Surf music

Surf music is a subgenre of rock music associated with surf culture as found in Southern California. It was popular from 1962 to 1964 in two major forms; the first is instrumental surf, distinguished by reverb-drenched electric guitars played to evoke the sound of crashing waves pioneered by Dick Dale and the Del-Tones. The second is vocal surf, which took elements of the original surf sound and added vocal harmonies, a movement led by the Beach Boys. Dick Dale developed the surf sound from instrumental rock, where he added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, a spring reverb, the rapid alternate picking characteristics, his regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" launched the surf music craze, inspiring many others to take up the approach. The genre reached national exposure when it was represented by vocal groups such as the Beach Boys and Jan and Dean. Dale is quoted on such groups: "They were surfing sounds surfing lyrics. In other words, the music wasn't surfing music; the words made them surfing songs....

That was the difference... the real surfing music is instrumental."At the height of its popularity, surf music rivaled girl groups and Motown for top American popular music trends. It is sometimes referred to interchangeably with the California Sound. During the stages of the surf music craze, many of its groups started to write songs about cars and girls. Surf music emerged in the late 1950s as instrumental rock and roll music always in straight 4/4 time, with a medium to fast tempo; the sound was dominated by electric guitars which were characterized by the extensive use of the "wet" spring reverb, incorporated into Fender amplifiers from 1961, thought to emulate the sound of the waves. The outboard separate Fender Reverb Unit, developed by Fender in 1961 was the actual first "wet" surf reverb tone; this unit is the reverb effect heard on Dick Dale records, others such as "Pipeline" by the Chantays and "Point Panic" by the Surfaris. It had more of a wet "plucky" tone than the "built in" amp due to a different circuitry.

Guitarists made use of the vibrato arm on their guitar to bend the pitch of notes downward, electronic tremolo effects and rapid tremolo picking. Guitar models favored included those made by Fender, Teisco, or Danelectro with single coil pickups. Surf music was one of the first genres to universally adopt the electric bass the Fender Precision Bass. Classic surf drum kits tended to be Rogers, Gretsch or Slingerland; some popular songs incorporated a tenor or baritone saxophone, as on The Lively Ones' "Surf Rider" and The Revels' "Comanche". An electric organ or an electric piano featured as backing harmony. By the early 1960s, instrumental rock and roll had been pioneered by performers such as Link Wray, The Ventures and Duane Eddy; this trend was developed by Dick Dale, who added Middle Eastern and Mexican influences, the distinctive reverb, the rapid alternate picking characteristic of the genre. His performances at the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa, California during the summer of 1961, his regional hit "Let's Go Trippin'" that year, launched the surf music craze, which he followed up with hits like "Misirlou".

Like Dale and his Del-Tones, most early surf bands were formed in Southern California, with Orange County in particular having a strong surf culture, the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa hosted many surf-styled acts. Groups such as The Bel-Airs, The Challengers and Eddie & the Showmen followed Dale to regional success; the Chantays scored a top ten national hit with "Pipeline", reaching number 4 in May 1963. The single-most famous surf tune hit was "Wipe Out" by the Surfaris, with its intro of a wicked laugh; the group had two other global hits, "Surfer Joe" and "Point Panic". The growing popularity of the genre led groups from other areas to try their hand; these included The Astronauts, from Colorado. The Atlantics, from Sydney, were not surf musicians, but made a significant contribution to the genre, the most famous example being their hit "Bombora". From Sydney were The Denvermen, whose lyrical instrumental "Surfside" reached number 1 in the Australian charts. Another Australian surf band who were known outside their own country's surf scene was The Joy Boys, backing band for singer Col Joye.

European bands around this time focused more on the style played by British instrumental rock group The Shadows. A notable example of European surf instrumental is Spanish band Los Relámpagos' rendition of "Misirlou"; the Dakotas, who were the British backing band for Merseybeat singer Billy J. Kramer, gained some attention as surf musicians with "Cruel Sea", covered by The Ventures, other instrumenta

Armavia Flight 967

Armavia Flight 967 was a scheduled international passenger flight operated by Armavia from Zvartnots International Airport, Zvarnots in Armenia to Sochi, a Black Sea coastal resort city in Russia. On 3 May 2006, the aircraft operating the route, an Airbus A320-200, crashed into the sea while attempting to go-around following its first approach to Sochi airport, killing all 113 aboard; the accident was the first major commercial airline crash in the year of 2006. It was Armavia's only fatal crash; the aircraft took off from Zvartnots International Airport at a scheduled departure time at 01:45 Armenian Daylight Time and with a scheduled arrival time at Sochi International Airport of 02:00 Moscow Daylight Time. In order to make their decision for departure, the crew obtained the observed weather data and the weather forecast for the takeoff and alternate aerodromes all of which met the requirements for IFR flights. All the crew were licensed and adequately rested to operate the flight; the airplane took off from Zvartnots airport at 20:47.

