Jonathan Niven Cryer is an American actor and television director. Born into a show business family, Cryer made his motion picture debut as a teenaged photographer in the 1984 romantic comedy No Small Affair. In 1998, he wrote and produced the independent film Went to Coney Island on a Mission from God... Be Back by Five. Although Cryer gained fame with his early film roles, it took several years to find success on television. In 2003, Cryer was cast as Alan Harper on the CBS sitcom Two and a Half Men, for which he won two Primetime Emmy Awards in 2009 and 2012. Cryer received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for Television in 2011. Cryer's other film appearances include Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Hiding Out, Hot Shots, Tortured and Hit by Lightning, he has a recurring role in the CBS drama series NCIS, playing Dr. Cyril Taft. After appearing on the podcast Crime Writers On... it was announced Cryer is joining the team at the Undisclosed podcast for their second season. Cryer was born in New York.
His mother, Gretchen Cryer, is a playwright, songwriter and singer. His father, Donald David Cryer, is an actor and singer who studied to be a minister. Cryer's paternal grandfather, Rev. Dr. Donald W. Cryer, was a well-known Methodist minister, he has two sisters and Shelly. When Cryer was twelve years old, he decided; when his mother heard this, she thought he should have a backup plan, joked: "Plumbing is a pretty good career." Cryer attended Stagedoor Manor Performing Arts Training Center for several summers as a teenager, is a 1983 graduate of the Bronx High School of Science. He was classmates with film director Boaz Yakin. To his mother's "great disappointment", Cryer skipped college and went to the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art in London, United Kingdom for a summer short course in Shakespeare. Cryer's first professional acting effort was as David in the Broadway play Torch Song Trilogy, replacing Matthew Broderick, whom he "closely resembled". Cryer was an understudy and replacement for Broderick in Neil Simon's Brighton Beach Memoirs in 1989.
At age 19, Cryer appeared in the 1984 romantic comedy film No Small Affair, in the lead role as Charles Cummings, after the original production with Matthew Broderick was shut down due to a heart attack by director Martin Ritt. He went on to have small roles in films and television movies, he made his breakthrough as Phil "Duckie" Demster in the John Hughes-scripted film Pretty in Pink. In an interview with the Daily News, Cryer's mother said that after Pretty in Pink, she started getting calls from teenage girls from all over the world, who would leave hysterical, giggling messages on her answering machine. In 1989, he got the lead role in the TV comedy series The Famous Teddy Z, his performance gained the show was canceled after the first season. A year he starred with Charlie Sheen in the Jim Abrahams comedy Hot Shots!, received positively. Cryer is linked to the Brat Pack. In a March 2009 interview on Anytime with Bob Kushell, Cryer stated that he had auditioned for St. Elmo's Fire but was not cast in a role.
In 1993, he was asked to audition for the role of Chandler Bing on Friends, while doing a play in London. His reading was videotaped by a British casting agent but the tape failed to arrive in the U. S. before the network had made its final decision. In 1995, he was cast as Bob in the sitcom Partners, like his prior show The Famous Teddy Z, was canceled after its first season. In an interview with Time Out New York he stated, "Hey, every show I'm in goes down. Think about this: George Clooney was in 28 pilots, or something, it means nothing". After guest starring on shows such as Dharma & Greg and The Outer Limits, he wrote and produced the film, Went to Coney Island on a Mission from God... Be Back by Five, it gained positive reviews from critics. Leonard Maltin from Playboy Magazine called it "a breath of fresh air"; that same year, Cryer landed in another TV series, the Fox sitcom Getting Personal, alongside Vivica A. Fox and Duane Martin. Although the show was picked up for a second season after its abbreviated spring run, it was canceled that fall, after airing 17 episodes in total.
