Bruce MacLeish Dern is an American actor playing supporting villainous characters of unstable nature. He was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Coming Home and the Academy Award for Best Actor for Nebraska, his other film appearances include The Cowboys, Family Plot, Black Sunday and The Hateful Eight. Dern was born in the son of Jean and John Dern, a utility chief and attorney, he grew up in Illinois. His paternal grandfather, was a Utah governor and Secretary of War. Dern's maternal grandfather was a chairman of the Carson and Scott stores, his maternal granduncle was poet Archibald MacLeish, his maternal great-grandfather was Scottish-born businessman Andrew MacLeish. Dern's godfather was Illinois governor and two-time presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson II, his ancestry includes Dutch, English and Scottish. He attended the University of Pennsylvania. Dern starred in the Philadelphia premiere of Waiting for Godot. Dern appeared in an uncredited role in Wild River as Jack Roper, so upset with his friend for hitting a woman that he punches himself.
He played the sailor in a few flashbacks with Marnie's mother in Alfred Hitchcock's Marnie. Dern played a murderous rustler in Clint Eastwood's Hang'Em High and a gunfighter in Support Your Local Sheriff!. He played cattle-thief Asa Watts, who murders John Wayne's character in The Cowboys. Wayne warned Dern, "America will hate you for this." Dern replied, "Yeah, but they'll love me in Berkeley." Having played a series of villains, that same year he played against type as a sensitive ecologist in the science-fiction film Silent Running. He played a psychotic Goodyear Blimp pilot who launches a terrorist attack at the Super Bowl in Black Sunday. Dern was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Coming Home. In 1983, he won the Silver Bear for Best Actor at the 33rd Berlin International Film Festival for That Championship Season. In 2013, Dern won the Best Actor Award at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival for Alexander Payne's Nebraska, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor.
Dern was married to Marie Dawn Pierce from 1957 to 1959. He married Diane Ladd in 1960, their first daughter, Diane Elizabeth Dern, died at eighteen months from head injuries after falling into a swimming pool on May 18, 1962. The couple's second daughter, Laura, is an actor. After his divorce from Ladd in 1969, Dern married Andrea Beckett. Dern and their daughter Laura received adjoining stars on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on November 1, 2010. Bruce Dern on IMDb Bruce Dern at the Internet Broadway Database Bruce Dern at the University of Wisconsin's Actors Studio audio collection Bruce Dern at AllMovie Cinema Retro's Evening with Bruce Dern at The Players, New York City
Kathleen Freeman was an American film, voice actress, stage actress. In a career that spanned more than 50 years, she portrayed acerbic maids, teachers, busybodies and battle-axe neighbors and relatives invariably to comic effect. Freeman was born in Illinois, she began her career as a child. After a stint studying music at University of California, Los Angeles, she went into acting full-time, working on the stage, entering films in 1948. In 1946, she was a founding member of the Circle Players at The Circle Theatre, now known as El Centro Theatre. Freeman was a Democrat. Freeman made her film debut in Wild Harvest. Freeman's most notable early role was an uncredited part in the 1952 musical Singin' in the Rain as Jean Hagen's diction coach Phoebe Dinsmore. Beginning with the 1954 film 3 Ring Circus, Freeman became a favorite foil of Jerry Lewis, playing opposite him in 11 films; these included most of Lewis's better known comedies, including The Disorderly Orderly as Nurse Higgins, The Errand Boy as the studio boss's wife, The Nutty Professor as Millie Lemon.
