White Dwarf (magazine)
White Dwarf is a magazine published by British games manufacturer Games Workshop, which has long served as a promotions and advertising platform for Games Workshop and Citadel Miniatures products. During the first ten years of its publication, it covered a wide variety of fantasy and science-fiction role-playing games and board games the role playing games Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, RuneQuest and Traveller; these games were all distributed by Games Workshop stores. The magazine underwent a major change in content in the late 1980s, it is now dedicated to the miniature wargames produced by Games Workshop. Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone produced a newsletter called Owl and Weasel, which ran for twenty-five issues from February 1975 before it evolved into White Dwarf. Scheduled for May/June 1977, White Dwarf was first published one month later; the magazine had a bimonthly schedule, with an initial print run of 4,000. White Dwarf continued the fantasy and science fiction role-playing and board-gaming theme developed in Owl and Weasel.
Due to the increase in available space, there was an opportunity to produce reviews and scenarios to a greater depth than had been possible in Owl and Weasel. During the early 1980s the magazine focused in the'big three' role playing games of the time: AD&D, RuneQuest and Traveller. In addition to this a generation of writers passed through its offices and onto other RPG projects in the next decade, such as Phil Masters and Marcus L. Rowland. One huge attraction of the magazine was its incorporation of mini-game scenarios, capable of completion in a single night's play, rather than the mega-marathon games typical of the off the shelf campaigns; this would be in the form of an attractive and interesting single task for either existing or new characters to resolve. These could either be slipped into existing campaign plots, or be used stand-alone, just for a fun evening, were grasped by those familiar with RPG rules. During this period the magazine included lots of features such as the satirical comic strip Thrud the Barbarian and Dave Langford's "Critical Mass" book review column, as well as a comical advertising series "The Androx Diaries", always had cameos and full scenarios for a broad selection of the most popular games of the time, as well as a more rough and informal editorial style.
In the mid-late 1980s, there was a repositioning from being a general periodical covering all aspects and publishers within the hobby niche to a focus exclusively on Games Workshop's own products and publications. The last Dungeons and Dragons article appeared in issue 93, with the changeover being complete by issue #102. In this respect it took over some of the aspects of the Citadel Journal, an intermittent publication that supported the Warhammer Fantasy Battle game; the magazine has always been a conduit for new rules and ideas for GW games as well as a means to showcase developments. It includes scenarios, hobby news, photos of released miniatures and tips on building terrain and constructing or converting miniatures. Grombrindal the White Dwarf is a special character for the Dwarf army, whose rules are published only in certain issues of White Dwarf, it is never stated who the White Dwarf is, but it is implied that he is the spirit of Snorri Whitebeard, the last king of the Dwarfs to receive respect from an Elf.
The image of the White Dwarf has graced the covers of many issues of the magazine. The image was used on the character sheet for the Dwarf character in HeroQuest. In December 2004, White Dwarf published its 300th issue. In the United Kingdom and North America; each issue contained many special "freebies" as well as articles on the history of the magazine and the founding of Games Workshop. The monthly battle reports are a regular feature. Battle reports detail a battle between two or more forces with their own specific victory conditions; the reports follow the gamers through their army selection and deployment, through the battle to their respective conclusions. The format varies - ranging from a simplified, generalized style to a more detailed and visual style; the page count of the US and UK publications was different with substantial differences in actual amount of content and each magazine had substantial overlap with the other as well as unique articles. In June 2010 Andrew Kenrick replaced Mark Latham as editor.
