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Suppression of the Society of Jesus

The suppression of the Jesuits was the government-initiated and Papal-approved removal of members of the Society of Jesus from most of the countries of Europe and their colonies beginning in 1759. In 1814, Pope Pius VII restored the Society where it had been and Jesuits began resuming their works in these countries, they had been expelled from the Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies, Parma, the Spanish Empire and Austria and Hungary. Analysis of the reasons is complicated by the political maneuvering in each country, not carried out in the open but has left some trail of evidence; the papacy reluctantly went along with the demands of the various Catholic kingdoms involved, advanced no theological reason for the suppression. The Suppression of the Society was due to the same causes which in further development brought about the French Revolution; these causes varied somewhat in different countries. In France, many influences combined, from Jansenism to Free-thought, to the prevalent impatience with the old order of things.

Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too allied to the papacy, too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated. By the brief Dominus ac Redemptor Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus, as a fait accompli; the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the United States allowed the Jesuits to continue their work, Catherine the Great allowed the founding of a new novitiate in Russia. Prior to the eighteenth-century suppression of the Jesuits in many countries, there was an early ban in territories of the Venetian Republic between 1606 and 1656/7, begun and ended as part of disputes between the Republic and the Papacy, beginning with the Venetian Interdict. By the mid-18th century, the Society had acquired a reputation in Europe for political maneuvering and economic success. Monarchs in many European states grew progressively wary of what they saw as undue interference from a foreign entity.

The expulsion of Jesuits from their states had the added benefit of allowing governments to impound the Society's accumulated wealth and possessions. However, historian Charles Gibson cautions, "ow far this served as a motive for the expulsion we do not know."Various states took advantage of different events in order to take action. The series of political struggles between various monarchs France and Portugal, began with disputes over territory in 1750 and culminated in suspension of diplomatic relations and dissolution of the Society by the Pope over most of Europe, some executions; the Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies and the Spanish Empire were involved to one degree or another. The conflicts began with trade disputes, in 1750 in Portugal, in 1755 in France, in the late 1750s in the Two Sicilies. In 1758 the government of Joseph I of Portugal took advantage of the waning powers of Pope Benedict XIV and deported Jesuits from South America after relocating the Jesuits and their native workers, fighting a brief conflict, formally suppressing the order in 1759.

In 1762 the Parlement Français, ruled against the Society in a huge bankruptcy case under pressure from a host of groups – from within the Church but secular notables and the king's mistress. Austria and the Two Sicilies suppressed the order by decree in 1767. There were long-standing tensions between the Portuguese crown and the Jesuits, which increased when the Count of Oeiras became the monarch's minister of state, culminating in the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1759; the Távora affair in 1758 could be considered a pretext for the expulsion and crown confiscation of Jesuit assets. According to historians James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, the Jesuits' "independence, wealth, control of education, ties to Rome made the Jesuits obvious targets for Pombal's brand of extreme regalism."Portugal's quarrel with the Jesuits began over an exchange of South American colonial territory with Spain. By a secret treaty of 1750, Portugal relinquished to Spain the contested Colonia del Sacramento at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata in exchange for the Seven Reductions of Paraguay, the autonomous Jesuit missions, nominal Spanish colonial territory.

The native Guaraní, who lived in the mission territories, were ordered to quit their country and settle across the Uruguay. Owing to the harsh conditions, the Guaraní rose in arms against the transfer, the so-called Guaraní War ensued, it was a disaster for the Guaraní. In Portugal a battle escalated with inflammatory pamphlets denouncing or defending the Jesuits who for over a century had protected the Guarani from enslavement through a network of Reductions, as depicted in The Mission; the Portuguese colonizers secured the expulsion of the Jesuits. On 1 April 1758, Pombal persuaded the aged Pope Benedict XIV to appoint the Portuguese Cardinal Saldanha to investigate allegations against the Jesuits. Benedict was skeptical as to the gravity of the alleged abuses, he ordered a "minute inquiry", but so as to safeguard the reputation of the Society, all serious matters were to be referred back to him. Benedict died the following month on May 3. On May 15 Saldanha, having received the papal brief only a fortnight before, declared that the Jesuits were guilty of having exercised "illicit and scandalous commerce," both in Portugal and in its colonies.