In 2000, he was cast. For the third time, Cryer starred in a show, canceled after its first season. Cryer's long run of unsuccessful TV projects ended three years later. Against the wishes of CBS executives and due to a friendship with Charlie Sheen, he was cast in 2003 to portray Alan Harper on the hit comedy series Two and a Half Men, he has earned seven Primetime Emmy Award nominations and two wins for his acting work on the show. In a comment on the show's high ratings, he said: "When you’re on a show that's fighting for survival every week, you stop trusting your instincts, because you think, ‘My instincts haven't worked so far.’ But when people like the show and are watching it in great numbers, it takes a huge amount of pressure off you. It allows you to trust your instincts and go with what has worked for you before." After former co-star Charlie Sheen's departure from the series, Cryer's character became the show's main protagonist throughout the final four seasons due to the show
Yoram Globus is an American-Israeli film producer, cinema owner, distributor. He is most known for his association with The Cannon Group, Inc. an American film production company, which he co-owned with his cousin Menahem Golan. Yoram was born in Tiberias, Lake of Galilee, Palestine in 1943 to parents who immigrated from Poland. At the age of 3 he moved with his family near Haifa, his father, built a cinema, unique at that time. When the cinema opened Yoram was 5 years old and interested in all aspects of the cinema, he would help with whatever his father needed from hanging posters, being a cashier, to promoting movies and at the age of 10 Yoram becoming the projectionist. During high school he moved to Tel Aviv. Yoram went into the army, retiring as a lieutenant. In 1963 he partnered up with Menahem Golan, a well-known stage and film director in Israel. Together, they were instrumental in creating the film industry in Israel. Over the years they were successful, building a company which had experience in producing movies in Israel, co-productions in Europe, which became the number 1 producing entity in Israel.
They for over 25 years represented Warner Bros.. Universal and DreamWorks in Israel, their most successful projects including. With additional films which represented Israel in many festivals such as: Cannes Film Festival, Berlin Film Festival, AFM, Milano Film Market and more. In the early 70's Yoram and Menahem started to make movies in Hollywood. In 1978, Globus and Golan moved to Hollywood and acquired The Cannon Group, Inc. for $500,000, traded on NASDQ for 25 cents a share. They went to the Cannes Film Festival that year and licensed Cannon's movies for $2.5M. After acquiring 51% of the company's shares they used the money to start making low budget action movies. In the beginning of the 80’s, Yoram and Menahem recognized that Video was the next big thing and signed Chuck Norris for a 7 years exclusive deal, Charles Bronson for a multiple picture deal, discovered Jean-Claude Van Damme and signed him for many pictures, they discovered Michael Dudakuf and signed him to a multiple picture deal.
Some of the pictures included: The “Missing in Action” series, The “Death Wish” series, ”Blood Sport”, “American Ninja”. The company elevated the production slate and apart of the action movies they started to produce in 1982 movies such as: “Sahara”, The Championship Season, “Wicked Lady”, “King Solomon’s Mine”. Over those years, the Cannon Group stock was moved to the NY stock exchange and climbed up from 25 cents in the late 70’s to $48 in 1984. Cannon became the largest independent distributor in the world. By the mid-1980s Cannon was producing an average of 40 films per year and had become the largest independent movie production company in the world with a net worth of over US$1 billion; because of their fast, low-budget style of filmmaking, they earned the nickname "the Go-Go Boys." Among the films produced by Cannon are Bloodsport with Jean-Claude Van Damme, Superman IV: The Quest for Peace with Christopher Reeve, King Lear directed by Jean-Luc Godard, Runaway Train, Over The Top with Sylvester Stallone and Street Smart with Morgan Freeman.
During this time and Golan acquired the rights to Spider-Man and Captain America. With Cannon's success, Yoram expanded the group's operations into additional territories. Cannon acquired 1,600 cinemas across Europe and the United States studios, an extensive film library and additional acquisitions, which widened the activities of Cannon and established the company as a leading conglomerate in the global film industry. During these years, Cannon would finance their movies utilizing a new approach, a strategy created and originated by Globus, now known as "the pre-sale strategy". Substantial pre-sales of unproduced films were made based on the strong salesmanship skills of Globus and the promotional advertising created by Design Projects; the financial deposits collected from these pre-sales were used to finance the production of the first film in a Cannon line-up, which when completed and delivered to worldwide theater owners, would generate enough capital to make the next film. For this purposes, Cannon would generate mock movie posters before they had a script and would display large billboards at sales events such as the Cannes Film Festival.
