Surface weather analysis is a special type of weather map that provides a view of weather elements over a geographical area at a specified time based on information from ground-based weather stations. Weather maps are created by plotting or tracing the values of relevant quantities such as sea level pressure and cloud cover onto a geographical map to help find synoptic scale features such as weather fronts; the first weather maps in the 19th century were drawn well after the fact to help devise a theory on storm systems. After the advent of the telegraph, simultaneous surface weather observations became possible for the first time, beginning in the late 1840s, the Smithsonian Institution became the first organization to draw real-time surface analyses. Use of surface analyses began first in the United States. Use of the Norwegian cyclone model for frontal analysis began in the late 1910s across Europe, with its use spreading to the United States during World War II. Surface weather analyses have special symbols that show frontal systems, cloud cover, precipitation, or other important information.
For example, an H may represent high pressure, implying clear skies and warm weather. An L, on the other hand, may represent low pressure, which accompanies precipitation. Various symbols are used not just for frontal zones and other surface boundaries on weather maps, but to depict the present weather at various locations on the weather map. Areas of precipitation help determine the frontal location; the use of weather charts in a modern sense began in the middle portion of the 19th century in order to devise a theory on storm systems. The development of a telegraph network by 1845 made it possible to gather weather information from multiple distant locations enough to preserve its value for real-time applications; the Smithsonian Institution developed its network of observers over much of the central and eastern United States between the 1840s and 1860s. The U. S. Army Signal Corps inherited this network between 1870 and 1874 by an act of Congress, expanded it to the west coast soon afterwards.
The weather data was at first less useful as a result of the different times at which weather observations were made. The first attempts at time standardization took hold in Great Britain by 1855; the entire United States did not come under the influence of time zones until 1905, when Detroit established standard time. Other countries followed the lead of the United States in taking simultaneous weather observations, starting in 1873. Other countries began preparing surface analyses; the use of frontal zones on weather maps did not appear until the introduction of the Norwegian cyclone model in the late 1910s, despite Loomis' earlier attempt at a similar notion in 1841. Since the leading edge of air mass changes bore resemblance to the military fronts of World War I, the term "front" came into use to represent these lines. Despite the introduction of the Norwegian cyclone model just after World War I, the United States did not formally analyze fronts on surface analyses until late 1942, when the WBAN Analysis Center opened in downtown Washington, D.
C.. The effort to automate map plotting began in the United States in 1969, with the process complete in the 1970s. Hong Kong completed their process of automated surface plotting by 1987. By 1999, computer systems and software had become sophisticated enough to allow for the ability to underlay on the same workstation satellite imagery, radar imagery, model-derived fields such as atmospheric thickness and frontogenesis in combination with surface observations to make for the best possible surface analysis. In the United States, this development was achieved when Intergraph workstations were replaced by n-AWIPS workstations. By 2001, the various surface analyses done within the National Weather Service were combined into the Unified Surface Analysis, issued every six hours and combines the analyses of four different centers. Recent advances in both the fields of meteorology and geographic information systems have made it possible to devise finely tailored weather maps. Weather information can be matched to relevant geographical detail.
For instance, icing conditions can be mapped onto the road network. This will continue to lead to changes in the way surface analyses are created and displayed over the next several years; the pressureNET project is an ongoing attempt to gather surface pressure data using smartphones. When analyzing a weather map, a station model is plotted at each point of observation. Within the station model, the temperature, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, pressure tendency, ongoing weather are plotted; the circle in the middle represents cloud cover. Outside the United States and dewpoint are plotted in degrees Celsius; the wind barb points in the direction. Each full flag on the wind barb represents 10 knots of wind, each half flag represents 5 knots; when winds reach 50 knots, a filled in triangle is used for each 50 knots of wind. In the United States, rainfall plotted; the international standard rainfall measurement unit is the millimeter. Once a map has a field of station models plotted, the analyzing isobars, isallobars and isotachs are drawn.
The abstract weather symbols were devised to take up the least room possible on weather maps. A synoptic scale feature is one whose dimensions are large in scale, more than several hu
The 1917 Noah Webster Memorial Library building is a historic library building at 7 North Main Street in West Hartford, Connecticut. Built to a design by the Hartford firm Davis & Brooks, it is a prominent local example of Colonial Revival architecture, it housed the town library between 1917 and 1937, served as a YMCA/YWCA hall and a senior center. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1981, it is now used as a commercial space. The former Noah Webster Memorial Library building stands at the southwest corner of North Main and Brace Streets, a short way north of the cluster of West Hartford's main civic buildings, it is a two-story masonry structure, built out of red brick with marble and wooden trim. Its front facade, facing North Main Street, is dominated by a massive four-column Classical portico, with wooden columns supporting an entablature and pedimented gable with oculus window. Flanking the portico are tall multisash windows, with Palladian windows at the building ends.
The entrance consists of two modern doors, above, a half-round transom window. The interior, despite its uses, retains a number of original features, including woodwork around the windows and fireplaces. West Hartford's public library had its origins in a lending library established in the mid-19th century by the local Congregational church, opened to the general public in 1883; the town formally took over the collection in 1897, it continued to be housed in the church. This building was constructed in 1915-17 through the efforts of the local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, it was designed by the Hartford architectural partnership of F. Irwin Davis and William Brooks, was formally dedicated in 1917. DAR fundraising efforts fell short during construction, was finished with funds appropriated by the town. By 1937 the building was judged inadequate for the library's needs, a new building was erected on South Main Street near the town hall; this building was adapted for use by local YMCA and YWCA organizations, as a senior center.
