President of Vietnam
The President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam is, according to the constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the head of state of Vietnam. In addition, the president appoints the head of government, the Prime Minister, the President appoints the Vice President, Prime Minister and other officials with the consent of the National Assembly. The President is furthermore the commander-in-chief of the Vietnam Peoples Armed Forces, Chairman of the Council for Defense, Standing Member of the Central Military Commission and the Central Police Party Committee. Since September 2011, the President is the Head of the Central Steering Committee for Judicial Reform, the tenure of the President is five years, and a president can only serve three terms. The powers and prestige of the office of President have varied over the years, the current president is Trần Đại Quang, since 2 April 2016. He is ranked second in the Politburo hierarchy, after General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng, Hồ Chí Minh was appointed Vietnams first president in 1946 by the National Assembly.
Both the 1946 and 1959 Constitutions stated that the National Assembly had the power to appoint, the President represented Vietnam both internally and externally. The powers and responsibilities of the President remained unchanged in the 1959 constitution, the 1980 constitution transformed the office of head of state dramatically. The office of President was abolished and replaced with the office of Chairman of the Council of State, the CC chairmanship was modelled after the Soviet office of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet. The Council of State, as with the Council of Ministers, was a collective decision-making body, both the Council of State and the Council of Ministers were part of the executive branch, the strengthening of these institutions weakened the role of the legislative branch. The duties and responsibilities of the Council of State were taken from the Standing Committee of the National Assembly, the members of the Council of State were elected by the National Assembly and consisted of a chairman, deputy chairmen, a General Secretary and other members.
Council of State members could not concurrently be members of the Council of Ministers, the Chairman of the Council of State was concurrently Chairman of the National Defense Council and commander-in-chief of the Vietnam Peoples Armed Forces. The Council of State supervised the works of other institutions, most notably the Council of Ministers, the Supreme Peoples Organ for Control and it presided over the elections of the National Assembly. The office of Chairman of the Council of State, the head of state, was abolished in the 1992 Constitution, the importance of the President has not remained constant throughout Vietnamese history. For instance, while Hồ Chí Minh was ranked as first member of the Politburo, the office of President retained the second highest rank in the Politburo order of precedence until Nguyễn Minh Triết was appointed in 2006, he ranked fourth in the Politburo hierarchy. The Politburo elected in the aftermath of the 11th National Party Congress by the Central Committee elected Trương Tấn Sang, the current President, the first-ranking member of the Politburo.
This was the first time in Vietnamese history where the member of the Politburo does not hold post of either General Secretary or Chairman of the party. Since Trương Tấn Sang is first-ranked member of the Politburo, he is the unofficial head
State Bank of Vietnam
The State Bank of Vietnam is the central bank of Vietnam. It currently holds an about 65% stake of VietinBank - the countrys largest listed bank by capital, when Indochina was under French rule, the colonial government governed the Indochinese monetary system through Indochinese Bank, which acted as a commercial bank in French Indochina. After the August Revolution in 1945, the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam gradually attempted to exercise a monetary system independent from France, on 6 May 1951, president Hồ Chí Minh signed decree 15/SL on establishment of National Bank of Vietnam. On 21 January 1960, the governor of the signed an ordinance on behalf of the prime minister to rename the bank State Bank of Vietnam. After the fall of Saigon, the two Vietnams were united but not until July 1976 did the two administrations and institutions unite. In July 1976, the National Bank of Vietnam was merged into the State Bank of Vietnam, in the Doi moi liberalisation era, the banking system of Vietnam was reformed.
The former prime minister, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, was a governor while he held the post of deputy prime minister. There has been criticism of the quality of the new polymer đồng banknotes. Controversy surrounded the purchase of the house by governor Le Duc Thuy when he bought a house belonging to the bank one tenth of the market value. However, the government stopped the deal when the media reported the purchase, the State Bank of Vietnam is a ministry-level body under the administration of the government, the bank governor is a member of the cabinet. The governor is nominated by the prime minister subject to the approval of the National Assembly, vice governors are appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the governor. Both governor and vice governors serve a 5-year term, the State Bank of Vietnam defines its principal roles as, Promote monetary stability and formulate monetary policies. Promote institutions’ stability and supervise financial institutions, provide banking facilities and recommend economic policies to the government.
Provide banking facilities for the financial institutions, supervise all commercial banks’ activities in Vietnam. Lend the state money to the commercial banks, issue government bonds, organise bond auctions. Be in charge of other roles in management and foreign exchange rates List of banks in Vietnam Economy of Vietnam Vietnamese đồng State Bank of Vietnam official website
Chairman of the National Assembly of Vietnam
The parliament is, in the words of the constitution, the highest representative organ of the people, the highest organ of state power. The sole organ that has constitutional and legislative rights, the chairman is elected by the deputies of the National Assembly in the first season of the assemblys tenure. The Standing Committee, of which the chairman is a member, is a permanent body which controls the activities of the National Assembly when it is not in session. The chairman and the members of the Standing Committee have to resign from their posts when the National Assembly dissolves itself. The chairman presides over the sessions of the National Assembly and authenticates laws, the deputies of the National Assembly have the right to question the chairman. The powers and prestige of the office of chairman has varied throughout the years, still, of the ten people who have chaired the National Assembly, five of them have been members of the Politburo. The current chairman is Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân, and she is ranked third in the Politburo hierarchy, the first chairman of the Standing Committee of the National Assembly was the scholar Nguyễn Văn Tố, he was not a member of the Communist Party.