Over 30 years she made a brief appearance in Nutty Professor II: The Klumps. Other film roles included appearances in The Missouri Traveler, the horror film The Fly, the Western spoofs Support Your Local Sheriff! and Support Your Local Gunfighter, appearances in a spate of comedies in the 1980s and 1990s. Freeman played Sister Mary Stigmata in John Landis' The Blues Brothers and Blues Brothers 2000, had cameos in Joe Dante's Innerspace and Gremlins 2: The New Batch, a gangster mother in Naked Gun 33⅓: The Final Insult. In addition to teaching acting classes in Los Angeles, Freeman was a familiar presence on television. In 1958–59, she appeared three times on Buckskin, a children's program set in a hotel in a fictitious Montana town, she appeared from the 1950s until her death in regular or recurring roles on many sitcoms, including six episodes of The Bob Cummings Show and The Donna Reed Show. In 1964 she appeared in 5 episodes of The Lucy Show, she was cast on Hogan's Heroes as Frau Gertrude Linkmeyer, General Burkhalter's sister, who longed to wed Colonel Klink.
In 1973, she had a co-starring role with Dom DeLuise in the sitcom Lotsa Luck. She appeared in several episodes of Wagon Train, Funny Face, I Dream of Jeannie, the short-lived prehistoric sitcom It's About Time, as the voice of Peg Bundy's mom, an unseen character on Married... with Children. She played a female arm wrestler on Mama's Family, she starred with Phil Silvers in The Beverly Hillbillies in episodes 25 and 26 of season 8 and episodes 2 and 3 in season 9. She remained active in her last two years with a regular voice role on As Told by Ginger, a voice bit in the animated feature film Shrek, a guest appearance on the sitcom Becker and scoring a Tony Award nomination and a Theatre World Award for her role as Jeannette Burmeister in the musical version of The Full Monty. In her final episode of As Told by Ginger, Season 2's "No Hope for Courtney", Freeman's character retires from her teaching job although Carl and Hoodsey try convincing her to return to work; the script was written to have Mrs. Gordon return to Lucky Elementary School but Freeman died before the episode was finished.
The script was re-written, Mrs. Gordon died as well; the episode was dedicated in Freeman's memory. The dedication came at the end of the episode after the announcement that Elaine Gordon had died and Carl was crying; the screen faded to black and "In Memory of Kathleen Freeman" was shown. Weakened by illness, Freeman was forced to leave the Full Monty cast. Five days she died of lung cancer at age 82 at Lenox Hill Hospital, she was cremated and her ashes interred in a niche at Hollywood Forever Cemetery. She never had no children. British reports of her death included Helen Ramsey, her long-time companion, but U. S. obituaries did not. Kathleen Freeman on IMDb Kathleen Freeman at the Internet Broadway Database Kathleen Freeman Remembered, lucyfan.com. Interview with Kathleen Freeman, TonyAwards.com.
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies is an American movie-oriented pay-TV network operated by Warner Bros. Entertainment, a subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia. Launched in 1994, TCM is headquartered at Turner's Techwood broadcasting campus in the Midtown business district of Atlanta, Georgia; the channel's programming consisted of classic theatrically released feature films from the Turner Entertainment film library – which comprises films from Warner Bros. and Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. However, TCM licenses films from other studios, shows more recent films; the channel is available in the United States, the United Kingdom, Malta, Latin America, Italy, Cyprus, the Nordic countries, the Middle East and Asia-Pacific. In 1986, eight years before the launch of Turner Classic Movies, Ted Turner acquired the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film studio for $1.5 billion. Concerns over Turner Entertainment's corporate debt load resulted in Turner selling the studio that October back to Kirk Kerkorian, from whom Turner had purchased the studio less than a year before.
As part of the deal, Turner Entertainment retained ownership of MGM's library of films released up to May 9, 1986. Turner Broadcasting System was split into two companies; the film library of Turner Entertainment would serve as the base form of programming for TCM upon the network's launch. Before the creation of Turner Classic Movies, films from Turner's library of movies aired on the Turner Broadcasting System's advertiser-supported cable network TNT – along with colorized versions of black-and-white classics such as The Maltese Falcon. Turner Classic Movies debuted on April 14, 1994, at 6 p.m. Eastern Time, with Ted Turner launching the channel at a ceremony in New York City's Times Square district; the date and time were chosen for their historical significance as "the exact centennial anniversary of the first public movie showing in New York City". The first movie broadcast on TCM was the 1939 film Gone with the Wind, the same film that served as the debut broadcast of its sister channel TNT six years earlier in October 1988.
