Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force was the headquarters of the Commander of Allied forces in north west Europe, from late 1943 until the end of World War II. U. S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower was the commander in SHAEF throughout its existence; the position itself shares a common lineage with Supreme Allied Commander Europe and Atlantic, but they are different titles. Eisenhower transferred from command of the Mediterranean Theater of Operations to command SHAEF, formed in Camp Griffiss, Bushy Park, London, from December 1943. Southwick House was used as an alternative headquarters near Portsmouth, its staff took the outline plan for Operation Overlord created by Lieutenant General Sir Frederick E. Morgan, Chief of Staff to the Supreme Allied Commander, Major General Ray Barker. Morgan, appointed chief of staff to the Supreme Allied Commander in mid-March 1943 began planning for the invasion of Europe before Eisenhower's appointment and moulded the plan into the final version, executed on 6 June 1944.
That process was shaped by Eisenhower and the land forces commander for the initial part of the invasion, General Sir Bernard Law Montgomery. SHAEF remained in the United Kingdom until sufficient forces were ashore to justify its transfer to France. At that point, Montgomery ceased to command all land forces but continued as Commander in Chief of the British 21st Army Group on the eastern wing of the Normandy bridgehead; the American 12th Army Group commanded by Lieutenant General Omar Bradley was created as the western wing of the bridgehead. As the breakout from Normandy took place, the Allies launched the invasion of southern France on 15 August 1944 with the American 6th Army Group under the command of Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers. During the invasion of southern France, the 6 AG was under the command of the Allied Forces Headquarters of the Mediterranean Theatre of Operations, but after one month command passed to SHAEF. By this time, the three Army Groups had taken up the positions on the Western Front in which they would remain until the end of the war—the British 21 AG to the North, the American 12 AG in the middle and the 6 AG to the South.
By December 1944, SHAEF had established itself in the Trianon Palace Hotel in France. In February 1945, it moved to Reims and, on 26 April 1945, SHAEF moved to Frankfurt. SHAEF commanded the largest number of formations committed to one operation on the Western Front, with American, French army of liberation and Canadian Army forces, it commanded all Allied airborne forces as an Airborne Army, as well as three Army Groups that controlled a total of eight field armies. Allied strategic bomber forces in the UK came under its command during Operation Neptune. After the surrender of Germany, SHAEF was dissolved on 14 July 1945. With respect to the U. S. forces, it was replaced by U. S. Forces, European Theater. USFET was reorganized as EUCOM on 15 March 1947; the 1948–1951 Western Union Defence Organization's command structure was patterned on SHAEF's structure. Starting in April 1951 when the North Atlantic Treaty Organization cannibalised WUDO, it was put under the command of Supreme Allied Commander Europe Dwight D. Eisenhower in Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, comprising many of the same allies that were part of SHAEF.
WUDO, followed by SHAPE, were in many respects the successors to SHAEF. SHAPE is the headquarters of NATO's Allied Command Operations. Since 1967 it has been located at Casteau, north of the Belgian city of Mons, but it had been located, from 1953, at Rocquencourt, next to Versailles, France. From 1951 to 2003, SHAPE was the headquarters of Allied Command Europe. Since 2003 it has been the headquarters of ACO; the European Union has established a Military Planning and Conduct Capability, due to gain more tasks and may rival SHAPE's dominance as the primary forum for multinational European missions. Winters, Major Dick, with Cole C. Kingseed. Beyond Band of Brothers: The War Memoirs of Major Dick Winters. Berkley Hardcover. ISBN 978-0-425-20813-7. Page 210. Records of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Papers of Ernest R. "Tex" Lee, military aide to General Eisenhower, 1942–1945, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Papers of Thor Smith, Public Relations Division, SHAEF, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library Daily Battle Communiques, SHAEF, June 6, 1944 – May 7, 1945, L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University United States Army in World War II European Theater of Operations The Supreme Command By Forrest C.