There were 113 occupants on board: 105 passengers, 2 pilots,1 aircraft engineer and 5 flight attendants. Takeoff and cruise were uneventful; the first communication between Sochi approach controller and the crew took place at 21:10. At that moment the airplane was beyond the coverage area of the Sochi radar. Up until 21:17 the approach controller and the crew discussed the observed and forecast weather, as a result the crew decided to return to Yerevan. At 21:26, after the decision had been made, the crew asked the controller about the latest observed weather. At 21:30 the controller informed the crew that visibility was 3,600 metres and the cloud ceiling 170 m. At 21:31 the crew decided to continue the flight to Sochi airport; the next communication with the approach controller was at 22:00. At that moment the aircraft was descending to an altitude of 3,600 m and was being tracked by the Sochi radar; the approach controller cleared the flight for a descent to 1,800 m and reported the observed weather at Sochi, as at 22:00, for runway 06, above the minimums.

The crew was handed over to the holding and tower controllers, was cleared for descent to 600 m, before entering the turn to the final approach. Whilst performing the turn, the runway extended. After eliminating the deviation, the crew started descending the aircraft along the glide slope, following the approach pattern. At 22:10 the crew reported that they were ready for landing. In response they were advised that they were 10 kilometres from the airport and that the weather was now 4,000 m visibility x 190 m cloud ceiling, were cleared for landing. However, about 30 seconds the controller advised the crew of the observed cloud ceiling at 100 m and instructed them to cease their descent, abandon the landing attempt, carry out a right turn and climb to 600 m and to contact the holding controller, who gives instructions for entering the airport's holding pattern; the last communication with the crew was at 22:12. After that the crew did not respond to any of the controller's calls. At 22:13 the aircraft struck the water, broke up on impact.

The aircraft involved was built in France with its first flight in June 1995. It had a MSN number of 547 with a test registration code of F-WWIU; the aircraft was delivered in 1995 to Ansett Australia, registered in Australia as VH-HYO. It was acquired by Armavia in 2004 registered as EK-32009 with its name as Mesrop Mashtots. Armavia repainted the aircraft with its new livery on 31 October 2004; the aircraft had flown more than 10,000 hours before the crash. Most of the passengers were citizens of Armenia. According to reports, the flight had 85 Armenian citizens, 26 Russian citizens, one Georgian citizen, one Ukrainian citizen. Citizenship of the passengers and crewThe Captain of Flight 967 was Grigor Grigoryan. Born in 1966, he had completed his primary training in Krasnokutsk Civil Flight School, he graduated in 1986 and graduated from Moscow Institute of Civil Aviation Engineers. He joined Balaklavsky United as a co-pilot in 1986, he joined Ararat Airlines in 1997 as a Captain of a Yakovlev Yak-40.

He joined Armavia as a co-pilot of an Airbus A320 in 2004 and subsequently promoted to a Captain in 2005. He had passed a test for an Airbus A320 Captain in SAS Flight Academy in Stockholm, Sweden with satisfying results. Captain Grigoryan had a total flight hours of 5,458 hours, including 1,436 hours on the Airbus A320; the First Officer of Flight 967 was Arman Davtyan. He was born in 1977 and had completed his primary training in Ulyanovsk Civil Flying School and graduated in 1999, he joined Chernomor-Avia in December 2001 as a co-pilot of a Tupolev Tu-154. He joined Armavia in 2002, joined Armenian Airlines in 2004, joined Armavia again in the same year. First Officer Davtyan had passed a training course for an Airbus A320 in SAS Flight Academy in Stockholm, Sweden with satisfying results, he had a total flying hours of 2,185 hours, including 1,022 hours on the Airbus A320. Flight 967 disappeared from Sochi's radar at 02:13 local time. Chief of Flight Operation N. G Savelyev deployed an Mi-8 helicopter.

At 02:19, the disappearance of Flight 967 was informed to Russia's Minister of Emergencies. A search helicopter was ready for take off to find the missing flight, but was not allowed by Sochi due to the deteriorating weather; the search and rescue operation was suspended. At 04:08, the Ministry of Emergency's boa

Ectoedemia heringella

Ectoedemia heringella is a moth of the family Nepticulidae. It is found in the Mediterranean Region, from southern France, Corsica and Italy to Cyprus, it was first recorded from Great Britain in 2002. The wingspan is 4.4–6 mm. Adults are on wing from late April to the end of June. There is one generation per year; the larvae feed on Quercus alnifolia and Quercus ilex. They mine the leaves of their host plant; the mine consists of a contorted gallery entirely filled with black frass. There are many mines in a single leaf. Fauna Europaea A Taxonomic Revision Of The Western Palaearctic Species Of The Subgenera Zimmermannia Hering And Ectoedemia Busck s.str. With Notes On Their Phylogeny