38th Street gang
The 38th Street gang is an American criminal street gang in Los Angeles, composed mainly of Hispanic-Americans. The 38th Street gang is one of the oldest street gangs in Los Angeles and has been occupying its territory since the 1920s and they engage in many criminal activities. The Mexican Mafia controls and routinely uses 38th Street gang members to carry out their orders, founded in the 1920s, the 38th Street gang dates back to the pachucos and zoot suits and was formed at the border between South Central and the city of Vernon. The 38th Street gang became known in the 1940s in the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial. Sleepy Lagoon was a swimming hole in what is now East Los Angeles. A Mexican American juvenile named Jose Diaz was killed there in 1942, all five of the gang members were convicted and sentenced to prison. These convictions ultimately united the Mexican community and changed Mexican gangs, in prison, 38th Street gang members were held in high esteem. On October 4,1943, the convictions of the members were overturned.
During Sleepy Lagoon, the media exaggerated the headlines about the gang that wore zoot suits and created wartime hysteria and prejudice against the Mexican-American community. In what was known as the Zoot Suit Riots in May to June 1943, many Mexican-American zoot suiters from the parts of town were attacked by European American servicemen. The white servicemen and civilians felt Zoot Suiters were not contributing to the war effort and were wasting resources by dressing so flamboyantly. Los Angeles police officers did nothing to halt the angry mobs of servicemen, civilians. After the riots and because of criticism, the United States Department of War banned all military personnel from going to Los Angeles on leave. However, the Sleepy Lagoon defendants maintained their well and ironing it. The 38th Street gang occupies an area on the east side of South Los Angeles. These neighborhoods had been known to be some of the most dangerous in the nation. Their rivalries expand to most neighborhoods all over Los Angeles County and they have confirmed cliques in, Salt Lake City, West valley and Wisconsin.
Since the 1920s, the 38th Street gang has continued its activities and has evolved to become one of Californias most violent street gangs
The Gulf Cartel is a criminal syndicate and drug trafficking organization in Mexico, and perhaps one of the oldest organized crime groups in the country. It is currently based in Matamoros, directly across the border from Brownsville and their network is international, and are believed to have dealings with crime groups in Europe, West Africa, Central America, South America, and the United States. Besides drug trafficking, the Gulf Cartel operates through protection rackets, extortions, the members of the Gulf Cartel are known for intimidating the population and for being particularly violent. As of December 2016 Los Zetas Group (Groupo Bravo & Zetas Vieja Escuela made an Alliance with the Gulf cartel to fight against Cartel Del Noroeste. Nonetheless, it was not until 1984 when his nephew Juan García Ábrego founded the Gulf Cartel and this renegotiation, forced Garcia Ábrego to guarantee the product’s arrival from Colombia to its destination. Instead, he created warehouses along the Mexican’s northern border to preserve hundreds of tons of cocaine, in addition to trafficking drugs, García Ábrego would ship cash to be laundered, in the millions.
Around 1994, it was estimated that the Gulf Cartel handled as much as one-third of all cocaine shipments into the United States from the Cali Cartel suppliers. During the 1990s, the PGR, the Mexican attorney generals office, García Ábregos ties extended beyond the Mexican government corruption and into the United States. The buses made great transportation, as Antonio Ortiz noted, since they were never stopped at the border, in 1989 Claude was removed from the case for unknown reasons, retiring a year later. García Ábrego bribed the agent in an attempt to more information on U. S. law enforcement operations. Juan García Ábregos business had grown to such length that the FBI placed him on the Top Ten Most Wanted in 1995 and he was the first drug trafficker to be on that list. On 14 January 1996, García Ábrego was arrested outside a ranch in Monterrey and he was quickly extradited to the United States where he stood trial eight months after his arrest. García Ábrego was convicted for 22 counts of money laundering, drug possession, jurors ordered the seizure of $350 million of García Ábrego’s assets — $75 million more than what was previously planned.