Pogue. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C. 1954. Library of Congress Catalog Number: 53-61717 BBC WW2 People's War article on Uxbridge SHAEF and London Bushey Directive to Supreme Commander, Allied
Tunku Besar Burhanuddin ibni Almarhum Yamtuan Antah was a member of the Negeri Sembilan royal family and once served as regent of Negeri Sembilan. His father was Yamtuan Antah ibni Yamtuan Sri Raden, who served as the 6th Yamtuan Besar from 1869 to 1888. Tunku Burhanuddin's brother, Tuanku Muhammad became the 7th Yamtuan Besar and the first to use the title Yang di-Pertuan Besar upon Yamtuan Antah's dead. Tunku Besar is the title of the heir presumptive of the throne of Malaysia. In ancient times it was the title of the heir apparent of Melaka, Pahang as well as several Malay sultanates in Sumatra, Indonesia. Tunku Burhanuddin is best known as father of Negeri Sembilan queens. All three of his daughters served as Tunku Queen consorts, his eldest daughter, Tunku Kurshiah binti Almarhum Tunku Besar Burhanuddin was married to Tuanku Abdul Rahman and was Tunku Ampuan from 1933. She was succeeded as Tunku Ampuan by her sister and Tuanku Burhanuddin's second daughter, Tunku Ampuan Durah, married to Tunku Munawir.
Tunku Burhanuddin's youngest daughter, Tuanku Najihah is the current Tunku Ampuan of Negeri Sembilan. She was the Tunku Ampuan Besar or Queen of Negeri Sembilan from 1967 to 2008, when she ascended to the throne. Both Tunku Kurshiah and Tuanku Najihah served a five-year term as Raja Permaisuri Agong or Queen of Malaysia, his granddaughter, Tuanku Bahiyah, daughter of Tunku Kurshiah, was Sultanah of Kedah and served a term as Raja Permaisuri Agong. His grandson, Tuanku Muhriz, son of Tunku Ampuan Durah is the current Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan. Tunku Besar Burhanuddin died in 1961
Queensland Country Life is a newspaper published in Queensland, since 1935. It focuses on rural news; the Queensland Country Life newspaper is the second of that name. The first newspaper is unrelated to the current newspaper; the Queensland Country Life newspaper was first published on 25 July 1935. In its first issue, it described itself as a subsidiary of a New South Wales newspaper Country Life and that it incorporated the Grazier's Review and was the official organ of the: United Graziers' Association of Queensland Brisbane Wool Selling Brokers' Association Brisbane Fat Stock and Produce Brokers' AssociationThe newspaper is published once a week; the paper has been digitised as part of the Australian Newspapers Digitisation Program of the National Library of Australia. List of newspapers in Australia Official website Queensland Country Life at Trove
A peroxisome is a membrane-bound organelle, found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. Peroxisomes are oxidative organelles. Molecular oxygen serves as a co-substrate, from which hydrogen peroxide is formed. Peroxisomes owe their name to hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities, they perform the conversion of reactive oxygen species. Peroxisomes are involved in the catabolism of long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, bile acid intermediates, D-amino acids, polyamines, the reduction of reactive oxygen species – hydrogen peroxide. – and the biosynthesis of plasmalogens, i.e. ether phospholipids critical for the normal function of mammalian brains and lungs They contain 10% of the total activity of two enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, important for energy metabolism. It is vigorously debated whether peroxisomes are involved in isoprenoid and cholesterol synthesis in animals. Other known peroxisomal functions include the glyoxylate cycle in germinating seeds, photorespiration in leaves, glycolysis in trypanosomes, methanol and/or amine oxidation and assimilation in some yeasts.
Peroxisomes were first described by a Swedish doctoral student, J. Rhodin in 1954, they were identified as organelles by the Belgian cytologist Christian de Duve in 1967, De Duve and co-workers discovered that peroxisomes contain several oxidases involved in the production of hydrogen peroxide as well as catalase involved in the decomposition of H2O2 to oxygen and water. Due to their role in peroxide metabolism, De Duve named them “peroxisomes”, replacing the used morphological term “microbodies”, it was described that firefly luciferase is targeted to peroxisomes in mammalian cells, allowing the discovery of the import targeting signal for peroxisomes, triggering many advances in the peroxisome biogenesis field. Peroxisomes are small subcellular compartments with a fine, granular matrix and surrounded by a single biomembrane which are located in the cytoplasm of a cell. Compartmentalization creates an optimized environment to promote various metabolic reactions within peroxisomes required to sustain cellular functions and viability of the organism.