At the time of its launch, TCM was available to one million cable television subscribers. The network served as a competitor to AMC—which at the time was known as "American Movie Classics" and maintained a identical format to TCM, as both networks focused on films released prior to 1970 and aired them in an uncut and commercial-free format. AMC had broadened its film content to feature colorized and more recent films by 2002. In 1996, Turner Broadcasting System merged with Time Warner which, besides placing Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment under the same corporate umbrella gave TCM access to Warner Bros.' Library of films released after 1950. In the early 2000s, AMC abandoned its commercial-free format, which led to TCM being the only movie-oriented basic cable channel to devote its programming to classic films without commercial interruption or content editing. On March 4, 2019, Time Warner's new owner AT&T announced a planned reorganization that would dissolve Turner Broadcasting.
TCM, along with Cartoon Network, Adult Swim, over-the-top video company Otter Media, will be moved directly under Warner Bros.. Speaking about the move, then-Warner Bros. CEO Kevin Tsujihara explained that TCM was "a natural fit with Warner Bros." due the company's massive film library. In 2000, TCM started the annual Young Composers Film Competition, inviting aspiring composers to participate in a judged competition that offers the winner of each year's competition the opportunity to score a restored, feature-length silent film as a grand prize, mentored by a well-known composer, with the new work subsequently premiering on the network; as of 2006, films that have been rescored include the 1921 Rudolph Valentino film Camille, two Lon Chaney films: 1921's The Ace of Hearts and 1928's Laugh, Clown and Greta Garbo's 1926 film The Temptress. In April 2010, Turner Classic Movies held the first TCM Classic Film Festival, an event—now held annually—at the Grauman's Chinese Theater and the Grauman's Egyptian Theater in Hollywood.
Hosted by Robert Osborne, the four-day long annual festival celebrates Hollywood and its movies, featured celebrity appearances, special events, screenings of around 50 classic movies including several newly restored by The Film Foundation, an organization devoted to preserving Hollywood's classic film legacy. Turner Classic Movies operates as a commercial-free service, with the only advertisements on the network being shown between features – which advertise TCM products, network promotions for upcoming special programs and the original trailers for films that are scheduled to be broadcast on TCM, featurettes about classic film actors and actresses. In addition to this, extended breaks between features are filled with theatrically released movie trailers and classic short subjects – from series such as The Passing Parade, Crime Does Not Pay, Pete Smith Specialties, Robert Benchley – under the banner name TCM Extras (formerly On
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys services; the measure of inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index the consumer price index, over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation. Inflation affects economies in various negative ways; the negative effects of inflation include an increase in the opportunity cost of holding money, uncertainty over future inflation which may discourage investment and savings, if inflation were rapid enough, shortages of goods as consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include reducing unemployment due to nominal wage rigidity, allowing the central bank more leeway in carrying out monetary policy, encouraging loans and investment instead of money hoarding, avoiding the inefficiencies associated with deflation.
Economists believe that the high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth. Today, most economists favor a steady rate of inflation. Low inflation reduces the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more in a downturn, reduces the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy; the task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is given to monetary authorities. These monetary authorities are the central banks that control monetary policy through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, through the setting of banking reserve requirements.
Rapid increases in the quantity of money or in the overall money supply have occurred in many different societies throughout history, changing with different forms of money used. For instance, when gold was used as currency, the government could collect gold coins, melt them down, mix them with other metals such as silver, copper, or lead, reissue them at the same nominal value. By diluting the gold with other metals, the government could issue more coins without increasing the amount of gold used to make them; when the cost of each coin is lowered in this way, the government profits from an increase in seigniorage. This practice would increase the money supply but at the same time the relative value of each coin would be lowered; as the relative value of the coins becomes lower, consumers would need to give more coins in exchange for the same goods and services as before. These goods and services would experience a price increase. Song Dynasty China introduced the practice of printing paper money to create fiat currency.