Juan García Ábrego is currently serving 11 life terms in a security prison in Colorado. In 1996, it was disclosed that García Ábregos organization paid millions of dollars in bribes to politicians and it was proven after his arrest that the deputy attorney general in charge of Mexicos federal Judicial Police had accumulated more than $9 million US dollars for protecting García Ábrego. García Ábregos arrest was subject to allegations of corruption. It is believed the Mexican government knew all García Ábregos whereabouts all along and had refused to arrest him due to information he possessed about the extent of corruption within the government. The arresting officer, a FJP commander, is believed to have received a bullet-proof Mercury Grand Marquis, García Ábrego was apprehended on January 14,1996, and Mexico shortly after received certification on March 1
Southern California, often abbreviated as SoCal, is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises Californias 10 southernmost counties. The region is described as eight counties, based on demographics and economic ties, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Santa Barbara. The more extensive 10-county definition, which includes Kern and San Luis Obispo counties, is used and is based on historical political divisions. Southern California is an economic center for the state of California. The 8-county and 10-county definitions are not used for the greater Southern California Megaregion, the megaregions area is more expansive, extending east into Las Vegas and south across the Mexican border into Tijuana.5 million people. With over 22 million people, Southern California contains roughly 60 percent of Californias population, located east of Southern California is the Colorado Desert and the Colorado River at the border with Arizona. The Mojave Desert is located at the border with the state of Nevada while towards the south is the Mexico–United States border, within Southern California are two major cities, Los Angeles and San Diego, as well as three of the countrys largest metropolitan areas.
With a population of 3,792,621, Los Angeles is the most populous city in California and the second most populous in the United States. South of Los Angeles and with a population of 1,307,402 is San Diego, the second most populous city in the state and the eighth most populous in the nation. The counties of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Bernardino, and Riverside are the five most populous in the state, the motion picture and music industry are centered in the Los Angeles area in Southern California. Hollywood, a district within Los Angeles, gives its name to the American motion picture industry, headquartered in Southern California are The Walt Disney Company, Sony Pictures, Universal, MGM, Paramount Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Warner Brothers. Universal, Warner Brothers, and Sony run major record companies, Southern California is home to a large homegrown surf and skateboard culture. Companies such as Vans, Quiksilver, No Fear, RVCA, some of the worlds biggest action sports events, including the X Games, Boost Mobile Pro, and the U. S.
Open of Surfing, are all held in Southern California. Southern California is important to the world of yachting, the annual Transpacific Yacht Race, or Transpac, from Los Angeles to Hawaii, is one of yachtings premier events. The San Diego Yacht Club held the Americas Cup, the most prestigious prize in yachting, from 1988 to 1995, Southern California is home to many sports franchises and sports networks such as Fox Sports Net. Many locals and tourists frequent the Southern California coast for its popular beaches, the desert city of Palm Springs is popular for its resort feel and nearby open spaces. Southern California is not a geographic designation and definitions of what constitutes Southern California vary. Geographically, Californias North-South midway point lies at exactly 37°958.23 latitude, around 11 miles south of San Jose, when the state is divided into two areas, the term Southern California usually refers to the 10 southernmost counties of the state
East Los Angeles, California
East Los Angeles, or East L. A. is an unincorporated area in Los Angeles County, California. It is 96. 7% Latino - the highest percentage of the 272 neighborhoods of Los Angeles County, the unincorporated area known as City Terrace occupies the northern part of the East L. A. CDP. East Los Angeles is the least ethnically diverse community in Los Angeles County as noted by the Los Angeles Times Mapping L. A. survey, the 2010 United States Census reported that East Los Angeles had a population of 126,496. Population density was 16,973.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of East Los Angeles was 53,934 White,817 African American,1,549 Native American,1,144 Asian,63 Pacific Islander,54,846 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 122,784 persons. The Census reported that 126,176 people lived in households,174 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 2,516 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 199 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,781 households were made up of individuals and 1,781 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 4.09.
There were 25,839 families, the family size was 4.33. The median age was 29.1 years, for every 100 females there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. There were 32,201 housing units at a density of 4,320.8 per square mile, of which 10,986 were owner-occupied. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1. 2%, the vacancy rate was 3. 2%. 47,123 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 79,053 people lived in housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, East Los Angeles had a household income of $37,982. As of the of 2000, there were 124,283 people,29,844 households, the population density was 16,697.4 people per square mile. There were 31,096 housing units at a density of 4,177.8 per square mile. 96. 8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino,12. 5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.15 and the family size was 4.42
New York (state)
New York is a state in the northeastern United States, and is the 27th-most extensive, fourth-most populous, and seventh-most densely populated U. S. state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east. With an estimated population of 8.55 million in 2015, New York City is the most populous city in the United States, the New York Metropolitan Area is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. New York City makes up over 40% of the population of New York State, two-thirds of the states population lives in the New York City Metropolitan Area, and nearly 40% lives on Long Island. Both the state and New York City were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York has a diverse geography and these more mountainous regions are bisected by two major river valleys—the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley, which forms the core of the Erie Canal.
Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes Region and straddles Lake Ontario, between the two lakes lies Niagara Falls. The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. The first Europeans to arrive were French colonists and Jesuit missionaries who arrived southward from settlements at Montreal for trade, the British annexed the colony from the Dutch in 1664. The borders of the British colony, the Province of New York, were similar to those of the present-day state, New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. On April 17,1524 Verrazanno entered New York Bay, by way of the now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita.
Verrazzano described it as a vast coastline with a delta in which every kind of ship could pass and he adds. This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats and he landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. Verrazannos stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Marthas Vineyard, in 1540 French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany, due to flooding, it was abandoned the next year. In 1614, the Dutch under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, within present-day Albany. The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse, located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary fort was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange was built nearby in 1623. Henry Hudsons 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area, sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year
Los Angeles Rams
The Los Angeles Rams are a professional American football team that play in the National Football League. The Rams franchise was founded in 1936 as the Cleveland Rams in the short-lived second American Football League before joining the NFL the next year, in 1946, the franchise moved to Los Angeles. The Rams franchise remained in the area until 1994, when they moved to St. Louis. The Rams franchise returned to Los Angeles in 2016, Reeves threatened to end his relationship with the NFL and get out of the professional football business altogether unless the Rams transfer to Los Angeles was permitted. A settlement was reached and, as a result, Reeves was allowed to move his team to Los Angeles, the NFL became the first professional coast-to-coast sports entertainment industry. From 1933, when Joe Lillard left the Chicago Cardinals, through 1946, after the Rams had received approval to move to Los Angeles, the Rams entered into negotiations to lease the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The Rams were advised that a precondition to them getting a lease was that they would have to integrate the team with at least one African-American, the Rams signed Kenny Washington on March 21,1946.
The signing of Washington caused all hell to break loose among the owners of the NFL franchises, the Rams added a second black player, Woody Strode, on May 7,1946, giving them two black players going into the 1946 season. The Rams were the first team in the NFL to play in Los Angeles, the upstart All-America Football Conference had the Los Angeles Dons compete there as well. Reeves was taking a gamble that Los Angeles was ready for its own football team –. Reeves was proved to be correct when the Rams played their first pre-season game against the Washington Redskins in front of a crowd of 95,000 fans, the team finished their first season in L. A. with a 6–4–1 record, second place behind the Chicago Bears. At the end of the season Walsh was fired as head coach, the Coliseum would be the home of the Rams for more than 30 years, but the facility was already over 20 years old on the day of the first kickoff. In 1948, halfback Fred Gehrke painted horns on the Rams helmets, Kelley had an early evening talk show on L. A. radio station KMPC, that was considered by most sports enthusiasts as highly entertaining.
Kelley was generally considered a Legend and a professional, one of the great radio. At the beginning of the 1951 World Championship game after the kickoff, Kelley was able to cite every player on the prior to the first snap from scrimmage. The Rams first heyday in Southern California was from 1949 to 1955, during this period, they had the best offense in the NFL, even though there was a quarterback change from Bob Waterfield to Norm Van Brocklin in 1951. The defining Offensive players of this period were wide receiver Elroy Hirsch, Van Brocklin, teamed with fellow Hall of Famer Tom Fears, Hirsch helped create the style of Rams football as one of the first big play receivers. During the 1951 Championship season, Hirsch posted a stunning 1,495 receiving yards with 17 touchdowns, the popularity of this wide-open offense enabled the Los Angeles Rams to become the first pro football team to have all their games televised in 1950
Human trafficking is the trade of humans, most commonly for the purpose of forced labor, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy, Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the rights of movement through coercion. Human trafficking is the trade in people, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one place to another, according to the International Labour Organization, forced labor alone generates an estimated $150 billion in profits per annum as of 2014. Estimated that 21 million victims are trapped in modern-day slavery, of these,14.2 million were exploited for labor,4.5 million were sexually exploited, and 2.2 million were exploited in state-imposed forced labor. Human trafficking is thought to be one of the activities of trans-national criminal organizations.