On 3 March 1946, under the chairmanship of Nguyễn Văn Tố, Nguyễn Văn Tố was succeeded in office on 9 November 1946 by Bùi Bằng Đoàn, a poet and another non-Communist Party member. While he was never a member of the Communist Party, he was a committed revolutionary, tôn Đức Thắng succeeded Bùi Bằng Đoàn as chairman in 1955, and was the first chairman to be a member of the Communist Party. Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, a Southerner, succeeded Trường in 1981, as chairman, Nguyễn Hữu Thọ stepped down as chairman in 1987, and was succeeded by Lê Quang Đạo, another non-Politburo member. As with Nguyễn Hữu Thọ, Lê Quang Đạos tenure lasted one term, nông stepped down in 2001, and was succeeded by Nguyễn Văn An, who served as chairman from 2001 until 2006. On 26 June 2006 Nguyễn Phú Trọng was elected chairman with a majority of 84. 58% of the National Assembly deputies in favour. Nguyễn Phú Trọng stepped down in 2011 because of his election to the post of General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam, Nguyễn Sinh Hùng stepped down on 31 March 2016, and was replaced by Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân.
Shes the first women to hold the office,1. ^ The Politburo of the Central Committee is the highest decision-making body of the CPV and the Central Government. The membership composition, and the order of rank of the individual Politburo members is decided in an election within the newly formed Central Committee in the aftermath of a Party Congress, the Central Committee can overrule the Politburo, but that does not happen often. 2. ^ These numbers are not official,3. ^ The Central Committee when it convenes for its first session after being elected by a National Party Congress elects the Politburo. According to David Koh, in interviews with several high-standing Vietnamese officials, Lê Hồng Anh, the Minister of Public Security, was ranked 2nd in the 10th Politburo because he received the second-highest number of approval votes. This system was implemented at the 1st plenum of the 10th Central Committee, the Politburo ranking functioned as an official order of precedence before the 10th Party Congress, and some believe it still does
Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam
The Deputy Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, known as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers from 1981 to 1992, is one of the highest offices within the Central Government. The deputy prime minister has throughout its history been responsible for helping the prime minister to handle Vietnams internal policies, there are currently four deputy prime ministers, Nguyễn Xuân Phúc, Phạm Bình Minh, Vũ Đức Đam, and Vũ Văn Ninh. Of these, only Nguyễn Xuân Phúc is a member of a Politburo, in which he is ranked 14th, making him the lowest-ranked member of the Politburo. The Permanent Deputy Prime Minister of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, known as The First Deputy Prime Minister, is a member of the Central Government and a member of the Politburo. The membership composition, and the order of rank of the individual Politburo members is decided in an election within the newly formed Central Committee in the aftermath of a Party Congress, the Central Committee can overrule the Politburo, but that does not happen often.
The — denotes acting deputy prime minister, the first column shows how many deputy prime ministers there have been in Vietnamese history, while the second show how many deputy prime ministers there was in that state. 3. ^ The Central Committee when it convenes for its first session after being elected by a National Party Congress elects the Politburo. According to David Koh, in interviews with several high-standing Vietnamese officials, lê Hồng Anh, the Minister of Public Security, was ranked 2nd in the 10th Politburo because he received the second-highest number of approval votes. This system was implemented at the 1st plenum of the 10th Central Committee, the Politburo ranking functioned as an official order of precedence before the 10th Party Congress, and some believe it still does. Leadership Changes at the 10th Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party
National Assembly (Vietnam)
The National Assembly is Vietnams legislative body. The Constitution of Vietnam recognizes the assembly as the highest organ of state power, the National Assembly, a 498-member unicameral body elected to a five-year term, meets twice a year. The assembly appoints the President, the Prime Minister, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Peoples Court of Vietnam, the Head of the Supreme Peoples Procuracy of Vietnam, members of the party hold all senior government positions. Constitutionally, the National Assembly is the highest government organization and the representative body of the people. It has the power to draw up, and amend the constitution and to make and it has the responsibility to legislate and implement state plans and budgets. The assembly can elect and remove government ministers, the justice of the Supreme Peoples Court. Finally, it has the power to initiate or conclude wars and to other duties. The term of each National Assembly is five years, and meetings are convened twice a year, despite its many formal duties, the National Assembly existed mainly as a legislative arm of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party of Vietnam.
It converted Political Bureau resolutions into laws and decrees and mobilizes popular support for them, in this role, the National Assembly is led by the Council of Ministers acting through the Council of State and a variable number of special-purpose committees. Actual debate on legislation does not occur, instead, a bill originates in the Council of Ministers, which registers the bill and assigns a key party member to present it on the floor. Before presentation, the member will have received detailed instructions from the party caucus in the assembly, once the legislation is presented, members vote according to party guidelines. However, the National Assembly has gradually been more active, although most of the legislations still originate from the government, such legislations are now more hotly debated in the National Assembly and attract more audiences. In 2009, among the much-debated legislations are the ones regarding Vietnams bauxite project in the Central Highlands, the precursor of the current National Assembly of Vietnam was the National Representatives Congress, convened on August 16,1945, in the northern province of Tuyên Quang.
This Congress supported Viet Minhs nationwide general uprising policy against Japanese and it appointed the National Liberation Committee as a provisional government. On January 6,1946, the first general election ever in Vietnam was held all over the country in all people 18 years old or older were eligible to vote. The first session of the First National Assembly took place on March 2,1946 with nearly 300 deputies in the Great Theatre of Hanoi, Nguyen Văn Tố was appointed as the Chairman of the National Assemblys Standing Committee. The First National Assembly approved Hồ Chí Minh as the head of government and his cabinet, the second session, Bùi Bằng Đoàn was appointed to be the Chairman of the National Assemblys Standing Committee. Since 1948, Tôn Đức Thắng is Acting Chairman and since 1955 is Chairman of the Standing Committee, the first and second Constitutions of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam were passed by this National Assembly in 1946 and 1960, respectively