During the Mongol Yuan Dynasty, the government spent a great deal of money fighting costly wars, reacted by printing more money, leading to inflation. Fearing the inflation that plagued the Yuan dynasty, the Ming Dynasty rejected the use of paper money, reverted to using copper coins. Large infusions of gold or silver into an economy led to inflation. From the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th, Western Europe experienced a major inflationary cycle referred to as the "price revolution", with prices on average rising sixfold over 150 years; this was caused by the sudden influx of gold and silver from the New World into Habsburg Spain. The silver spread throughout a cash-starved Europe and caused widespread inflation. Demographic factors contributed to upward pressure on prices, with European population growth after depopulation caused by the Black Death pandemic. By the nineteenth century, economists categorized three separate factors that cause a rise or fall in the price of goods: a change in the value or production costs of the good, a change in the price of money, a fluctuation in the commodity price of the metallic content in the currency, currency depreciation resulting from an increased supply of currency relative to the quantity of redeemable metal backing the currency.
Following the proliferation of private banknote currency printed during the American Civil War, the term "inflation" started to appear as a direct reference to the currency depreciation that occurred as the quantity of redeemable banknotes outstripped the quantity of metal available for their redemption. At that time, the term inflation referred to the devaluation of the currency, not to a rise in the price of goods; this relationship between the over-supply of banknotes and a resulting depreciation in their value was noted by earlier classical economists such as David Hume and David Ricardo, who would go on to examine and debate what effect a currency devaluation has on the price of goods. The adoption of fiat currency by many countries, from the 18th century onwards, made much larger variations in the supply of money possible. Rapid increases in the money supply have taken place a number of times in countries experiencing political crises, produ
In theatre, a monologue is a speech presented by a single character, most to express their mental thoughts aloud, though sometimes to directly address another character or the audience. Monologues are common across the range of dramatic media, as well as in non-dramatic media such as poetry. Monologues share much in common with several other literary devices including soliloquies and asides. There are, distinctions between each of these devices. Monologues are similar to poems and others, in that, they involve one'voice' speaking but there are differences between them. For example, a soliloquy involves a character relating his or her thoughts and feelings to him/herself and to the audience without addressing any of the other characters. A monologue is the thoughts of a person spoken out loud. Monologues are distinct from apostrophes, in which the speaker or writer addresses an imaginary person, inanimate object, or idea. Asides differ from each of these not only in length but in that asides are not heard by other characters in situations where they logically should be.
In ancient Greek theatre, the origin of western drama, the conventional three actor rule was preceded by a two-actor rule, itself preceded by a convention in which only a single actor would appear on stage, along with the chorus. The origin of the monologue as a dramatic device, therefore, is not rooted in dialogue, it is, the other way around. Ancient Roman theatre featured monologues extensively, more than either Ancient Greek theatre or modern theatre. One of the key purposes of these monologues was to indicate the passage of significant amounts of time within scenes; this type of monologue is referred to as a linking monologue. Other monologue types exit monologues. In each of these cases a primary function is indicating the passage of time. From Renaissance theatre onward, monologues focused on characters using the extended speech to pursue their dramatic need. Postmodern theatre, on the other hand embraces the performative aspects of the monologue to the point of challenging the boundary between character portrayal and autobiographical speeches.