The number and protein composition of peroxisomes are variable and depend on cell type and environmental conditions. For example, in baker's yeast, it has been observed that, with good glucose supply, only a few, small peroxisomes are present. In contrast, when the yeasts were supplied with long-chain fatty acids as sole carbon source up to 20 to 25 large peroxisomes can be formed. A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of long chain fatty acids through beta oxidation. In animal cells, the long fatty acids are converted to medium chain fatty acids, which are subsequently shuttled to mitochondria where they are broken down to carbon dioxide and water. In yeast and plant cells, this process is carried out in peroxisomes; the first reactions in the formation of plasmalogen in animal cells occur in peroxisomes. Plasmalogen is the most abundant phospholipid in myelin. Deficiency of plasmalogens causes profound abnormalities in the myelination of nerve cells, one reason why many peroxisomal disorders affect the nervous system.
Peroxisomes play a role in the production of bile acids important for the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A and K. Skin disorders are features of genetic disorders affecting peroxisome function as a result; the specific metabolic pathways that occur in mammalian peroxisomes are: α-oxidation of phytanic acid β-oxidation of long-chain and polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis of plasmalogens conjugation of cholic acid as part of bile acid synthesisPeroxisomes contain oxidative enzymes, such as D-amino acid oxidase and uric acid oxidase. However the last enzyme is absent in humans, explaining the disease known as gout, caused by the accumulation of uric acid. Certain enzymes within the peroxisome, by using molecular oxygen, remove hydrogen atoms from specific organic substrates, in an oxidative reaction, producing hydrogen peroxide: R H 2 + O 2 → R + H 2 O 2 Catalase, another peroxisomal enzyme, uses this H2O2 to oxidize other substrates, including phenols, formic acid and alcohol, by means of the peroxidation reaction: H 2 O 2 + R ′ H 2 → R ′ + 2 H 2 O, thus eliminating the poisonous hydrogen peroxide in the process.
This reaction is important in liver and kidney cells, where the peroxisomes detoxify various toxic substances that enter the blood. About 25% of the ethanol that humans consume by drinking alcoholic beverages is oxidized to acetaldehyde in this way. In addition, when excess H2O2 accumulates in the cell, catalase converts it to H2O through this reaction: 2 H 2 O 2 → 2 H 2
An anti-roll bar is a part of many automobile suspensions that helps reduce the body roll of a vehicle during fast cornering or over road irregularities. It connects opposite wheels together through short lever arms linked by a torsion spring. A sway bar increases the suspension's roll stiffness—its resistance to roll in turns, independent of its spring rate in the vertical direction; the first stabilizer bar patent was awarded to Canadian inventor Stephen Coleman of Fredericton, New Brunswick on April 22, 1919. Anti-roll bars were unusual on pre-war cars due to the much stiffer suspension and acceptance of body roll. From the 1950s on, production cars were more fitted with anti-roll bars those vehicles with softer coil spring suspension. An anti-sway or anti-roll bar is intended to force each side of the vehicle to lower, or rise, to similar heights, to reduce the sideways tilting of the vehicle on curves, sharp corners, or large bumps. With the bar removed, a vehicle's wheels can tilt away by much larger distances.