During 1984, Cannon purchased Thorn EMI Screen Entertainment and their movie library for £175 million. Cannon sold the EMI British Film Library to Weintraub Entertainment Group for $85 million. In 1989, "Pathé Communications," a holding company controlled by Italian businessman Giancarlo Parretti, purchased 39.4% of Cannon for 250 million dollars. During that same year, citing differences with both Parretti and Globus, resigned from his position, leaving Cannon and Globus to launch his "
A solar eclipse occurs when an observer passes through the shadow cast by the Moon which or blocks the Sun. This can only happen when the Sun and Earth are nearly aligned on a straight line in three dimensions during a new moon when the Moon is close to the ecliptic plane. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses, only part of the Sun is obscured. If the Moon were in a circular orbit, a little closer to the Earth, in the same orbital plane, there would be total solar eclipses every new moon. However, since the Moon's orbit is tilted at more than 5 degrees to the Earth's orbit around the Sun, its shadow misses Earth. A solar eclipse can only occur when the moon is close enough to the ecliptic plane during a new moon. Special conditions must occur for the two events to coincide because the Moon's orbit crosses the ecliptic at its orbital nodes twice every draconic month while a new moon occurs one every synodic month. Solar eclipses therefore happen only during eclipse seasons resulting in at least two, up to five, solar eclipses each year.
Total eclipses are rare because the timing of the new moon within the eclipse season needs to be more exact for an alignment between the observer and the centers of the Sun and Moon. In addition, the elliptical orbit of the Moon takes it far enough away from Earth that its apparent size is not large enough to block the Sun entirely. Total solar eclipses are rare at any particular location because totality exists only along a narrow path on the Earth's surface traced by the Moon's full shadow or umbra. An eclipse is a natural phenomenon. However, in some ancient and modern cultures, solar eclipses were attributed to supernatural causes or regarded as bad omens. A total solar eclipse can be frightening to people who are unaware of its astronomical explanation, as the Sun seems to disappear during the day and the sky darkens in a matter of minutes. Since looking directly at the Sun can lead to permanent eye damage or blindness, special eye protection or indirect viewing techniques are used when viewing a solar eclipse.
It is technically safe to view only the total phase of a total solar eclipse with the unaided eye and without protection. People referred to as eclipse chasers or umbraphiles will travel to remote locations to observe or witness predicted central solar eclipses. There are four types of solar eclipses: A total eclipse occurs when the dark silhouette of the Moon obscures the intensely bright light of the Sun, allowing the much fainter solar corona to be visible. During any one eclipse, totality occurs at best only in a narrow track on the surface of Earth; this narrow track is called the path of totality. An annular eclipse occurs when the Sun and Moon are in line with the Earth, but the apparent size of the Moon is smaller than that of the Sun. Hence the Sun appears as a bright ring, or annulus, surrounding the dark disk of the Moon. A hybrid eclipse shifts between a annular eclipse. At certain points on the surface of Earth, it appears as a total eclipse, whereas at other points it appears as annular.
Hybrid eclipses are comparatively rare. A partial eclipse occurs when the Sun and Moon are not in line with the Earth and the Moon only obscures the Sun; this phenomenon can be seen from a large part of the Earth outside of the track of an annular or total eclipse. However, some eclipses can only be seen as a partial eclipse, because the umbra passes above the Earth's polar regions and never intersects the Earth's surface. Partial eclipses are unnoticeable in terms of the sun's brightness, as it takes well over 90% coverage to notice any darkening at all. At 99%, it would be no darker than civil twilight. Of course, partial eclipses can be observed; the Sun's distance from Earth is about 400 times the Moon's distance, the Sun's diameter is about 400 times the Moon's diameter. Because these ratios are the same, the Sun and the Moon as seen from Earth appear to be the same size: about 0.5 degree of arc in angular measure. A separate category of solar eclipses is that of the Sun being occluded by a body other than the Earth's moon, as can be observed at points in space away from the Earth's surface.