Andrew had been sub-editor, as well as sub-editing other Games Workshop material such as the most recent edition of Codex: Space Marines. As of the October 2012 issue, White Dwarf has been redesigned with a new 9 member production staff with Matthew Hutson, Kris Shield and Andrew Kenrick continuing from the previous version and 6 new members including Jes Bickham as the new editor. Jes has edited the Battle Games in Middle-earth magazine. On 1 February 2014, White Dwarf moved to a weekly release; the final monthly issue of White Dwarf was issue #409 released in January. Warhammer Visions, a new monthly title produced by the same team was launched at the same time, in a format favoring the imagery over the text. In 2016 however, White Dwarf returned to its original format, increasing in size to make up for the three fewer issues per month, the death of Warhammer Visions. In the early 1980s, mail-order subscriber copies of White Dwarf received a small companion magazine Black Sun edited by Steve Williams, with
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
RuneQuest is a fantasy role-playing game first published in 1978 by Chaosium, created by Steve Perrin and set in Greg Stafford's mythical world of Glorantha. RuneQuest is notable for its system, designed around percentile dice and with an early implementation of skill rules, which became the basis of numerous other games. There have been several editions of the game. In 1975, game designer Greg Stafford released the fantasy board game White Bear and Red Moon and marketed by Chaosium, a game publishing company set up by Stafford for the release of the game. In 1978, Chaosium published the first edition of RuneQuest, a role playing game set in the world of Glorantha from White Bear and Red Moon. A second edition, with various minor revisions, was released in 1980. RuneQuest established itself as the second most popular fantasy role-playing game, after Dungeons & Dragons. In order to increase distribution and marketing of the game, Chaosium made a deal with Avalon Hill, who published a third edition in 1984.
Under the agreement struck, Avalon Hill took ownership of trademark for RuneQuest, while all Glorantha-related content required approval by Chaosium, who retained the copyright of the rules text. In an attempt to have a setting they could release Avalon Hill supported a new "default" setting, Fantasy Earth, based on fantasy interpretations of several eras of earth's pre-modern history, including viking and ninja supplements. Avalon Hill published generic fantasy material. A proposed fourth edition developed by Avalon Hill, titled RuneQuest: Adventures in Glorantha, was intended to return the tight RuneQuest/Glorantha relationship, but it was shelved mid-project in 1994 after Stafford refused permission, unhappy with Avalon Hill's stewardship of the third edition. In response, Avalon Hill, as owners of the trademark, began development of a mechanically unrelated game titled RuneQuest: Slayers. However, when Avalon Hill was acquired by Hasbro in 1998, the project was canceled despite being near completion.
The copyrights to the rules reverted to the authors. In 1998, Following the financial failure of the collectible card game Mythos, along with fellow shareholder Sandy Petersen, left the management of Chaosium. Stafford had formed a subsidiary company, Inc. to manage the Glorantha property and took ownership of that company with him. He partnered with Robin D. Laws to publish an all-new game system set in Glorantha called Hero Wars in 2000, it was renamed HeroQuest in 2003 after the rights to that name, along with the "RuneQuest" trademark, were acquired from Hasbro by Issaries. Mongoose Publishing released a new edition of RuneQuest in August 2006 under a license from Issaries; this required that Mongoose recreate much of the function of prior editions without reusing the prior texts. The new rules were developed by a team led by Mongoose co-founder Matthew Sprange, were released under the Open Game License; the official setting takes place during the Second Age of Glorantha. In January 2010, Mongoose published a much-revised edition written by Pete Nash and Lawrence Whitaker called RuneQuest II, known as "MRQ2" by fans.
In May 2011, Mongoose Publishing announced. In July 2011, The Design Mechanism, a company formed by Nash and Whitaker, announced that they had entered a licensing agreement with Issaries, would be producing a 6th edition of RuneQuest. RuneQuest 6th edition, released in July 2012, is an expansion of the Mongoose RuneQuest II rules aimed at providing rules that can be adapted to many fantasy or historical settings, do not contain any Gloranthan content. In 2013, Stafford outright sold the Glorantha setting and RuneQuest and HeroQuest trademarks to Moon Design Publications, which had published the second edition of HeroQuest under license in 2009. In June 2015, following a series of financial issues at Chaosium and Petersen retook control of the company, they in turn arranged a merger with Moon Design, which saw the Moon Design management team take over Chaosium. Shortly thereafter a new edition of RuneQuest, subtitled Roleplaying in Glorantha was announced, it is planned to be based on the 2nd edition, drawing upon ideas from editions.
They successfully raised funds through Kickstarter to produce a hardcover reprint of the 2nd edition as RuneQuest Classic. The new edition of the game referred to as RQG for short, was previewed on Free RPG Day 2017 with the release of a quickstart module; the PDF of the full rules was released in May 2018, with the printed book to follow that year. As with most RPGs, players begin by making a player character. Player characters are devised through a number of dice rolls to represent physical and spiritual characteristics. Characters in RuneQuest gain power as they are used in play, but not to the degree that characters do in other fantasy RPGs, it is still possible for a weak character to slay a strong one through luck, tactics, or careful planning. Both combat and non-combat actions use a percentile roll-under system to determine success of actions; the game features mechanics for critical hits and fumbling. For example, if a character has climbing at 35% and his player rolls 25 on a D100, the character has succeeded.