Human trafficking is condemned as a violation of rights by international conventions. In addition, human trafficking is subject to a directive in the European Union, the protocol is one of three which supplement the CTOC. The Trafficking Protocol is the first global, legally binding instrument on trafficking in over half a century, one of its purposes is to facilitate international cooperation in investigating and prosecuting such trafficking. Another is to protect and assist human traffickings victims with full respect for their rights as established in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 2014, the International Labour Organization estimated $150 billion in annual profit is generated from forced labor alone. The average cost of a trafficking victim today is USD $90,000 which. The average slave in 1800 America was the equivalent to USD $40,000, though illegal, there may be no deception or coercion involved. After entry into the country and arrival at their ultimate destination, Human trafficking, on the other hand, is a crime against a person because of the violation of the victims rights through coercion and exploitation.
Unlike most cases of smuggling, victims of human trafficking are not permitted to leave upon arrival at their destination. While smuggling requires travel, trafficking does not, trafficked people are held against their will through acts of coercion, and forced to work for or provide services to the trafficker or others. The work or services may include anything from bonded or forced labor to commercial sexual exploitation, the arrangement may be structured as a work contract, but with no or low payment, or on terms which are highly exploitative. Sometimes the arrangement is structured as debt bondage, with the not being permitted or able to pay off the debt. Bonded labor, or debt bondage, is probably the least known form of labor trafficking today, the value of their work is greater than the original sum of money borrowed
Modesto /məˈdɛstoʊ/, officially the City of Modesto, is the county seat and largest city of Stanislaus County, United States. With a population of approximately 201,165 at the 2010 census, it is the 18th largest city in the state of California, the Modesto Census County Division, which includes the cities of Ceres and Riverbank, had a population of 312,842 as of 2010. Modesto has been honored as a Tree City USA numerous times and it is surrounded by rich farmland, Stanislaus County ranks sixth among California counties in farm production. Led by milk, chickens and corn silage, the farm-to-table movement plays a central role in Modesto living as in the Central Valley. The citys annual Architectural Festival honors Modestos history as a ground for mid-century modern architecture during the 1940s and 50s. Modestos mid-century buildings have been featured four times in Museum of Modern Art publications, in December 2009, Forbes ranked Modesto 48th out of 100 among Best Bang-for-the-Buck Cities.
In this ranking, Modesto ranked 8th in housing affordability and travel time, Modesto is the home of Gallo Family Winery, the largest privately owned winery in the world. Modesto was originally a stop on the railroad connecting Sacramento to Los Angeles, at its founding in 1870, it was to be named Ralston after financier William C. Ralstons modesty prompted him to ask that another name be found, Modesto was incorporated in 1884 with a population of over 1,000. With fields of grain, a river for grain barges, and railroad traffic. Irrigation water came from dams installed in the foothills, and irrigated fields of vegetables and fruit, by 1900, Modestos population was over 4,500. During World War II, the area provided canned goods, powdered milk, for the next few decades, Modestos population grew about two percent per year to over 100,000 in 1980, and over 200,000 in 2001. The citys official motto, Water Wealth Contentment Health, is emblazoned on the downtown Modesto Arch, the motto was selected in a contest held in 1911.
Modestos motto is sometimes spoofed as The land gets the water, the bankers get the wealth, the cows get contentment, Modesto is known for the following tourist attractions and historical sites. McHenry Mansion – Built in the early 1880s by Robert McHenry, the mansion is included on the National Register of Historic Places. McHenry Museum – Across the street from the McHenry Mansion, filled with tidbits from Modestos history George Lucas Plaza – American Graffiti-inspired bronze statue made in honor of Modesto filmmaker George Lucas, located at Five Points. Gallo Center for the Arts – Center for the performing arts opened in 2007 and is located in downtown Modesto at 1000 I Street, Downtown Modesto – Known for having a variety of restaurants and night life. It hosts a multi-venue Art Walk year around on the third Thursday of the month, the State Theatre – Dating back to the 1920s, it was recently renovated and serves as a local performance arts center and as a theater specializing in independent and foreign films
With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populated state in Central America. Guatemala is a democracy, its capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción. The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, from the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced chronic instability and civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company, in 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms. A U. S. -backed military coup in 1954 ended the revolution, from 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military.