Interior monologues involve a character externalizing their thoughts so that the audience can witness experiences that would otherwise be internal. In contrast, a dramatic monologue involves one character speaking to another character. Monologues can be divided along the lines of active and narrative monologues. In an active monologue a character is using their speech to achieve a clear goal. Narrative monologues involve a character telling a story and can be identified by the fact that they are in the past tense. Actors in theatre, sometimes in film and television, may be asked to deliver monologues in auditions. Audition monologues demonstrate an actor's ability to deliver a performance; these pieces are limited to two minutes or less and are paired with a contrasting monologue: comic and dramatic. The choice of monologues for an audition depends on the play or role. Dramatic monologue One-person show Oratory Performance poetry Rhetoric Stand-up comedy Storytelling Diseuse Spoken word To inspire people Monologue at Curlie
Walter Lawrence Burke was an American character actor, of stage and television of Irish descent. Cast as an Irishman or Englishman, his small stature, distinctive voice, face made him recognizable in the most minor of roles. Burke was born in the Brooklyn borough of New York City to Irish immigrant parents Thomas Burke and Bedelia McNamara Burke, he had two sisters. His father bred trotting horses, with one farm each in Scotland. Walter Burke began acting on stage as a teenager, making his Broadway debut in Dearest Enemy at the Knickerbocker Theatre during 1925–1926; the following year he performed in Padlocks of 1927 at the Shubert Theatre. He joined the American Opera Company's troupe in January 1928, performing a non-singing role in an English-language adaption of Faust, he continued with that company through January 1930, taking part in adaptions of Madame Butterfly and Yolanda of Cyprus at the Casino Theatre. He next appeared on Broadway with Help Yourself in 1936, over the next ten years appeared in as many plays.
Burke debuted in Hollywood films in 1948, with The Naked City, the following year had a memorable role in the Oscar-winning film All the King's Men. Burke would appear in twenty-two more films, three more Broadway productions, but both film and the stage would soon take a backseat to his television work. In 1951, Burke played a jockey in the early television series Martin Kane. From until 1980, he would appear in episodes of 103 different television series, as well as three made-for-television movies. Though never a series regular, he played different roles in multiple episodes of the same shows. In 1959–60, he appeared five times as Tim Potter in the ABC western series Black Saddle starring Peter Breck; that same season, he appeared on Andrew Duggan's Bourbon Street Beat and John Cassavetes's Johnny Staccato detective series. He portrayed defendant Freddie Green in CBS's Perry Mason in the 1959 episode, "The Case of the Jaded Joker," the first of five appearances in diverse roles. In 1960 he played prosecutor James Blackburn in "The Case of the Ominous Outcast."
Among his other roles he played a private detective. He guest starred as Hatfield in the 1961 episode "The Drought" of the syndicated western series Two Faces West. In the 1962–1963 season, he appeared on the CBS anthology series The Lloyd Bridges Show. In the 1965 -- 1966 season, Burke appeared on The Legend of Jesse James. Burke played a magician called "Zeno the Great" in a 1965 episode of Bewitched entitled "It's Magic". Burke appeared on an episode of Lost in Space, playing Mr. O. M. in "The Toymaker". He appeared in an episode of "Wild Wild West" as the mayor of a town under siege, in Hogan's Heroes as the master safe cracker Alfie the Artiste, in two episodes of "Bonanza", as Jesse in "Destiny's Child", as an unsuspecting witness in a trial. Burke split most of his life between Hollywood, where he worked, his farm in Monroe County, Pennsylvania. While back east, he would sometimes teach dramatics at a local college. On August 4, 1984, Burke died from emphysema while living at the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital in Woodland Hills, California.
Walter Burke on IMDb Walter Burke at the Internet Broadway Database Walter Burke at Find a Grave
Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American film studio based in Hollywood, a subsidiary of the American media conglomerate Viacom since 1994. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world, the second oldest in the United States, the sole member of the "Big Five" film studios still located in the Los Angeles neighborhood of Hollywood. In 1916, film producer Adolph Zukor put 22 actors and actresses under contract and honored each with a star on the logo. In 2014, Paramount Pictures became the first major Hollywood studio to distribute all of its films in digital form only; the company's headquarters and studios are located at 5555 Melrose Avenue, California, United States. Paramount Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. Paramount is the fifth oldest surviving film studio in the world after the French studios Gaumont Film Company and Pathé, followed by the Nordisk Film company, Universal Studios, it is the last major film studio still headquartered in the Hollywood district of Los Angeles.