However, a nuanced range of results existed in every die roll. If a die roll was 1/5 of the necessary percentile roll or less, it was a special success, if it was 1/20 of the necessary roll or less i
Games Workshop Group PLC is a British miniature wargaming manufacturing company based in Nottingham, England. Games Workshop is best known as developer and publisher of the tabletop wargames Warhammer Age of Sigmar, Warhammer 40,000, The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game and The Hobbit Strategy Battle Game, it is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Founded in 1975 at 15 Bolingbroke Road, London by John Peake, Ian Livingstone, Steve Jackson, Games Workshop was a manufacturer of wooden boards for games including backgammon, Nine Men's Morris, Go, it became an importer of the U. S. role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons, a publisher of wargames and role-playing games in its own right, expanding from a bedroom mail-order company in the process. In order to promote their business and postal games, create a games club, provide an alternative source for games news, the newsletter Owl and Weasel was founded in February 1975; this was superseded in June 1977 by White Dwarf. From the outset, there was a clear, stated interest in print regarding "progressive games", including computer gaming, which led to the departure of traditionalist John Peake in early 1976 and the loss of the company's main source of income.
However, having obtained official distribution rights to Dungeons & Dragons and other TSR products in the U. K. and maintaining a high profile by running games conventions, the business grew rapidly. It opened its first retail shop in April 1978. In early 1979 Games Workshop provided the funding to found Citadel Miniatures in Newark-on-Trent. Citadel would produce the metal miniatures used in its role-playing games and tabletop wargames; the "Citadel" name became synonymous with Games Workshop Miniatures, continues to be a trademarked brand name used in association with them long after the Citadel company was absorbed into Games Workshop. For a time Gary Gygax promoted the idea of TSR, Inc. merging with Games Workshop, until Steve Jackson and Ian Livingstone backed out. The company's publishing arm released U. K. reprints of American RPGs such as Call of Cthulhu, Runequest and Middle-earth Role Playing, which were expensive to import. In 1984 Games Workshop ceased distributing its products in the U.
S. A. through hobby games opened its Games Workshop office. Games Workshop, Games Workshop in general, grew in the late 1980s, with over 250 employees on the payroll by 1990. Following a management buyout by Bryan Ansell in December 1991, Games Workshop refocused on their miniature wargames Warhammer Fantasy Battle and Warhammer 40,000, their most lucrative lines; the retail chain refocused on a younger, more family-oriented market. The change of direction was a great success and the company enjoyed growing profits, but the more commercial direction of the company made it lose some of its old fan base. A breakaway group of two company employees published Fantasy Warlord in competition with Games Workshop, but the new company met with little success and closed in 1993. Games Workshop expanded in Europe, the US, Australia, opening new branches and organising events in each new commercial territory; the company was floated on the London Stock Exchange in October 1994. In October 1997 all U. K.-based operations were relocated to the current headquarters in Nottingham.
By the end of the decade the company was having problems with falling profits, blame was placed on the growth in popularity of collectible card games such as Magic: The Gathering and Pokémon T. C. G.. Games Workshop attempted to create a dual approach to appeal to older customers while still attracting a younger audience. Most of their special characters and vehicles were cast in white metal or pewter, but by the 2000s most of them were replaced by plastics. With this shift, Games Workshop has been able to offer greater variety in the armies offered with introductory box sets; this change brought about the creation of "initiatives" such as the "Fanatic" range, supporting more marginal lines with a lower-cost trading model. Games Workshop contributed to designing and making games and puzzles for the popular television series The Crystal Maze; the release of Games Workshop's third "core" miniature wargame, The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game, in 2000 extended the company's product range. The company diversified by acquiring Sabretooth Games, creating the Black Library, working with THQ.
