantly those featuring the superhero archetype. Following the Golden Age of Comic Books and an interregnum in the early to mid-1950s, the Silver Age is considered to cover the period from 1956 to circa 1970, was succeeded by the Bronze and Modern Ages; the popularity and circulation of comic books about superheroes had declined following World War II, comic books about horror and romance took larger shares of the market. However, controversy arose over alleged links between comic books and juvenile delinquency, focusing in particular on crime and horror titles. In 1954, publishers implemented the Comics Code Authority to regulate comic content. In the wake of these changes, publishers began introducing superhero stories again, a change that began with the introduction of a new version of DC Comics' The Flash in Showcase #4. In response to strong demand, DC began publishing more superhero titles including Justice League of America, which prompted Marvel Comics to follow suit beginning with The Fantastic Four #1.
A number of important comics writers and artists contributed to the early part of the era, including writers Gardner Fox, John Broome, Robert Kanigher, artists Curt Swan, Jack Kirby, Gil Kane, Steve Ditko, Mike Sekowsky, Gene Colan, Carmine Infantino, John Buscema, John Romita, Sr. By the end of the Silver Age, a new generation of talent had entered the field, including writers Denny O'Neil, Gary Friedrich, Roy Thomas, Archie Goodwin, artists such as Neal Adams, Herb Trimpe, Jim Steranko, Barry Windsor-Smith. Silver Age comics have become collectible, with a copy of Amazing Fantasy #15, the debut of Spider-Man, selling for $1.1 million in 2011. Comics historian and movie producer Michael Uslan traces the origin of the "Silver Age" term to the letters column of Justice League of America #42, which went on sale December 9, 1965. Letter-writer Scott Taylor of Westport, wrote, "If you guys keep bringing back the heroes from the Golden Age, people 20 years from now will be calling this decade the Silver Sixties!"
According to Uslan, the natural hierarchy of gold-silver-bronze, as in Olympic medals, took hold. "Fans glommed onto this, refining it more directly into a Silver Age version of the Golden Age. Soon, it was in our vernacular, replacing such expressions as...'Second Heroic Age of Comics' or'The Modern Age' of comics. It wasn't long before dealers were... specifying it was a Golden Age comic for sale or a Silver Age comic for sale." Spanning World War II, when American comics provided cheap and disposable escapist entertainment that could be read and discarded by the troops, the Golden Age of comic books covered the late 1930s to the late 1940s. A number of major superheroes were created during this period, including Superman, Wonder Woman, Captain Marvel, Captain America. In subsequent years comics were blamed for a rise in juvenile crime statistics, although this rise was shown to be in direct proportion to population growth; when juvenile offenders admitted to reading comics, it was seized on as a common denominator.
The result was a decline in the comics industry. To address public concerns, in 1954 the Comics Code Authority was created to regulate and curb violence in comics, marking the start of a new era; the Silver Age began with the publication of DC Comics' Showcase #4, which introduced the modern version of the Flash. At the time, only three superheroes—Superman and Wonder Woman—were still published under their own titles. According to DC comics writer Will Jacobs, Superman was available in "great quantity, but little quality." Batman was doing better, but his comics were "lackluster" in comparison to his earlier "atmospheric adventures" of the 1940s, Wonder Woman, having lost her original writer and artist, was no longer "idiosyncratic" or "interesting." Jacobs describes the arrival of Showcase #4 on the newsstands as "begging to be bought," the cover featured an undulating film strip depicting the Flash running so fast that he had escaped from the frame. Editor Julius Schwartz, writer Gardner Fox, artist Carmine Infantino were some of the people behind the Flash's revitalization.
Robert Kanigher wrote the first stories of the revived Flash, John Broome was the writer of many of the earliest stories. With the success of Showcase #4, several other 1940s superheroes were reworked during Schwartz' tenure, including Green Lantern, the Atom, Hawkman, the Justice Society of America was reimagined as the Justice League of America; the DC artists responsible included Gil Kane and Joe Kubert. Only the characters' names remained the same. Schwartz, a lifelong science-fiction fan, was the inspiration for the re-imagined Green Lantern—the Golden Age character, railroad engineer Alan Scott, possessed a ring powered by a magical lantern, but his Silver Age replacement, test pilot Hal Jordan, had a ring powered by an alien battery and created by an intergalactic police force. In the mid-1960s, DC established that characters appearing in comics published prior to the Silver Age lived on a parallel Earth the company dubbed Earth-Two. Characters introduced in the Silver Age and onward lived on Earth-One.
The two realities were separated by a vib