He had not visited Jesuit houses as ordered, pronounced on the issues which the pope had reserved to himself. Pombal implicated the Jesuits in the Távora affair, an attempted assassination of the king on 3 September 1758, on the grounds of their friendship with some of the supposed conspirators. On

Empresa de Ferrocarriles Ecuatorianos

The Ferrocarriles del Ecuador Empresa Publica is the national railway of Ecuador. The railway system was devised to connect the Pacific coast with the Andean highlands. After many decades of service the railway was damaged by heavy rainfall during the El Niño in 1997 and 1998 and from general neglect as the Pan-American Highway siphoned off passengers. In 2008 the president Rafael Correa named the railroad a "national cultural patrimony" and indicated that it would be restored; the government of Ecuador started to rehabilitate the railway and service was restored between Guayaquil and Quito by 2013. Tourist trains and railbuses are running from Quito via Cotopaxi national park to Latacunga, between Alausi to Sibambe, between El Tambo and Baños del Inca, between Duran and Yaguachi and between Ibarra and Salinas; the project of an Ecuadorian railway was started by President Gabriel García Moreno in 1861. The first section was opened between Durán and Milagro in 1873, Bucay was reached by 1888; the push into the Andes was made under President Eloy Alfaro who planned to link Quito in the highlands to Guayaquil on the coast of Ecuador.

For advice, Alfaro turned to Col. William Findlay Shunk, a well-known North American engineer who designed the New York El, who had mapped a route of the InterContinental Railway through Ecuador and Panama in 1892; the InterContinental Railway was never built. However, in 1897, Eloy Alfaro commissioned a contract with Archer Harman and a team of investors for the newly created New Jersey corporation, the Guayaquil and Quito Railway Company," or the G&Q, to rehabilitate and complete the railroad from Guayaquil to Quito. Archer Harman and his brother, Major John A. Harman were from Virginia. Together and John helped Alfaro to realize his dream of connecting disparate parts of Ecuador, break the hold of the Catholic Church, usher the 20th Century and modernity into Ecuador; the G&Q Rwy line was built between 1897 and 1908, when the line reached Quito amidst celebration that lasted for days, shortened the lengthy trip from Quito to Guayaquil to two days. The G&Q Rwy line evolved into the Southern Division of Empresa de Ferrocarriles Ecuatorianos.

The railway represents the largest infrastructure of the country with a total length of 965.5 kilometres. Its single track uses a gauge of 3 ft 6 in; the 446.7 kilometres Southern Division starts at the harbour of Guayaquil with a ferry to Duran and heads east into the Andean mountains where a more than 2.5 kilometres difference in altitude has to be overcome to reach Riobamba at 2,754 metres. A major gain in altitude is made at the Devil's Nose where the train shunts back and forth along the rocky promontory. From Riobamba the train heads north passing its highest point at Urbina an altitude of 3,609 metres to reach Quito at an altitude of 2,850 metres; the 373.4 kilometres Northern Division was completed in 1957. It connects Quito to the northern sea port of San Lorenzo over Primer Paso and Cachavi; the Cuenca line represents the 145.4 kilometres Subdivision Sur. It was constructed between 1915 and 1965; the railway used to be of general economic significance for many decades. Steam engines were obtained from the Baldwin Locomotive Works.

The last set of 2-8-0 steam engines were obtained in 1953. In 1957 the first Alstom diesel-electric engines were delivered engines were delivered in 1968, again in 1992; the last delivery consisted of Alstom AD24s BBB with the numbers 2401-9. Few steam and diesel engines are in numbers of availability conflict. A number of railbuses are part of EFE. Since the 1997/98 disruptions no continuous service has been conducted and further degradation has made the railway useless. Road services have taken over freight transportation in Ecuador. At the 2008 centennial only 10 percent of the railway was open. In 2008 the president Rafael Correa named the railroad a "national cultural patrimony" and indicated that it would be restored; the EFE was transformed in a public corporation: Ferrocarriles del Ecuador Empresa Publica The first section, reopened, was from Riobamba to Urbina, which now is only used for charter service. In 2009 a small section of the side branch to Cuenca from El Tambo to Baños del Inca was reopened.

In 2010 the Quito - Latacunga - Section restarted service after restoration. At the coast the section between Duran near Guayaquil and Yaguachi was reopened in 2010; the section Alausí - Sibambe which entails the switchback at the Devil's Nose was repaired by 2011. The section Riobamba - Alausí and the section Riobamba - Urbina - Ambato were restored in 2011. According to a contract the Spanish narrow gauge railway company FEVE three of the Alstoms AD24 BBB will be repaired in Spain. By 2013 the Guayaquil/Duran - Quito railway was open to the public. Guayaquil <> Quito. Elizabeth Harman Brainard and Katharine Robinson Brainard. Railroad in the Sky: the Guayaquil & Quito Railway in Ecuador 1897-1925. Publisher: Marion, MA: Atlantis Ltd. Partnership, 2003. ISBN 0-615-12411-9 ISBN 9780615124117 Marcelo Meneses-Jurado: Tren al Sol. Train to the Sun. Journey on Board the Most Difficult

Josete Miranda

José Antonio Miranda Boacho, known as Josete Miranda or Josete, is a Spanish-born Equatoguinean professional footballer who plays as a forward for Segunda División B club Getafe CF B and the Equatorial Guinea national team. He can operate as a central midfielder. Born in Getafe, Community of Madrid, Josete joined Getafe CF's youth setup in 2012, aged 14, after a stint at Real Madrid. In late January 2015 he was called up by manager Pablo Franco to the reserves, being included on the bench in a 4–3 home win against UD Las Palmas Atlético. On 8 February 2015, aged only 16, Josete made his senior debut, coming on as a late substitute in a 2–0 away win against UB Conquense for the Segunda División B championship. A son of an Equatoguinean mother, Josete was called up for Equatorial Guinea national team on 25 March 2015, he made his full international debut on the following day, coming on as a second-half substitute in a 0–2 friendly loss against Egypt. Josete scored the first goal in a 4–0 victory over South Sudan in 2017 Africa Cup of Nations qualifier.