In late 2009 Games Workshop issued a succession of cease and desist orders against various Internet sites it accused of violating its intellectual property generating anger and disappointment from its fan community. On 16 May 2011, Maelstrom Games announced that Games Workshop had revised the terms and conditions of their trade agreement with independent stockists in the U. K; the new terms and conditions restricted the sale of all Games Workshop products to within the European Economic Area. On 16 June 2013, WarGameStore, a U. K.-based retailer of Games Workshop products since 2003, announced further changes to Games Workshop's trade agreement with U. K.-based independent stockists. Alongside the UK publishing rights to several American role-playing games in the 1980s Games Workshop a
Stephen R. Marsh
Stephen R. Marsh is an American game designer and lawyer best known for his contributions to early editions of TSR's Dungeons & Dragons fantasy tabletop role-playing game; some of the creatures he created for the original edition of D&D in 1975 have been included in every subsequent edition of the game. While attending high school in Mountain Home, Marsh began to play military boardgames, his interest led him to attempt to design what would now be called a roleplaying game based on his board games and using The Golden Bough as the basis for a magic system. However, he was unable to come up with a satisfactory system until he borrowed a copy of the published D&D rules from classmate Sandy Petersen. After reading the rules of this new game, Marsh began to correspond with D&D co-creator Gary Gygax. Marsh sent his own vision of an elemental plane of water to Gygax, who incorporated a number of the underwater creatures and magic items into Dave Arneson's Blackmoor supplement published in 1975, to expand on Arneson's swamp and oceanic content.
Marsh's material introduced several new and soon to be iconic aquatic creatures, including the sahuagin and Aquatic Elves. Marsh suggested a new character class, the mystic, that could teleport to various planes of existence via mental powers. Although the character class concept was not published, some of the mental abilities of the mystic were altered and published in the Eldritch Wizardry supplement the following year as the first psionic powers for D&D. Marsh was not paid for his creative contributions to either of these rules supplements. Marsh was credited with "Special Thanks" on the credits page "for Suggestions and Contributions". Marsh claimed that when Gary Gygax was developing Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, he convinced Gygax to add a Good and Evil axis to D&D's character alignment system. In 1977, most of Marsh's aquatic creature creations were converted to the new AD&D game system by Gary Gygax for use in the Monster Manual. All of these creatures have been incorporated into each subsequent edition of D&D.
After earning his B. A. from California State University-Los Angeles in 1979, Marsh enrolled in law school at Brigham Young University. During the 1980 summer break, he worked at TSR, where he was lead writer on the 1981 version of Dungeons & Dragons Expert Set, he reviewed and approved licensed Judges Guild products, helped create the minigame Saga, for which he received one royalty payment — the only time he received compensation for creative work other than his salary. Steve Marsh completed law school and was admitted to the bar in 1982, he continued to correspond with Gygax in the hopes of creating a hardcover book for which he would be paid royalties, he convinced Gygax that a rule book about travel to different planes would be worthwhile. Together and Gygax started to develop a new AD&D rulebook, The Planes of Existence, which Gygax mentioned in his column in the March 1980 issue of Dragon. A color cube illustrating how their planes would interface appeared in the May 1983 issue of Dragon.
However, just as the manuscript was being readied for a 1986 publication date, Gygax was forced out of TSR, all Gygax-related projects were shelved, the book was never published. In 2008, several unpublished Lovecraft-inspired monsters created by Marsh for his home campaign were published in Monsters of Myth, an e-book published by the First Edition Society, he attends North Texas RPG Con every year and has been demonstrating examples of plane related play each year. For 2015 those who played in his event were given a three hundred page convention module on the plane of shadows. In 2016 Marsh ran a reprise of City of the Revenant and the Planes of Ice. In 2017 ran 3 scenarios including the City of the Revenant, An OD&D scenario and one other. Marsh moved to Texas in 1985, he started blogging September 16, 1997. He founded ADR Resources, a dispute resolution web site that he still maintains. Compiled Q&A with Steve Marsh Unreleased AD&D Hardcover by Steve Marsh with Gary Gygax Stephen Marsh's RPG credits at RPGGeek Stephen Marsh's board game credits at BoardGameGeek Stephen Marsh's web page Gaming—Includes an explanation of why he had a hiatus as a game designer On the experience of burying three children in five years Stories and D&D related FRPG material Internal index
Ares was a science fiction wargame magazine published by Simulations Publications, Inc. and TSR, Inc. between 1980 and 1984. In addition to the articles, each issue contained a wargame, complete with a foldout stiff paper map, a set of cardboard counters, the rules. There were a total plus two special issues; the SPI company published the first eleven bimonthly issues before financial difficulties led to the company being bought out by TSR in 1982. A further six issues, published quarterly, were put out by TSR and publication of the magazine was ceased. However, the Ares legacy lived on for another couple of years; this special section provided support for science fantasy and superhero roleplaying games such as Gamma World, Marvel Super Heroes and Star Frontiers. The "Ares Section" ran through Dragon issue # 111. Jerry Epperson reviewed the first issue of Ares in The Space Gamer No. 28. Epperson commented that the first issue, its game WorldKiller "was a disappointment. It's uneven. Expect nothing but the best in serious science fiction writing here, nothing but the worst from the games."