Two examples are when the crew of Apollo 12 observed the Earth eclipse the Sun in 1969 and when the Cassini probe observed Saturn eclipsing the Sun in 2006. The Moon's orbit around the Earth is elliptical, as is the Earth's orbit around the Sun; the apparent sizes of the Sun and Moon therefore vary. The magnitude of an eclipse is the ratio of the apparent size of the Moon to the apparent size of the Sun during an eclipse. An eclipse that occurs when the Moon is near its closest distance to Earth can be a total eclipse because the Moon will appear to be large enough to cover the Sun's bright disk or photosphere. Conversely, an eclipse that occurs when the Moon is near its farthest distance from Earth can only be an annular eclipse because the Moon will appear to be smaller than the Sun. More solar eclipses are
The Daily Planet is a fictional broadsheet newspaper appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics in association with Superman. The newspaper was first mentioned in Action Comics #23; the Daily Planet building's most distinguishing and famous feature is the enormous globe that sits on top of the building. The newspaper is based in the fictional city of Metropolis, employs Clark Kent, Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen, with Perry White as its editor-in-chief; the building's original features appear to be based upon the Old Toronto Star Building, where Superman co-creator Joe Shuster was a newsboy when the Toronto Star was still called the Daily Star. Shuster has claimed. However, over the years, Metropolis has served as a fictional analogue to New York City; when Superman first appeared in comics, his alter ego Clark Kent worked for a newspaper named the Daily Star, under editor George Taylor. Superman co-creator Joe Shuster named the Daily Star after the Toronto Daily Star newspaper in Toronto, the newspaper that Shuster's parents received and for which Shuster had worked as a newsboy.
It was not until years that the fictional paper became the Daily Planet. While choosing a name for the fictitious newspaper, consideration was given to combining the names of The Globe and Mail and the Daily Star to become The Daily Globe, but when the comic strip appeared, the newspaper's name was permanently made the Daily Planet to avoid a name conflict with real newspapers. In Superman #5, the publisher of the Daily Planet is shown to be Burt Mason, a man, determined to print the truth when corrupt politician Alex Evell threatens him. In Superman #6, Mason gives free printing equipment to The Gateston Gazette after its editor, Jim Tirrell, is killed and its equipment is destroyed by racketeers that Tirrell insisted on reporting; when DC made use of its multiverse means of continuity tracking between the early 1960s and mid-1980s, it was declared that the Daily Star was the newspaper's name in the Golden Age or "Earth-Two" versions of Clark Kent, Lois Lane and Jimmy Olsen, while the Daily Planet was used in the Silver Age or "Earth-One" versions.
The Clark Kent of Earth-Two became the editor-in-chief of the Daily Star, something his Earth-One counterpart did not achieve. In the Silver and Bronze Age universes, Clark's first contact with the Daily Planet came when reporter Perry White came to Smallville to write a story about Superboy, wound up getting an interview where the Boy of Steel first revealed his extraterrestrial origins; the story resulted in Perry earning a Pulitzer Prize. During Clark Kent's years in college, Perry White was promoted to editor-in-chief upon the retirement of the Daily Planet's previous editor, the Earth-One version of George Taylor. After graduating from Metropolis University with a degree in journalism, Clark Kent went to work at the Planet, met Lois Lane. After Clark was hired, Jimmy Olsen joined the paper's staff. In 1971, the Daily Planet was purchased by president of the Galaxy Broadcasting System. Edge proceeded to integrate Metropolis television station WGBS-TV's studios into the Daily Planet building, named Clark Kent as the anchor for the WGBS evening news.
Clark's former schoolmate from Smallville Lana Lang joined Clark as a co-anchor. After the 1985–1986 miniseries Crisis on Infinite Earths, many of these elements, including Morgan Edge buying the Daily Planet, were retroactively changed or eliminated from the Superman canon. In the post-Crisis comics' canon, years before Clark or Lois began working for the paper, Lex Luthor owned the Daily Planet; when Luthor, deciding to sell the paper, began taking bids for the Planet, Perry White convinced an international conglomerate, TransNational Enterprises, to buy the paper. They agreed to this venture with only one stipulation: that Perry White would become editor-in-chief. White had served as the Planet editor-in-chief since, barring the few times he was absent. During those times people such as Sam Foswell and Clark Kent have looked after the paper. Franklin Stern, an old friend of White's, became the Daily Planet's publisher; the Planet saw its share of rough times during White's tenure. For example, it had many violent worker strikes.
The building itself, along with most of the city, was destroyed during the "Fall of Metropolis" storyline. The Planet building sustained heavy damages after the villain Doomsday's rampage. Franklin Stern decided to put the paper up for sale. Lex Luthor, disliking the heavy criticism of himself and his company that the Planet became noted for, purchased the Daily Planet and subsequently closed the paper down. Luthor fired every employee of the newspaper except for four people: Simone D'Neige, Dirk Armstrong, Jimmy Olsen, Lois Lane; as a final insult, Luthor saw to it that the Planet globe was unceremoniously dumped in the Metropolis landfill. In the Planet's place emerged "LexCom," a news-oriented Internet website that catered to Luthor's views of "quality journalism." After Lois Lane made a deal with Luthor where, in exchange for him returning the Planet to Perry, she would kill one story of his choosing with no questions asked, Luthor sold the Daily Planet to Perry White for the token sum of one dollar.
