Soviet of Nationalities
The Soviet of Nationalities was the upper chamber of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, elected on the basis of universal and direct suffrage by secret ballot in accordance with the principles of Soviet democracy. Until Glasnost and the 1989 elections, only candidates approved by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union were permitted to participate in the elections, it was succeeded by the Soviet of the Republics from October to December of 1991. As opposed to the Soviet of the Union, the Soviet of Nationalities was composed of the nationalities of the Soviet Union, which in turn followed administrative division rather than being a representation of ethnic groups; the Soviet of the Nationalities was formed on the basis of equal representation of all the Republics of the Soviet Union, autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts, national districts. As a result, the largest republic, the Russian SFSR with a population of 147 million, the smallest republic, the Estonian SSR with a population of about 1.5 million, got 32 deputies each.
Russians as an ethnic group made up more than half of the population of the Soviet Union, but the Soviet of Nationalities did not represent ethnic groups, it represented the different nationalities as expressed by the republics and various autonomous units of the Soviet Union. This electoral system diminished representation of larger ethnic groups in favor of the smaller ethnic groups of the Soviet Union, with the Russians being most underrepresented; the Soviet of Nationalities enjoyed the same rights as the Soviet of the Union in the area of legislative initiative and in resolving other issues inside the competence of the Soviet Union. In practice, until 1989, it did little more than approve decisions made by the top leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. After the 1989 elections–the first, as it turned out, free elections held in the Soviet Union–the Soviet of Nationalities acquired a much greater role, was the scene of many lively debates; the Soviet of Nationalities elected a chairman, his four deputies, permanent commissions: Mandate Commission, Commission on Legislative Suppositions, Budget Planning Commission, Foreign Affairs Commission, Youth Affairs Commission, Industry Commission and Communications Commission and Industry of Building Materials Commission, Agricultural Commission, Consumer Goods Commission, Public Education Commission and Culture Commission, Trade Commission, Consumer Service and Municipal Economy Commission, Environmental Commission.
The presidium of the Soviet of Nationalities "ceased all noticeable work at the end of 1937," but it did "survive as the sole central political institution formally devoted to the nationalities question."On December 26, 1991, the Soviet of the Republics adopted a resolution declaring that the Soviet Union no longer existed as a functioning state and voted both itself and the Soviet Union out of existence. The Soviet of the Union had been dissolved two weeks earlier when Russia recalled its deputies, leaving it without a quorum; the Soviet of the Republics' declaration was thus the final legal step in the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities Korenizatsiya Soviet of Nationalities of the Russian SFSR 1977 Soviet Constitution 1936 Soviet Constitution
1989 Soviet Union legislative election
In 1989, elections were held for the Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union. The main elections were held on a second round on 9 April, they were the first free nationwide elections held in the Soviet Union, would prove to be the final national elections held as the country ceased to exist in 1991. The elections were followed by regional elections in 1990, the last legislative elections to take place in the country. In January 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, announced the new policy of demokratizatsiya. Under this concept the electorate would have a choice between multiple candidates per constituency, although all candidates would still have to be members of the CPSU; the concept was introduced by Gorbachev to enable him to circumvent the CPSU hardliners who resisted his perestroika and glasnost reform campaigns, while still maintaining the Soviet Union as a one-party communist state. In December 1988, the 1977 Soviet Constitution was amended to create a new legislative body, the Congress of People's Deputies, to replace the old Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.
The Congress of People's Deputies consisted of 2,250 deputies. 750 deputies were reserved for the CPSU and its affiliated organizations, the remaining two-thirds would be elected under the principles of demokratizatsiya, with 750 under the system of the old Soviet of the Union and 750 under the system of the old Soviet of Nationalities. Elections for the new legislature were set for March, 1989. While the majority of CPSU-endorsed candidates were elected over 300 candidates won out over the endorsed candidates. Among them were Boris Yeltsin, who won over the CPSU-endorsed candidate to represent Moscow's district with 89% of the vote, it was Yeltsin's first return to political power after resigning from the Politburo in 1987. On a union republic level Yeltsin was later elected to the RSFSR's Congress and indirectly, to its Supreme Soviet. Anti-corruption prosecutor Telman Gdlyan, trapeze artist Valentin Dikul, ethnographer Galina Starovoytova, lawyer Anatoly Sobchak, physicist Andrei Sakharov, weightlifter Yury Vlasov, hockey player Anatoli Firsov were among the other non-endorsed candidates who were elected to the CPD.