As of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index, Guatemalas abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamericas designation as a biodiversity hotspot. The country is known for its rich and distinct culture. The name Guatemala comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or place of many trees and this was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory. The first evidence of habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in parts of the country. There is archaeological proof that early Guatemalan settlers were hunters and gatherers, pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had been developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, and the Postclassic period.
Until recently, the Preclassic was regarded as a period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts. This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states and this lasted until approximately 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed. The Maya abandoned many of the cities of the lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the Drought Theory is gaining currency, supported by such as lakebeds, ancient pollen. A series of prolonged droughts, among other such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya
Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic in the southern half of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States, to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by Guatemala and the Caribbean Sea, and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers, Mexico is the sixth largest country in the Americas by total area, Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and a federal district that is its capital and most populous city. Other metropolises include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana, pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colonys Mexican War of Independence. The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by instability and many political changes.
The Mexican–American War led to the cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, the dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the countrys current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest by purchasing power parity, the Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement partners, especially the United States. Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas.
Mexico is a country, ranking fourth in the world by biodiversity. In 2015 it was the 9th most visited country in the world, Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and the Pacific Alliance. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, the Valley of Mexico, and its people, the Mexica and this became the future State of Mexico as a division of New Spain prior to independence. It is generally considered to be a toponym for the valley became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result. After New Spain won independence from Spain, representatives decided to name the new country after its capital and this was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan
Cocaine, known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled, or injected into the veins, mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, high doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes, Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a risk that dependence will occur. Its use increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, quinine, or sugar which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure, Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine.
This results in concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain. It can easily cross the barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the plant which are mostly grown in South America. In 2013,419 kilograms were produced legally and it is estimated that the illegal market for cocaine is 100 to 500 billion USD each year. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine, after cannabis, cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year, use is highest in North America followed by Europe and South America. Between one and three percent of people in the world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013 cocaine use resulted in 4,300 deaths. The leaves of the plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860, since 1961 the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime
Incarceration in the United States
Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment, rehabilitation, or both for the commission of felony and other offenses. The United States has the largest prison population in the world, in 2013 in the US, there were 698 people incarcerated per 100,000 population. This is the U. S. incarceration rate for adults or people tried as adults. According to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics,2,220,300 adults were incarcerated in US federal and state prisons, additionally,4,751,400 adults in 2013 were on probation or on parole. In total,6,899,000 adults were under supervision in 2013 – about 2. 8% of adults in the U. S. resident population. In 2014, the number of persons in the adult correctional systems had fallen to 6,851,000 persons. About 1 in 36 adults was under some form of correctional supervision – the lowest rate since 1996, on average the correctional population has declined by 1. 0% since 2007, while this continued to stay true in 2014 the number of incarcerated adults slightly increased in 2014.
In addition, there were 54,148 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2013, although debtors prisons no longer exist in the United States, residents of some U. S. states can still be incarcerated for debt as of 2016. According to a 2014 Human Rights Watch report, tough-on-crime laws adopted since the 1980s, have filled U. S. prisons with mostly nonviolent offenders and this policy failed to rehabilitate prisoners and many were worse on release than before incarceration. Rehabilitation programs for offenders can be more cost effective than prison, according to the Brennan Center for Justice, falling crime rates cannot be ascribed to mass incarceration. According to a 2016 analysis of data by the U. S. Education Department and local spending on incarceration has grown three times as much as spending on education since 1980. In 1841, Dorothea Dix discovered that prison conditions were, in her opinion, prisoners were chained naked, whipped with rods. Others, criminally insane, were caged, or placed in cellars and she insisted on changes throughout the rest of her life.
While focusing on the insane, her comments resulted in changes for other inmates, the BOP houses adult felons convicted of violating District of Columbia laws due to the National Capital Revitalization and Self-Government Improvement Act of 1997. As of 2004, state prisons proportionately house more violent felons, in 2016, almost 90% of prisoners were in state prisons, 10% were in federal prisons. At the beginning of 2008, more than 1 in 100 adults in the United States were in prison or jail, total US incarceration peaked in 2008. Total correctional population peaked in 2007, if all prisoners are counted, in 2008 the US had around 24. 7% of the worlds 9.8 million prisoners