Greg Costikyan's canonical listing of Ares issues A complementary listing of Ares issues Internet Archive holdings of Ares issues
Champions (role-playing game)
Champions is a role-playing game published by Hero Games designed to simulate and function in a four-color superhero comic book world. It was created by George MacDonald and Steve Peterson in collaboration with Rob Bell, Bruce Harlick and Ray Greer; the latest edition of the game uses the sixth edition of the Hero System, as revised by Steve Long, was written by Aaron Allston. It was released in early 2010. Champions, first published in 1981, was inspired by Superhero: 2044 and The Fantasy Trip as one of the first published role-playing games in which character generation was based on a point-buy system instead of random dice rolls. A player decides what kind of character to play, designs the character using a set number of "character points," abbreviated as "CP." The limited number of character points defines how powerful the character will be. Points can be used in many ways: to increase personal characteristics, such as strength or intelligence; this point system was praised by reviewers for the balance it gave character generation over random dice rolls.
Players are required not only to design a hero's powers, but the hero's skills and other traits. Thus, Champions characters are built with friends and weaknesses, along with powers and abilities with varying scales of character point value for each; this design approach intends to make all the facets of Champions characters balanced in relation to each other regardless of the specific abilities and character features. Characters are rewarded with more character points after each adventure, which are used to buy more abilities, or eliminate disadvantages. Players can design custom superpowers using the Champions rules system. Rather than offering a menu of specific powers, Champions powers are defined by their effects; the Champions rulebook includes rules governing many different types of generic powers which can be modified to fit the players idea. This allows players to simulate situations found in superhero stories. Like most comic book heroes and villains are knocked out of the fight but killed.
There are special rules for throwing heavy objects like aircraft carriers. See also: List of Hero System Products The Champions system was adapted to a fantasy genre under the title Fantasy Hero, with similar advantages and disadvantages to the original Champions game. In 1984, the rules for Champions began being adapted into generic role-playing game system called the Hero System, although no formal and separate generic release of this as a standalone system would occur until 1990. Champions now exists as a genre sourcebook for the Hero System. Books for other genres have appeared over the years, including Star Hero, Dark Champions, Pulp Hero, Ninja Hero. Much of the game is set in Millennium City. After its destruction by Dr. Destroyer, Detroit was rebuilt using the newest technologies and renamed. Starting in June 1986, a comic mini-series was published by Eclipse Comics based on characters from the first Champions campaign. After the initial mini-series a regular series was published by Hero Comics.
Like the Villains and Vigilantes comic mini-series, the early issues printed character sheets which allowed readers to incorporate characters used in the comic books in their own Champions campaigns. Heroic Publishing still prints comics about some of the characters in 2007, although they have long since parted ways with the makers of the game. A massively multiplayer online role-playing game based on the license was announced by Cryptic Studios, who had developed the popular City of Heroes and reinvented Marvel Universe Online to Marvel Heroes; the game was released in September 2009. The game takes place in the established Champions universe and features classic Champions heroes and villains as NPCs. Aaron Allston reviewed Champions in The Space Gamer No. 43. Allston commented that "If the subject matter interests you, I'd wholeheartedly recommend this product."Russell Grant Collins reviewed the revised edition of Champions in Space Gamer No. 65. Collins commented that "Should you buy this material?
I think so. If you hated the original Champions rules for more than their slight omissions and loopholes, don't bother; the changes aren't all that significant. If you're happy with the old version, weigh your decision carefully."Allen Varney reviewed the third edition of Champions in Space Gamer No. 73. Varney commented; the UK magazine's editor Paul Pettengale commented: "It wasn't the first superhero RPG and it never had licensed links to any big-name comics - but it's still the classic of the genre. It popularised the now-commonplace'points-design' approach to character creation, but once you've learned how to use it, no other game catches the feeling of superhero action in quite the same way."Game designer Bil