The paper was reinstated, rehiring all of its old staff. Sometime ownership of the Planet fell into the hands
United Nations General Assembly
The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, the main deliberative, policy-making, representative organ of the UN. Its powers are to oversee the budget of the UN, appoint the non-permanent members to the Security Council, appoint the Secretary-General of the United Nations, receive reports from other parts of the UN, make recommendations in the form of General Assembly Resolutions, it has established numerous subsidiary organs. The General Assembly meets under its president or secretary-general in annual sessions at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York City, the main part of which lasts from September to December and part of January until all issues are addressed, it can reconvene for special and emergency special sessions. Its composition, powers and procedures are set out in Chapter IV of the United Nations Charter; the first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
Voting in the General Assembly on certain important questions, recommendations on peace and security, budgetary concerns, the election, suspension or expulsion of members is by a two-thirds majority of those present and voting. Other questions are decided by a straightforward majority; each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, including adoption of a scale of assessment, Assembly resolutions are not binding on the members; the Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security under Security Council consideration. The one state, one vote power structure allows states comprising just five percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote. During the 1980s, the Assembly became a forum for the "North-South dialogue:" the discussion of issues between industrialized nations and developing countries; these issues came to the fore because of the phenomenal growth and changing makeup of the UN membership.
In 1945, the UN had 51 members. It now has 193; because of their numbers, developing countries are able to determine the agenda of the Assembly, the character of its debates, the nature of its decisions. For many developing countries, the UN is the source of much of their diplomatic influence and the principal outlet for their foreign relations initiatives. Although the resolutions passed by the General Assembly do not have the binding forces over the member nations, pursuant to its Uniting for Peace resolution of November 1950, the Assembly may take action if the Security Council fails to act, owing to the negative vote of a permanent member, in a case where there appears to be a threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression; the Assembly can consider the matter with a view to making recommendations to Members for collective measures to maintain or restore international peace and security. The first session of the UN General Assembly was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Methodist Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations.
The next few annual sessions were held in different cities: the second session in New York City, the third in Paris. It moved to the permanent Headquarters of the United Nations in New York City at the start of its seventh regular annual session, on 14 October 1952. In December 1988, in order to hear Yasser Arafat, the General Assembly organized its 29th session in the Palace of Nations, in Geneva, Switzerland. All 193 members of the United Nations are members of the General Assembly, with the addition of Holy See and Palestine as observer states. Further, the United Nations General Assembly may grant observer status to an international organization or entity, which entitles the entity to participate in the work of the United Nations General Assembly, though with limitations; the agenda for each session is planned up to seven months in advance and begins with the release of a preliminary list of items to be included in the provisional agenda. This is refined into a provisional agenda 60 days before the opening of the session.
After the session begins, the final agenda is adopted in a plenary meeting which allocates the work to the various Main Committees, who submit reports back to the Assembly for adoption by consensus or by vote. Items on the agenda are numbered. Regular plenary sessions of the General Assembly in recent years have been scheduled to be held over the course of just three months; the scheduled portions of the sessions commence on "the Tuesday of the third week in September, counting from the first week that contains at least one working day", per the UN Rules of Procedure. The last two of these Regular sessions were scheduled to recess three months afterwards in early December, but were resumed in January and extended until just before the beginning of the following sessions; the General Assembly votes on many resolutions brought forth by sponsoring states. These are statements symbolizing the sense of the international community about an array of world issues. Most General Assembly resolutions are not enforceable as a legal or practical matter, because the General Assembly lacks enforcement powers with respect to most issues.