As of 4 September 2016 As of 27 March 2017 Josete Miranda at BDFutbol Josete Miranda – FIFA competition record Getafe official profile Josete Miranda at Soccerway

Edward Mulcahy (politician)

Edward Mulcahy was an Irish-born Australian politician. Born in County Limerick, he was educated in Tasmania, he established a soft goods business in Hobart. In 1891 he was elected to the Tasmanian House of Assembly for West Hobart, serving until 1903, including a period from 1899-1903 when he was Minister for Lands and Works and Minister for Mines. In 1904, he was elected to the Australian Senate as a Protectionist Senator for Tasmania. Defeated as a Liberal in 1910, he returned to the House of Assembly as the member for Wilmot, serving as Minister for Lands and Works, Minister for Mines and Minister for Railways 1912-1914. In 1919, he left the Assembly and was appointed to the Senate as a Nationalist, filling the vacancy caused by Labor Senator James Long's resignation, he retired in 1919

All Saints' Church, Stand

All Saints' Church or Stand Church is an active Anglican parish church in Stand, Greater Manchester, England. It is in the deanery of Radcliffe and Prestwich, the archdeaconry of Bolton, the diocese of Manchester; the church is recorded in the National Heritage List for England as a designated Grade I-listed building. It was a Commissioners' church, having received a grant towards its construction from the Church Building Commission; the church is a tall building, standing on high ground, is constructed on a platform. Built between 1821 and 1826, All Saints' Church is one of the many Commissioners' churches built to celebrate the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815; the land on which the church and vicarage were built was given to the parish by the Earl of Derby. The architect Sir John Soane was invited to design the church to accommodate about 1,800 people, to cost no more than £12,000, he passed the commission to Charles Barry. This church was Barry's first commission, its design was similar to his design for Campfield.

Manchester. A grant of £13,812 was given towards its construction by the Church Building Commission; the foundation stone was laid on 3 August 1821, the church was consecrated by the Bishop of Chester on 8 September 1826. All Saints is constructed in millstone grit from the Pennines; the architectural style is described as "fanciful" Gothic. The plan of the church is rectangular in five bays, with a canted apse at the east end, a west porch and tower; the lowest stage of the tower forms the porch, entered through tall narrow pointed arches. The bell openings are pairs of lancets. Along the sides of the church are two tiers of windows; the tower and the body of the church have crocketed pinnacles. Inside the church are galleries on three sides carried on slender Perpendicular piers; the plaster ceilings are vaulted. The altar and pulpit date from 1921, the choir stalls and side screens date from 1937; the stained glass in the east window is by D. Evans of Shrewsbury. Elsewhere are windows by Lavers and Westlake, by A. L. Moore, the latter dating from 1921.

The monuments include one by Sievier dating from 1826 depicting a lady lying on a chaise longue. The original organ was situated in the west gallery, it was moved in 1880 to the north aisle. This organ was removed from the church in 1957, it was replaced by the present three manual organ made by Charles A. Smethurst; this organ was rebuilt in 1997 by Nicholson of Worcester. There is a ring of eight bells, all of which were cast in 1912 by Johnston. During the 1930s there was a twenty-year programme of adornment and refurnishing of the sanctuary and chancel, culminating in the installation of a new choir stall, organ screen and clergy desks in 1937. List of churches in Greater Manchester Grade I listed churches in Greater Manchester Listed buildings in Whitefield, Greater Manchester List of Commissioners' churches in Northeast and Northwest England Hartwell, Clare.

Wan Hai Lines

Wan Hai Lines was founded in 1965 in Taiwan as a shipping company, has become the 12th largest player in the container shipping industry, with a fleet of 72 vessels and a capacity of 180,000 TEUs. At the beginning, Wan Hai's business was on the log transportation among Taiwan and the Southeast Asia. In 1976, in order to respond to the rapid development of international trade in the Asia Pacific area and the trend of international transportation containerization, Wan Hai has entered the business of container vessel shipping. More Wan Hai expanded its Asia shipping network to services to US, South America and Middle East. In August 2017, it was announced a new weekly service to Cambodia from Taiwan regularly calling China and Thailand for loading and discharging cargo. In August 2018, it was announced an order for 20 new ships, of which 8 larger and 12 small feeder ships. List of companies of Taiwan Official website