All in all, while the majority of seats were won by endorsed candidates, one Politburo member, five Central Committee members, thirty five regional CPSU chiefs lost re-election to non-endorsed candidates. Gorbachev hailed the elections as a victory for perestroika and the election was praised in state media such as TASS and Izvestia, despite the strong opposition of hardliners within the Politburo and Central Committee; the first session of the new Congress of People's Deputies opened in late May, 1989. Although hardliners retained control of the chamber, the reformers used the legislature as a platform to debate and criticize the Soviet system, with the state media broadcasting their comments live and uncensored on television. Yeltsin managed to secure a seat on the reconstituted Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, in the summer formed the first opposition, the Inter-Regional Deputies Group, formed of Russian nationalists and liberals; as it was the final legislative group in the Soviet Union, those elected in 1989 played a vital part in continuing reforms and the eventual fall of the Soviet Union two years later.
This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/. - Russia White and Gordon Wightman. "Gorbachev's Reforms: The Soviet Elections of 1989." Parliamentary Affairs, 42: 560-581. Tedin, Kent L. "Popular Support for Competitive Elections in the Soviet Union." Comparative Political Studies, 47: 241-271. Remnick, David. 1994. Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire. New York: Vintage Books, pp. 216–223. On This Day: 1989: Millions of Russians go to the polls on BBC Gorbachev on 1989 in The Nation Yeltsin and the Soviet Elections in Workers World
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990, when the Congress of People's Deputies modified Article 6 of the most recent 1977 Soviet constitution, which had granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system; the party was founded in 1912 by the Bolsheviks, a majority faction detached from the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in the October Revolution of 1917. After 74 years, it was dissolved on 29 August 1991 on Soviet territory, soon after a failed coup d'état by hard-line CPSU leaders against Soviet president and party general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev and was outlawed three months on 6 November 1991 in Russian territory; the CPSU was a Communist party, organized on the basis of democratic centralism. This principle, conceived by Lenin, entails democratic and open discussion of policy issues within the party followed by the requirement of total unity in upholding the agreed policies.
The highest body within the CPSU was the Party Congress. When the Congress was not in session, the Central Committee was the highest body; because the Central Committee met twice a year, most day-to-day duties and responsibilities were vested in the Politburo, the Secretariat and the Orgburo. The party leader was the head of government and held the office of either General Secretary, Premier or head of state, or some of the three offices concurrently—but never all three at the same time; the party leader was the de facto chairman of the CPSU Politburo and chief executive of the Soviet Union. The tension between the party and the state for the shifting focus of power was never formally resolved, but in reality the party dominated and a paramount leader always existed. After the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, Lenin had introduced a mixed economy referred to as the New Economic Policy, which allowed for capitalist practices to resume under the Communist Party dictation in order to develop the necessary conditions for socialism to become a practical pursuit in the economically undeveloped country.
In 1929, as Joseph Stalin became the leader of the party, Marxism–Leninism, a fusion of the original ideas of German philosopher and economic theorist Karl Marx, Lenin, became formalized as the party's guiding ideology and would remain so throughout the rest of its existence. The party pursued state socialism, under which all industries were nationalized and a planned economy was implemented. After recovering from the Second World War, reforms were implemented which decentralized economic planning and liberalized Soviet society in general under Nikita Khrushchev. By 1980, various factors, including the continuing Cold War, ongoing nuclear arms race with the United States and other Western European powers and unaddressed inefficiencies in the economy, led to stagnant economic growth under Alexei Kosygin, further with Leonid Brezhnev and a growing disillusionment. After a younger vigorous Mikhail Gorbachev, assumed leadership in 1985, rapid steps were taken to transform the tottering Soviet economic system in the direction of a market economy once again.