Although there are many variations in design, a common function is to force the opposite wheel's shock absorber, spring or suspension rod to lower, or rise, to a similar level as the other wheel. In a fast turn, a vehicle tends to drop closer onto the outer wheels, the sway bar soon forces the opposite wheel to get closer to the vehicle; as a result, the vehicle tends to "hug" the road closer in a fast turn, where all wheels are closer to the body. After the fast turn the downward pressure is reduced, the paired wheels can return to their normal height against the vehicle, kept at similar levels by the connecting sway bar; because each pair of wheels is cross-connected by a bar, the combined operation causes all wheels to offset the separate tilting of the others and the vehicle tends to remain level against the general slope of the terrain. A sway bar is a torsion spring that resists body roll motions, it is constructed out of a cylindrical steel bar, formed into a "U" shape, that connects to the body at two points, at the left and right sides of the suspension.
If the left and right wheels move together, the bar rotates about its mounting points. If the wheels move relative to each other, the bar is forced to twist; each end of the bar is connected to an end link through a flexible joint. The sway bar end link connects in turn to a spot near a wheel or axle, transferring forces from a loaded axle to the opposite side. Forces are therefore transferred: from the loaded axle to the connected end link via a bushing to the anti-sway bar via a flexible joint to the connected end link on the opposite side of the vehicle to the opposite axle; the bar resists the torsion through its stiffness. The stiffness of an anti-roll bar is proportional to the stiffness of the material, the fourth power of its radius, the inverse of the length of the lever arms. Stiffness is related to the geometry of the mounting points and the rigidity of the bar's mounting points; the stiffer the bar, the more force required to move the left and right wheels relative to each other. This increases the amount of force required to make the body roll.
In a turn the sprung mass of the vehicle's body produces a lateral force at the centre of gravity, proportional to lateral acceleration. Because the CG is not on the roll axis, the lateral force creates a moment about the roll axis that tends to roll the body.. The moment is called the roll couple. Roll couple is resisted by the suspension roll stiffness, a function of the spring rate of the vehicle's springs and of the anti-roll bars, if any; the use of anti-roll bars allows designers to reduce roll without making the suspension's springs stiffer in the vertical plane, which allows improved body control with less compromise of ride quality. One effect of body lean, for typical suspension geometry, is positive camber of the wheels on the outside of the turn and negative on the inside, which reduces their cornering grip. Anti-roll bars provide two main functions; the first function is the reduction of body lean. The reduction of body lean is dependent on the total roll stiffness of the vehicle.
Increasing the total roll stiffness of a vehicle does not change the steady state total load transfer from the inside wheels to the outside wheels, it only reduces body lean. The total lateral load transfer is determined by the CG track width; the other function of anti-roll bars is to tune the handling balance of a car. Understeer or oversteer behavior can be tuned out by changing the proportion of the total roll stiffness that comes from the front and rear axles. Increasing the proportion of roll stiffness at the front increases the proportion of the total load transfer that the front axle reacts to—and decreases the proportion that the rear axle reacts to. In general, this makes the outer front wheel run at a comparatively higher slip angle, the outer rear wheel to run at a comparatively lower slip angle, an understeer effect. Increasing the proportion of roll stiffness at the rear axle has the opposite effect and decreases understeer; because an anti-roll bar connects wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle, the bar transmits the force of a bump on one wheel to the opposite wheel.
On rough or broken pavement, anti-roll bars can produce jarring, side-to-side body motions, which increase in severity with the diameter and stiffness of the sway bars. Other suspension techniques can
"Die Blümelein sie schlafen" is a German lullaby, entitled "Sandmännchen", composed by Johannes Brahms. He composed other lullabies, such as "Wiegenlied". Sandmännchen, WoO.31-4, is the fourth song in the "Fifteen Folk Songs for Children" composed by Johannes Brahms taken from the songbook of Deutsche Volkslieder collected by Anton Wilhelm von Zuccalmaglio. A sandman is a fairy in German and other European folk tales who sprinkles sand in the children's eyes at night, making them drowsy. After Robert Schumann died in 1856, Brahms is said to have give the songbook "Fifteen Folk Songs for Children" as his present to Schumann's children; the words consist of four stanzas, of which the first stanza is as follows: This song is sung in other countries, in German and in various language translations. "Zu Bethlehem geboren" composed by the German poet, Friedrich Spee, is a Christmas carol which uses the music of "Sandmännchen". Die Blümelein, sie schlafen