National Register of Historic Places listings in West Hartford, Connecticut
Guin "Richie" Phillips was a 36-year-old gay man in Elizabethtown, Kentucky. Phillips disappeared on June 17, 2003, his body was found on June 2003, in a suitcase in Rough River Lake. On June 17, 2003, Phillips was seen having lunch at a restaurant in Elizabethtown, with a friend identified by investigators as 21-year-old Joshua Cottrell. Several days his truck and other belongings were found abandoned in southern Indiana. A witness told police she saw Phillips and Cottrell together in Phillips's truck the same day; that was the last time. Phillips's mother – Marge Phillips – reported her son missing and told police she feared he had been harmed because he was gay. On Wednesday, June 25, 2003, two fishermen pulled a suitcase out of Rough River Lake, unzipped it and found Phillips's body inside. Phillips was identified by personal items found with a Wildcat tattoo on the shoulder. On Friday, June 27, 2003, Cottrell, an acquaintance of Phillips's, was arrested and charged with Phillips's murder. Prosecutors announced.
Cottrell was arraigned on June 28, 2005, at the Breckinridge County Courthouse, where he pleaded not guilty to charges of murdering Phillips. He was held on $500,000 bond. In October 2003 Cottrell's trial was moved to Hardin County based on forensic evidence that showed Phillips was most killed in Cottrell's Elizabethtown hotel room; the change in jurisdiction delayed the start of the trial. A canceled check introduced into evidence showed that Cottrell purchased the suitcase six days before the murder. Drops of Phillips' blood were found on the bathroom tiles in the hotel. Cottrell's DNA was found on a cigarette in Phillips' truck. Investigators were unsure whether Phillips had been killed at Rough River Lake, where his body was found, or elsewhere. In May 2004, the trial was further delayed when Judge Henry Bland ordered a continuance after Cottrell's defense attorney filed new discovery documents; the trial got under way at the Hardin County courthouse. Rob Dewitt, a friend who introduced Phillips to Cottrell three years earlier said that Cottrell bought a set of luggage at the Elizabethtown J. C.
Penney. Cottrell told Dewitt. Dewitt testified in court that he told Cottrell that Phillips was attracted to him, that Cottrell said he would "cold-cock" Phillips if he made a pass at him. Dewitt testified that he had never seen Phillips act in an aggressive manner. Cottrell's aunt – Wendy McAnly – testified that Cottrell confessed to the crime more than a week earlier, but his family didn't believe him. Cottrell's aunt and cousin testified that he had planned to kill Phillips because he was gay, had lured Phillips into his hotel room where he hit and strangled him. McAnly said; when Phillips arrived, Cottrell asked if Phillips liked him without his shirt, when Phillips said yes and touched him, Cottrell put him in a headlock and choked him. Cottrell's cousin – Tara Gaddie – testified that Cottrell arrived at her home in Phillips' truck after disposing of his body in Rough River Lake, answered "He's gone. He's dead,". Gaddie said she never heard Cottrell talk about strangling Phillips or use derogatory terms to describe him.
In court, Cottrell testified that after he drove Phillips around Elizabethtown looking for a job, Phillips came into his motel room uninvited, tried to kiss him, attempted to force him into oral sex. Cottrell put Phillips in a headlock, pulled him to the floor and "started hitting him as hard as I could, as many times as I could." When he realized Phillips was dead, Cottrell says he panicked and put his body into the suitcase, which he said in court he'd brought to haul his belongings as he drifted between motel rooms and friends' houses. Cottrell's defense attorney employed what is called a gay panic defense, arguing that Phillips's own actions "led to a chain of events that caused his death, " and that Cottrell was within his rights under Kentucky law to fight back to protect himself from being raped, including use of deadly force if necessary. "But what set it all in motion, he was privileged to do," Drabenstadt said. "What set it in motion were the actions of a 36-year-old man."Drabestadt may have been referring to a Kentucky "stand-your-ground" law permitting people to use deadly force to protect themselves against death, serious physical injury and forced sexual intercourse.
In February 2001, Kentucky Representative Bob Damron sponsored a bill that would have added "deviant sexual intercourse" to the existing law. The Kentucky House Judiciary Committee amended the measure to replace "deviant sexual intercourse" with "forced sodomy," and clarify its definitions of "force," "threat," and "attempt."Prosecuting attorney Chris Shaw argued in closing that Cottrell lured Phillips to his room in order to kill him, attempted to cover it up in a cold, calculated manner. Shaw added that Phillips's sexual orientation was immaterial in the case, except for Cottrell's "steaming anger" toward gay men. Shaw said. After deliberating for nine hours, the jury returned with its verdict; the jury had the option of finding Cottrell guilty of reckless homicide, or manslaughter. The jury rejected the murder charge and instead found Cottrell guilty of second degree manslaughter, theft by taking of more than 300 dollars, tampering with physical evidence. Cottrell was sentenced on March 1, 2005.
The jury recommended Cottrell be sentenced to 30 years. Howe