Gorbachev and his allies envisioned the introduction of an economy similar to Lenin's earlier New Economic Policy through a program of "perestroika", or restructuring, but their reforms along with the institution of free multiparty elections led to a decline in the party's power, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the banning of the party by last RSFSR President Boris Yeltsin and subsequent first President of an evolving democratic and free market economy of the successor Russian Federation. A number of causes contributed to CPSU's loss of control and the dissolution of the Soviet Union during the early 1990s; some historians have written that Gorbachev's policy of "glasnost" was the root cause, noting that it weakened the party's control over society. Gorbachev maintained. Others have blamed the economic stagnation and subsequent loss of faith by the general populace in communist ideology. In the final years of the CPSU's existence, the Communist Parties of the federal subjects of Russia were united into the Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
After the CPSU's demise, the Communist Parties of the Union Republics became independent and underwent various separate paths of reform. In Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation emerged and has been regarded as the inheritor of the CPSU's old Bolshevik legacy into the present day. 1912–18:Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party 1918–25:Russian Communist Party 1925–52:All-Union Communist Party 1952–91:Communist Party of the Soviet Union The origin of the CPSU was in the Bolshevik majority faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, left the party in January 1912 to form a new one at the Prague Party Conference, called the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party – or RSDLP. Prior to the February Revolution, the first phase of the Russian Revolutions of 1917, the party worked underground as organized anti-Tsarist groups. By the time of the revolution, many of the party's central leaders, including Lenin, were in exile. With Emperor Nicholas II, deposed in February 1917, a republic was established and administered by a provisional gove
Tajikistan the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an area of 143,100 km2 and an estimated population of 8.7 million people as of 2016. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, China to the east; the traditional homelands of the Tajik people include present-day Tajikistan as well as parts of Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilisation, Andronovo culture, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam; the area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, the Russian Empire, subsequently the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's modern borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.
On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan became an independent sovereign nation when the Soviet Union disintegrated. A civil war was fought immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the country, led by President Emomali Rahmon since 1994, has been criticised by a number of non-governmental organizations for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom and widespread violations of human rights. Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8.7 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group. Many Tajiks speak Russian as their second language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is practiced by 98% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan Oblast of Tajikistan, despite its sparse population, there is large linguistic diversity where Rushani, Ishkashimi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken.
Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy, dependent on remittances and cotton production. Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO and CSTO as well as an NATO PfP partner. Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks"; the suffix "-stan" is Persian for "place of" or "country" and Tajik is, most the name of a pre-Islamic tribe. According to the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991. This is due to a transliteration from the Russian: "Таджикистан". In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/, therefore дж, or dzh, is used. Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is used in English literature derived from Russian sources.
"Tadjikistan" is the spelling in French and can be found in English language texts. The way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is: تاجیکستان. Cultures in the region have been dated back to at least the 4th millennium BCE, including the Bronze Age Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, the Andronovo cultures and the pro-urban site of Sarazm, a UNESCO World Heritage site; the earliest recorded history of the region dates back to about 500 BCE when much, if not all, of modern Tajikistan was part of the Achaemenid Empire. Some authors have suggested that in the 7th and 6th century BCE parts of modern Tajikistan, including territories in the Zeravshan valley, formed part of Kambojas before it became part of the Achaemenid Empire. After the region's conquest by Alexander the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, a successor state of Alexander's empire. Northern Tajikistan was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states, overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150 BCE.
The Silk Road passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi commercial relations between Han China and Sogdiana flourished. Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade and worked in other capacities, as farmers, carpetweavers and woodcarvers; the Kushan Empire, a collection of Yuezhi tribes, took control of the region in the first century CE and ruled until the 4th century CE during which time Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity and Manichaeism were all practised in the region. The Hephthalite Empire, a collection of nomadic tribes, moved into the region and Arabs brought Islam in the early eighth century. Central Asia continued in its role as a commercial crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north, the Islamic heartland, it was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire and Chinese from 650–680 and under the control of the Umayyads in 710. The Samanid Empire, 819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara which became the cultural centres of Iran and the region was known as Khorasan.
The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania (which corresponds wit
Assembly of Turkmenistan
The Assembly is the legislative branch of Turkmenistan. It has 125 members, elected for five-year terms in single-seat constituencies, it shared power with the People's Council. A 2003 law augmented that of the People's Council; this meant that until 2008 the Assembly could be dissolved by the People's Council, was led by the President, no longer able to amend the Constitution. The People's Council was abolished by a new constitution drafted by Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow in 2008, making the Assembly/Mejlis the unicameral parliament again; the current chairman is Gülşat Mämmedowa from March 30, 2018. She succeeded Akja Nuberdiyeva; the Constitution of Turkmenistan stipulates that the assembly shall: Enacts laws, makes amendments and additions to the Constitution and laws, monitors their performance and their interpretation. Considers for approval the programme activities of the Cabinet of Ministers. Considers the basic directions and programmes of political and social development of the country. Determines whether to hold national referendums.