The General Assembly has authority to make final decisions in some areas such
Margaret Ruth Kidder, professionally known as Margot Kidder, was a Canadian-American actress and activist whose career spanned over five decades. Her accolades include one Daytime Emmy Award. Though she appeared in an array of films and television, Kidder is most known for her performance as Lois Lane in the Superman film series, appearing in the first four films. Born in Yellowknife to a Canadian mother and an American father, Kidder was raised in the Northwest Territories as well as several other Canadian provinces, she began her acting career in the 1960s appearing in low-budget Canadian films and television series, before landing a lead role in Quackser Fortune Has a Cousin in the Bronx. She played twins in Brian De Palma's cult thriller Sisters, a sorority student in the slasher film Black Christmas and the titular character's girlfriend in the drama The Great Waldo Pepper, opposite Robert Redford. In 1977, she was cast as Lois Lane in Richard Donner's Superman, a role which established her as a mainstream actress.
Her performance as Kathy Lutz in the blockbuster horror film The Amityville Horror gained her further mainstream exposure, after which she went on to reprise her role as Lois Lane in Superman II, III, IV. The 1990s were marked by significant health problems for Kidder: In 1990, she sustained serious injuries in a car accident that left her temporarily paralyzed, she had a publicized manic episode and nervous breakdown in 1996 stemming from bipolar disorder. By the 2000s, she maintained steady work in independent films and television, with guest-starring roles on Smallville, Brothers & Sisters and The L Word, appeared in a 2002 Off-Broadway production of The Vagina Monologues. In 2015, she won a Daytime Emmy Award for her performance on the children's television series R. L. Stine's The Haunting Hour. In 2005, Kidder became a naturalized U. S. citizen. She was an outspoken political and anti-war activist, continued to participate in political and activist causes through the end of her life. Kidder died on May 13, 2018 at her home in Livingston, aged 69, in what was ruled a suicide by alcohol and drug overdose.
Margaret Ruth Kidder, one of five children, was born on October 17, 1948, in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, the daughter of Jocelyn Mary "Jill", a history teacher, Kendall Kidder, an explosives expert and engineer. Her mother was Canadian, from British Columbia, while her father was an American from New Mexico, she was of English descent. She had one sister, a Canadian actress and executive director of the People for Education charity, three brothers: John and Peter. Kidder's niece Janet Kidder is an actress. Kidder was born in Yellowknife because of her father's employment, which required the family to live in remote locations, her father subsequently served as the manager of the Yellowknife Telephone Company from 1948–1951. Recalling her childhood in northern Canada, Kidder said: "We didn't have movies in this little mining town; when I was 12 my mom took me to New York and I saw Bye Bye Birdie, with people singing and dancing, and, it. I knew. I was clueless, but I okay." In addition to Yellowknife, she spent some time growing up in Labrador City and Labrador.
Kidder became interested in politics from a young age, which she credited to debates her parents would have over the dinner table during her childhood. Kidder suffered with mental health issues from a young age, which stemmed from undiagnosed bipolar disorder. "I knew I was different, had these mind flights that other people didn’t seem to have," she recalled. At age 14, she attempted suicide by swallowing a bottle of codeine capsules after her then-boyfriend broke up with her. Kidder found an outlet in acting as she felt she could "let my real self out… and no one would know it was me." "Nobody encouraged me to be an actress," she recalled. "It was taken as a joke... As a teenager, I envisioned myself in every book. I wanted to be Thomas Wolfe. I wanted to eat everything on the world’s platter, but my eyes were bigger than my stomach." She attended multiple schools during her youth through her family's relocations graduating from Havergal College, a boarding school in Toronto, in 1966. After graduating from Havergal, Kidder relocated to Vancouver to attend the University of British Columbia, but dropped out after one year.
She returned to Toronto. Kidder made her film debut in a 49-minute film titled The Best Damn Fiddler from Calabogie to Kaladar, a drama set in a Canadian logging community, produced by the Challenge for Change. Kidder's 1969 appearance in the episode "Does Anybody Here Know Denny?" on the Canadian drama series Corwin earned her a Canadian Film Award for "outstanding new talent."Kidder's first major feature was the 1969 American film Gaily, Gaily, a period comedy starring Beau Bridges, in which she portrayed a prostitute. She subsequently appeared in a number of TV drama series for the CBC, including guest appearances on Wojeck, Adventures in Rainbow Country, a semi-regular role as a young reporter on McQueen, as a panelist on Mantrap which featured discussions centered on a feminist perspective. During the 1971–72 season, she co-starred as barmaid Ruth in Nichols, a James Garner-led western, which aired 22 episodes on NBC. During an August 3, 1970 interview on The Dick Cavett Show, Kidder stated that she was ambivalent t
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta