George Alfred Joulwan is a retired United States Army general. He finished his military career as the Commander-in-Chief, United States European Command and Supreme Allied Commander in 1997. Over a military career spanning 36 years, General Joulwan fought in Vietnam, El Salvador; as the Supreme Allied Commander, he conducted over 20 operations in the Balkans and the Middle East. When the United States sent forces into Bosnia in the 1990s, General Joulwan played the leading role in troop deployment, earning praise by President Clinton upon Joulwan's retirement; as SACEUR, General Joulwan created a strategic policy for the United States military engagement in Africa, the first time in U. S. history. General Joulwan sits on the board of directors of Emergent BioSolutions, a biotechnology company, after a referral to the post by Allen Shofe, an executive at Emergent, his other post-military positions have included: President of a consulting firm. Notably, he appeared on Fox News Sunday a few weeks after September 11, 2001, with White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card and Senate Armed Forces Chairman Carl Levin to discuss his experience in war planning and the American military's planning with regards to Afghanistan.
George Joulwan earned his college degree at the United States Military Academy at West Point. At West Point, he played basketball, earning two varsity letters as a football lineman. In his career, General Joulwan earned a master's degree from Loyola University in political science. General Joulwan served from June 1966 to November 1967 and from June 1971 to January 1972 in Vietnam, he attended the Army War College, served on the Staff and Faculty until 1979. He commanded the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division, from June 1979 to September 1981, when he became Chief of Staff, 3rd Infantry Division, he served in various functions at the Pentagon from 1982 until June 1986, when he became the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, United States Army Europe and U. S. Seventh Army, Germany. In March 1988 he was given command of the 3rd Armored Division and in 1989 he became Commanding General, U. S. V Corps. From November 1990 until October 1993 he was Commander in Chief of United States Southern Command.
He served as the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe from 1993 to 1997, when he was succeeded by General Wesley Clark. General Joulwan has served the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital as the Chair Emeritus of the Gourmet Gala Committee. A public park in Pottsville, Pennsylvania was named in his honor. General Joulwan had a twin brother, James Joseph Joulwan, who died in 2013. General Joulwan is of Lebanese heritage, he has eight grandchildren. Biography at United States Military Academy George Joulwan historical news archives at The New York Times Profile at Forbes The General George Joulwan East Side Park in Pottsville, Pennsylvania "The New NATO: Building Stability and Peace Through Cooperation" article by General Joulwan at the Center for Strategic Decision Research
Mons is a Walloon city and municipality, the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut. The Mons municipality includes the former communes of Cuesmes, Flénu, Hyon, Obourg, Ciply, Harveng, Havré, Maisières, Nouvelles, Saint-Denis, Saint-Symphorien and Villers-Saint-Ghislain. Together with the Czech city of Plzeň, Mons was the European Capital of Culture in 2015; the first signs of activity in the region of Mons are found at Spiennes, where some of the best flint tools in Europe were found dating from the Neolithic period. When Julius Caesar arrived in the region in the 1st century BC, the region was settled by the Nervii, a Belgian tribe. A castrum was built in Roman times. In the 7th century, Saint Ghislain and two of his disciples built an oratory or chapel dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul near the Mons hill, at a place called Ursidongus, now known as Saint-Ghislain. Soon after, Saint Waltrude, daughter of one of Clotaire II’s intendants, came to the oratory and was proclaimed a saint upon her death in 688.
She was canonized in 1039. Like Ath, its neighbour to the north-west, Mons was made a fortified city by Count Baldwin IV of Hainaut in the 12th century; the population grew trade flourished, several commercial buildings were erected near the Grand’Place. The 12th century saw the appearance of the first town halls; the city had 4,700 inhabitants by the end of the 13th century. Mons succeeded Valenciennes as the capital of the county of Hainaut in 1295 and grew to 8,900 inhabitants by the end of the 15th century. In the 1450s, Matheus de Layens took over the construction of the Saint Waltrude church from Jan Spijkens and restored the town hall. In 1515, Charles V took an oath in Mons as Count of Hainaut. In this period of its history, the city became the target of various occupations, starting in May 1572 with the Protestant takeover by Louis of Nassau, who had hoped to clear the way for the French Protestant leader Gaspard de Coligny to oppose Spanish rule. After the murder of de Coligny during the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, the Duke of Alba took control of Mons in September 1572 in the name of the Catholic King of Spain.
This spelled the arrest of many of its inhabitants. On 8 April 1691, after a nine-month siege, Louis XIV’s army stormed the city, which again suffered heavy casualties. From 1697 to 1701, Mons was alternately Austrian. After being under French control from 1701 to 1709, the Dutch army gained the upper hand in the Battle of Malplaquet. In 1715, Mons returned to Austria under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht, but the French did not give up easily. After the Battle of Jemappes, the Hainaut area was annexed to France and Mons became the capital of the Jemappes district. Following the fall of the First French Empire in 1814, King William I of the Netherlands fortified the city heavily. In 1830, Belgium gained its independence and the decision was made to dismantle fortified cities such as Mons and Namur; the actual removal of fortifications only happened in the 1860s, allowing the creation of large boulevards and other urban projects. The Industrial Revolution and coal mining made Mons a center of heavy industry, which influenced the culture and image of the Borinage region as a whole.
It was to become an integral part of the industrial backbone of Wallonia. On 17 April 1893, between Mons and Jemappes, seven strikers were killed by the civic guard at the end of the Belgian general strike of 1893; the proposed law on universal suffrage was approved the day after by the Belgian Parliament. This general strike was one of the first general strikes in an industrial country. On 23–24 August 1914, Mons was the location of the Battle of Mons—the first battle fought by the British Army in World War I; the British were forced to retreat with just over 1,600 casualties, the town remained occupied by the Germans until its liberation by the Canadian Corps during the final days of the war. Within the front entrance to the City hall, there are several memorial placards related to the WW1 battles and in particular, one has the inscription: During the Second World War, as an important industrial centre, the city was bombed and several skirmishes took place in September 1944 between the American troops and the retreating German forces.
After the war, most industries went into decline. NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe was relocated in Casteau, a village near Mons, from Roquencourt on the outskirts of Paris after France's withdrawal from the military structure of the alliance in 1967; the relocation of SHAPE to this particular region of Belgium was a political decision, based in large part on the depressed economic conditions of the area at the time with the view to bolstering the economy of the region. A riot in the prison of Mons took place in April 2006 after prisoner complaints concerning living conditions and treatment. Today, the city is commercial centre; the Doudou is the name of a week-long series of festivities or Ducasse, which originates from the 14th century and takes place every year on Trinity Sunday. Highlights include: The entrusting of the reliquary of Saint Waltrude to the mayor of the city on the eve of the proc
Unified combatant command
A unified combatant command is a United States Department of Defense command, composed of forces from at least two Military Departments and has a broad and continuing mission. These commands are established to provide effective command and control of U. S. military forces, regardless of branch of service, in peace and war. They are organized either on a geographical basis or on a functional basis, such as special operations, power projection, or transport. UCCs are "joint" commands with specific badges denoting their affiliation; the creation and organization of the unified combatant commands is mandated in Title 10, U. S. Code Sections 161–168; the Unified Command Plan establishes the missions, command responsibilities, geographic areas of responsibility of the unified combatant commands. As of May 2018, there are ten unified combatant commands. Six have regional responsibilities, four have functional responsibilities; each time the Unified Command Plan is updated, the organization of the combatant commands is reviewed for military efficiency and efficacy, as well as alignment with national policy.
Each unified command is led by a combatant commander, a four-star general or admiral. CCDRs exercise combatant command, a specific type of nontransferable command authority over assigned forces, regardless of branch of service, vested only in the CCDRs by federal law in 10 U. S. C. § 164. The chain of command for operational purposes goes from the President through the Secretary of Defense to the combatant commanders. Three geographic combatant commands have their headquarters located outside their geographic area of responsibility; the current system of unified commands in the U. S. military emerged during World War II with the establishment of geographic theaters of operation composed of forces from multiple service branches that reported to a single commander, supported by a joint staff. A unified command structure existed to coordinate British and U. S. military forces operating under the Combined Chiefs of Staff, composed of the British Chiefs of Staff Committee and the U. S. Joint Chiefs of Staff.
In the European Theater, Allied military forces fell under the command of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force. After SHAEF was dissolved at the end of the war, the American forces were unified under a single command, the US Forces, European Theater, commanded by General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower. Unified commands in the Pacific Theater proved more difficult to organize as neither General of the Army Douglas MacArthur nor Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz was willing to become subordinate to the other; the Joint Chiefs of Staff continued to advocate in favor of establishing permanent unified commands, President Harry S. Truman approved the first plan on 14 December 1946. Known as the "Outline Command Plan," it would become the first in a series of Unified Command Plans; the original "Outline Command Plan" of 1946 established seven unified commands: Far East Command, Pacific Command, Alaskan Command, Northeast Command, the U. S. Atlantic Fleet, Caribbean Command, European Command.
However, on 5 August 1947, the CNO recommended instead that CINCLANTFLT be established as a unified commander under the broader title of Commander in Chief, Atlantic. The Army and Air Force objected, CINCLANTFLT was activated as a unified command on 1 November 1947. A few days the CNO renewed his suggestion for the establishment of a unified Atlantic Command; this time his colleagues withdrew their objections, on 1 December 1947, the U. S. Atlantic Command was created under the Commander in Atlantic. Under the original plan, each of the unified commands operated with one of the service chiefs serving as an executive agent representing the Joint Chiefs of Staff; this arrangement was formalized on 21 April 1948 as part of a policy paper titled the "Function of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff". The responsibilities of the unified commands were further expanded on 7 September 1948 when the commanders' authority was extended to include the coordination of the administrative and logistical functions in addition to their combat responsibilities.
Far East Command and U. S. Northeast Command were disestablished under the Unified Command Plan of 1956–57. A 1958 "reorganization in National Command Authority relations with the joint commands" with a "direct channel" to unified commands such as Continental Air Defense Command was effected after President Dwight Eisenhower expressed concern about nuclear command and control. CONAD itself was disestablished in 1975. Although not part of the original plan, the Joint Chiefs of Staff created specified commands that had broad and continuing missions but were composed of forces from only one service. Examples include the U. S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean and the U. S. Air Force's Strategic Air Command. Like the unified commands, the specified commands reported directly to the JCS instead of their respective service chiefs; these commands have not existed since the Strategic Air Command was disestablished in 1992. The relevant section of federal law, remains unchanged, the President retains the power to establish a new specified command.
The Goldwater–Nichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 clarified and codified responsibilities that commanders-in-chief undertook, which were first given legal status in 1947. After that act, CINCs reported directly to the United States Secretary of Defense, through him to the President of the United St
Casteau is a village in Hainaut, in the Walloon region of Belgium. With the others villages Chaussée-Notre-Dame-Louvignies, Naast, Neufvilles and Thieusies, they compose the municipality of Soignies; the village is located between the towns of Soignies on the road Mons-Brussel. The river Aubrecheuil flows through the village. In the past, there were some watermills along the river. Postal code: 7061 Province: Hainaut Municipality: Soignies Denonym: Castellois Elevation: 63 to 115 m Area: 11,11 km² Time zone: UTC+1 The name Casteau comes from the Latin word castellum, meaning castle. Casteau was known in neolithic times. A Roman cemetery from the times of Marcus Aurelius has been discovered. 1678: French soldiers destroyed the village during the Battle of Saint-Denis against the Dutch army of William III of Orange. 1825: A part of the western plain became a military camp for the Dutch army until the Belgian Revolution in 1830. 1914: August 22, Captain Hornby was reputed to have become the first British soldier to kill a German soldier using his sword and Drummer Edward Thomas of C squadron, Royal Dragoon Guards was the first British soldier to fire a shot in the first skirmish between British and German troops of the First World War.
1940: German troops occupied the barracks until 1944. 1967: The SHAPE moved into the base. 1977: Casteau was merged with other villages to make the municipality of Soignies. The valley of the Obrecheuil is in the east of the village; this part of the valley is part of Natura 2000. The heart of the village is in the northwest higher part of the valley; the northwestern part of the village is a plain with dispersed farms with typical hedges. The village is the border between the plateau of Hainaut. Around the village, there are several woods and prairies; the ground is made of silts. Brewery and artisanal cheese called l'Augrenoise. Bus collection Official website Website of the brewery Augrenoise Website of bus collection
Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. was the United States Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan and the White House chief of staff under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. Prior to these cabinet-level positions, he retired as a general from the United States Army, having been Supreme Allied Commander Europe after serving as the vice chief of staff of the Army. Born in Bala Cynwyd, Haig served in the Korean War after graduating from the United States Military Academy. In the Korean War, he served as an aide to General Edward Almond. After the war, he served as an aide to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara. During the Vietnam War, Haig commanded a battalion and a brigade of the 1st Infantry Division. For his service, Haig was a recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross, the Silver Star with oak leaf cluster, the Purple Heart. In 1969 Haig became an assistant to National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger, he became vice chief of staff of the Army, the second-highest-ranking position in the Army, in 1972.
After the 1973 resignation of H. R. Haldeman, Haig became President Nixon's chief of staff. Serving in the wake of the Watergate scandal, he became influential in the final months of Nixon's tenure, played a role in persuading Nixon to resign in August 1974. Haig continued to serve as chief of staff for the first month of President Ford's tenure. From 1974 to 1979, Haig served as Supreme Allied Commander Europe, commanding all NATO forces in Europe, he pursued a career in business. After Reagan won the 1980 presidential election, he nominated Haig to be his secretary of state. After the attempted assassination of Ronald Reagan, Haig asserted "I am in control here," suggesting that he served as acting president in Reagan's and Bush's absence iterating that he meant that he was functionally in control of the government. During the Falklands War, Haig sought to broker peace between Argentina, he resigned from Reagan's cabinet in July 1982. After leaving office, he unsuccessfully sought the presidential nomination in the 1988 Republican primaries.
He served as the head of a consulting firm and hosted the television program World Business Review. Haig was born in Bala Cynwyd, the middle of three children of Alexander Meigs Haig Sr. a Republican lawyer of Scottish descent, his wife, Regina Anne. When Haig was 9, his father, aged 41, died of cancer, his Irish American mother raised her children in the Catholic faith. Haig attended Saint Joseph's Preparatory School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on scholarship. Unable to secure his desired appointment to the United States Military Academy, Haig studied at the University of Notre Dame for two years before securing a congressional appointment to the Academy in 1944 at the behest of his uncle, who served as the Philadelphia municipal government's director of public works. Enrolled in an accelerated wartime curriculum that deemphasized the humanities and social sciences, Haig graduated in the bottom third of his class in 1947. Although a West Point superintendent characterized Haig as "the last man in his class anyone expected to become the first general," other classmates acknowledged his "strong convictions and stronger ambitions."
Haig earned an M. B. A. from the Columbia Business School in 1955 and an M. A. in international relations from Georgetown University in 1961. His thesis for the latter degree examined the role of military officers in making national policy; as a young officer, Haig served as an aide to Lieutenant General Alonzo Patrick Fox, a deputy chief of staff to General Douglas MacArthur. In 1950 Haig married Patricia. In the early days of the Korean War, Haig was responsible for maintaining General MacArthur's situation map and briefing MacArthur each evening on the day's battlefield events. Haig served with the X Corps, as aide to MacArthur's chief of staff, General Edward Almond, who awarded Haig two Silver Stars and a Bronze Star with Valor device. Haig participated in four Korean War campaigns, including the Battle of Inchon, the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, the evacuation of Hŭngnam, as Almond's aide. Haig served as a staff officer in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations at the Pentagon, was appointed military assistant to Secretary of the Army Stephen Ailes in 1964.
He was appointed military assistant to Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, continuing in that service until the end of 1965. In 1966, Haig graduated from the United States Army War College. In 1966 Haig took command of a battalion of the 1st Infantry Division in Vietnam. On May 22, 1967, Lieutenant Colonel Haig was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the U. S. Army's second highest medal for valor, by General William Westmoreland as a result of his actions during the Battle of Ap Gu in March 1967. During the battle, Haig's troops became pinned down by a Viet Cong force that outnumbered U. S. forces by three to one. In an attempt to survey the battlefield, Haig flew to the point of contact, his helicopter was subsequently shot down. Two days of bloody hand-to-hand combat ensued. An exc
Alfred Maximilian Gruenther was a senior United States Army officer, Red Cross president, bridge player. At age fifty-three, he became the youngest four-star general in the U. S. Army's history, he succeeded General Matthew Ridgway as the Supreme Allied Commander in Europe serving from 1953 to 1956. Gruenther was born in Platte Center, the son of Mary "Mayme" Shea, a school teacher, Maximilian Gruenther, a newspaper editor who published the Platte Center Signal, he attended St. Thomas Academy in Minnesota. In June 1917, he entered the United States Military Academy at West Point and after studying for nineteen months, graduated early due to the wartime, on 1 November 1918, with a rank of fourth in a class of 277, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Field Artillery but after the Armistice he was recalled to West Point to complete his training, graduated a second time in June 1919. Until May 1935, when he was promoted to captain, he served various tours of duty including teaching mathematics and chemistry at West Point for eight years.
In September 1941, now a major, took part in the Army's Louisiana Maneuvers, the largest war exercises since World War I. Nearly 400,000 troops were involved, his performance was noticed by the Chief of Staff of the General Headquarters, United States Army, Lt. Gen. Lesley J. McNair. In October 1941, Gruenther was promoted to lieutenant colonel, became deputy chief of staff and chief of staff of the Third Army as a colonel under Lt. Gen. Walter Krueger, headquartered in San Antonio, Texas. Gruenther's immediate commanding officer was Dwight D. Eisenhower, the two became bridge partners. Being a bridge practitioner, Gruenther published several books on the subject, including Duplicate Contract Complete: A Guide to Playing in and Conducting All Duplicate Bridge Contests, served as a referee at bridge national tournaments. In 1931, he refereed the Culbertson-Lenz bridge championship in New York City, dubbed by the press as "The Bridge Battle of the Century". After the West Point superintendent received a complaint about a full-time officer spending nights at bridge tournament, he audited Gruenther's 8 a.m. class.
The Superintendent reported to his superiors that, "If I could be certain that being a bridge referee would have the same salutary effect on all the Military Academy's instructors as it has had on Lt. Gruenther, I would demand that they all become bridge referees in their spare time. I have never seen a finer chemistry instructor than Lt. Gruenther." Gruenther was considered the best bridge player in the U. S. Army, was Dwight D. Eisenhower's favorite partner. Eisenhower was playing bridge when, in 1948, President Truman telephoned him to ask him to take the post of head of NATO, in Paris. On returning to the table, he was asked. "Well, I ought to take Bedell Smith, but I think I'll take Gruenther because he's the better bridge player". He was an honorary member of the National Laws Commission of the American Contract Bridge League, he served as honorary president of the World Bridge Federation 1958-78. Gruenther was an adviser and planner to top generals in World War II, he possessed a strong power of analytical reasoning with capacity both to detail and overall perspective for which his colleagues called him the Brain.
In 1942, he was promoted to brigadier general and became a deputy chief of staff of Allied Force Headquarters in London under Gen. Eisenhower, who assigned him the Operation Torch development. A year he was promoted to major general and served as chief of staff of the Fifth Army, the 15th Army Group under Gen. Mark W. Clark. After the end of World War II in 1945, Gruenther served as deputy commander of U. S. forces in Austria. In 1946-1947, he was appointed deputy commandant of the established National War College. In 1947, he served as Director of the Joint Staff and Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1947-1949. In 1949, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and served as the U. S. Army's deputy chief of staff for operations. In 1951, Gruenther was promoted to four-star general and appointed as the Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe under Gen. Eisenhower, who became the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, he continued to serve under Gen. Matthew Ridgway and replaced him as SACEUR.
From 11 July 1953 to 20 November 1956, he was Supreme Allied Commander, Europe/Commander in Chief, U. S. European Command. On December 31, 1956, Gruenther retired from the Army. From January 1957 to March 1964, he was president of the American Red Cross; as head of the Red Cross, Gruenther visited and inspected disaster areas in the United States. He made frequent public appearances, captivating the audience with "easy manner and conversational style." He received several awards for International Red Cross related activities, which included visits to Russia and Poland. In the 1956 presidential campaign, Gruenther's name was placed on the list of possible candidates for the Republican nomination after Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955. After serving two terms, President Eisenhower considered Gruenther as a possible alternative to Richard Nixon for the Republican presidential nomination in 1960, suggested Gruenther as a potential vice-president for Nixon, but realized that Gruenther did not have the political base required to get either place on the ticket.