Declare the election of the President of Turkmenistan, deputies of the Mejlis, members of the velayat, municipal representative bodies and the Gengeshes. Considers the recommendations of the President of Turkmenistan on the issues related to the appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Supreme Court, the Prosecutor General, the minister for Internal Affairs, the minister for Justice. Establishes state awards, awards state decorations to the President of Turkmenistan, assigns him the military ranks and distinctions. Determines conformity to or divergence from the Constitution and the normative-legal Acts by the state authorities and government. Ratifies and denounces international treaties. Considers questions related to change of state borders and administrative and territorial division of Turkmenistan. Examines the issues related to security. Decides other questions in the competence of the Mejlis under the Constitution and laws. Sakhat Muradow - Raşit Meredow - Redzhepbay Arayow - Tagandurdy Hallyýew - Öwezgeldi Ataýew - Akja Nurberdiýewa - Gülşat Mämmedowa - List of Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic of Turkmenistan List of Chairman of the Assembly of Turkmenistan Politics of Turkmenistan List of legislatures by country
History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union is conceived as covering that of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from which it evolved. The date 1912 is identified as the time of the formation of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as a distinct party, its history since can be divided into the following periods: the early years of the Bolshevik Party in secrecy and exile the period of the October Revolution of 1917 consolidation of the party as the governing force of the Soviet Union the Great Purge of the 1930s the Khrushchev and Brezhnev periods the Gorbachev era of reform, which led to the break-up of the party in 1991; the history of the regional and republican branches of the party does however differ from the all-Russian and all-Union party on several points. With its lineal predecessors and soi-disant heirs, the party used various names in succession: 1898–1917: Russian Social Democratic Labour Party – RSDLP 1917–1918: Russian Social Democratic Labour Party – RSDLP 1918–1925: Russian Communist Party 1925–1952: All-Union Communist Party 1952–1991: Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1991–: various, including Communist Party of the Russian Federation In January 1912 the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party convened a 6th All-Russian Party Conference in Prague in the absence of their Menshevik adversaries.
Over twenty Party organizations were represented. In the eyes of the Bolsheviks the conference had, the significance of a regular Party congress. In the statement of the conference which announced that the shattered central apparatus of the Party had been restored and a new Central Committee set up is the following statement: "Not only have the banner of the Russian Social-Democratic Party, its program and its revolutionary traditions survived, but so has its organization, which persecution may have undermined and weakened, but could never utterly destroy." Moreover, the conference declared. Thus the RSDLP split, with the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks constituting separate political parties In its resolution on the reports presented by the local organizations, the conference noted that "energetic work is being conducted everywhere among the Social-Democratic workers with the object of strengthening the local illegal Social-Democratic organizations and groups"; the conference noted that the most important rule of Bolshevik tactics in periods of retreat - to combine illegal work with legal work within the various existing workers' societies and unions - was being observed in all the localities.
The Prague Conference elected a Bolshevik Central Committee of the Party, consisting of: Vladimir Lenin Joseph Stalin Sergo Ordzhonikidze Yakov Sverdlov Suren Spandaryan Filipp Goloshchyokinand others. Stalin and Sverdlov won election to the Central Committee despite their non-attendance at the conference, as they were in exile at the time; the elected alternate members of the Central Committee included Mikhail Kalinin. For the direction of revolutionary work in Russia a practical center was set up, with Stalin at its head and including Y. Sverdlov, Spandaryan, S. Ordzhonikidze, M. Kalinin and Goloshchekin. Writing to Maxim Gorky at the beginning of 1912, on the results of the Prague Conference, Lenin said: At last we have succeeded, in spite of the Liquidator scum, in restoring the Party and its Central Committee. I hope. Speaking of the significance of the Prague Conference, Stalin said: This conference was of the utmost importance in the history of our Party, for it drew a boundary line between the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks and amalgamated the Bolshevik organizations all over the country into a united Bolshevik Party.
In the summer of 1912, Lenin moved from Paris to Galicia. Here he presided over two conferences of members of the Central Committee and leading Party workers, one of which took place in Kraków at the end of 1912, the other in Poronino, a small town near Kraków, in the autumn of 1913; these conferences adopted decisions on questions relating to the working-class movement, including: the rise in the revolutionary movement. An important instrument used by the Bolshevik Party to strengthen its organizations and to spread its influence among the masses was the Bolshevik daily newspaper Pravda, published in St. Petersburg, it was founded, according to Lenin's instructions, on the initiative of Stalin and Poletayev. Pravda was intended as a legal, mass working-class paper founded with the new rise of the revolutionary movement, its first issue appeared on May 5 1912. Previous to the appearance of Pravda, the Bolsheviks had a weekly newspaper called Zvezda, intended for advanced workers. Zvezda had played an important part at the time of the Lena events.