Paramount Pictures dates its existence from the 1912 founding date of the Famous Players Film Company. Hungarian-born founder Adolph Zukor, an early investor in nickelodeons, saw that movies appealed to working-class immigrants. With partners Daniel Frohman and Charles Frohman he planned to offer feature-length films that would appeal to the middle class by featuring the leading theatrical players of the time. By mid-1913, Famous Players had completed five films, Zukor was on his way to success, its first film was Les Amours de la reine Élisabeth. That same year, another aspiring producer, Jesse L. Lasky, opened his Lasky Feature Play Company with money borrowed from his brother-in-law, Samuel Goldfish known as Samuel Goldwyn; the Lasky company hired as their first employee a stage director with no film experience, Cecil B. DeMille, who would find a suitable site in Hollywood, near Los Angeles, for his first feature film, The Squaw Man. Starting in 1914, both Lasky and Famous Players released their films through a start-up company, Paramount Pictures Corporation, organized early that year by a Utah theatre owner, W. W. Hodkinson, who had bought and merged several smaller firms.
Hodkinson and actor, producer Hobart Bosworth had started production of a series of Jack London movies. Paramount was the first successful nationwide distributor. Famous Players and Lasky were owned while Paramount was a corporation. In 1916, Zukor maneuvered a three-way merger of his Famous Players, the Lasky Company, Paramount. Zukor and Lasky bought Hodkinson out of Paramount, merged the three companies into one; the new company Lasky and Zukor founded, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation, grew with Lasky and his partners Goldwyn and DeMille running the production side, Hiram Abrams in charge of distribution, Zukor making great plans. With only the exhibitor-owned First National as a rival, Famous Players-Lasky and its "Paramount Pictures" soon dominated the business; because Zukor believed in stars, he signed and developed many of the leading early stars, including Mary Pickford, Marguerite Clark, Pauline Frederick, Douglas Fairbanks, Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino, Wallace Reid. With so many important players, Paramount was able to introduce "block booking", which meant that an exhibitor who wanted a particular star's films had to buy a year's worth of other Paramount productions.
It was this system that gave Paramount a leading position in the 1920s and 1930s, but which led the government to pursue it on antitrust grounds for more than twenty years. The driving force behind Paramount's rise was Zukor. Through the teens and twenties, he built the Publix Theatres Corporation, a chain of nearly 2,000 screens, ran two production studios, became an early investor in radio, taking a 50% interest in the new Columbia Broadcasting System in 1928. In 1926, Zukor hired independent producer B. P. Schulberg, an unerring eye for new talent, to run the new West Coast operations, they purchased the Robert Brunton Studios, a 26-acre facility at 5451 Marathon Street for US$1 million. In 1927, Famous Players-Lasky took the name Paramount Famous Lasky Corporation. Three years because of the importance of the Publix Theatres, it became Paramount Publix Corporation. In 1928, Paramount began releasing Inkwell Imps, animated cartoons produced by Max and Dave Fleischer's Fleischer Studios in New York City.
The Fleischers, veterans in the animation industry, were among the few animation producers capable of challenging the prominence of Walt Disney. The Paramount newsreel series Paramount News ran from 1927 to 1957. Paramount was one of the first Hollywood studios to release what were known at that time as "talkies", in 1929, released their first musical, Innocents of Paris. Richard A. Whiting and Leo Robin composed the score for the film. By acquiring the successful Balaban & Katz chain in 1926, Zukor gained the services of Barney Balaban, his brother A. J. Balaban, their partner Sam Katz (who would run the Paramount-Publix theatre chain in New York City from the thirty-five-stor