Gruenther served on the boards of Inc.. New York Life Insurance Company, Pan American World Airways, he served on the Draper Committee and several president
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries. The organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty, signed on 4 April 1949. NATO constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party. NATO's Headquarters are located in Haren, Belgium, while the headquarters of Allied Command Operations is near Mons, Belgium. Since its founding, the admission of new member states has increased the alliance from the original 12 countries to 29; the most recent member state to be added to NATO is Montenegro on 5 June 2017. NATO recognizes Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Ukraine as aspiring members. An additional 21 countries participate in NATO's Partnership for Peace program, with 15 other countries involved in institutionalized dialogue programs; the combined military spending of all NATO members constitutes over 70% of the global total.
Members have committed to reach or maintain defense spending of at least 2% of GDP by 2024. On 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack by Germany or the Soviet Union in the aftermath of World War II. In 1948, this alliance was expanded to include the Benelux countries, in the form of the Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organization, established by the Treaty of Brussels. Talks for a new military alliance which could include North America resulted in the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 by the member states of the Western Union plus the United States, Portugal, Norway and Iceland; the North Atlantic Treaty was dormant until the Korean War initiated the establishment of NATO to implement it, by means of an integrated military structure: This included the formation of Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe in 1951, which adopted the Western Union's military structures and plans.
In 1952 the post of Secretary General of NATO was established as the organization's chief civilian. That year saw the first major NATO maritime exercises, Exercise Mainbrace and the accession of Greece and Turkey to the organization. Following the London and Paris Conferences, West Germany was permitted to rearm militarily, as they joined NATO in May 1955, in turn a major factor in the creation of the Soviet-dominated Warsaw Pact, delineating the two opposing sides of the Cold War. Doubts over the strength of the relationship between the European states and the United States ebbed and flowed, along with doubts over the credibility of the NATO defense against a prospective Soviet invasion – doubts that led to the development of the independent French nuclear deterrent and the withdrawal of France from NATO's military structure in 1966. In 1982 the newly democratic Spain joined the alliance; the collapse of the Warsaw Pact in 1989–1991 removed the de facto main adversary of NATO and caused a strategic re-evaluation of NATO's purpose, nature and focus on the continent of Europe.
This shift started with the 1990 signing in Paris of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe between NATO and the Soviet Union, which mandated specific military reductions across the continent that continued after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991. At that time, European countries accounted for 34 percent of NATO's military spending. NATO began a gradual expansion to include newly autonomous Central and Eastern European nations, extended its activities into political and humanitarian situations that had not been NATO concerns. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in Germany in 1989, the organization conducted its first military interventions in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 and Yugoslavia in 1999 during the breakup of Yugoslavia. Politically, the organization sought better relations with former Warsaw Pact countries, most of which joined the alliance in 1999 and 2004. Article 5 of the North Atlantic treaty, requiring member states to come to the aid of any member state subject to an armed attack, was invoked for the first and only time after the September 11 attacks, after which troops were deployed to Afghanistan under the NATO-led ISAF.
The organization has operated a range of additional roles since including sending trainers to Iraq, assisting in counter-piracy operations and in 2011 enforcing a no-fly zone over Libya in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1973. The less potent Article 4, which invokes consultation among NATO members, has been invoked five times following incidents in the Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, annexation of Crimea; the first post-Cold War expansion of NATO came with German reunification on 3 October 1990, when the former East Germany became part of the Federal Republic of Germany and the alliance. As part of post-Cold War restructuring, NATO's military structure was cut back and reorganized, with new forces such as the Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps established; the changes brought about by the collapse of the Soviet Union on the military balance in Europe were recognized in the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, signed in 1999. The policies of French President Nicolas Sarkozy resulted in a major reform of France's military position, culminating with the return to full membership on 4 April 2009, which included France rejoining the NATO Military Command Structure, while maintaining an independent nuclear deterrent.
Between 1994 and 1997, wider forums for regional co