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Surrealist automatism

Surrealist automatism is a method of art-making in which the artist suppresses conscious control over the making process, allowing the unconscious mind to have great sway. Early 20th-century Dadaists, such as Hans Arp, made some use of this method through chance operations. Surrealist artists, most notably André Masson, adapted to art the automatic writing method of André Breton and Philippe Soupault who composed with it Les Champs Magnétiques in 1919; the Automatic Message was one of Breton's significant theoretical works about automatism. Automatism has taken on many forms: the automatic writing and drawing explored by the surrealists can be compared to similar or parallel phenomena, such as the non-idiomatic improvisation. "Pure psychic automatism" was how André Breton defined Surrealism, while the definition has proved capable of significant expansion, automatism remains of prime importance in the movement. Automatic drawing was pioneered by the English artist Austin Osman Spare who wrote a chapter, Automatic Drawing as a Means to Art, in his book, The Book of Pleasure.

Other artists who practised automatic drawing were Hilma af Klint, André Masson, Joan Miró, Salvador Dalí, Jean Arp, André Breton and Freddy Flores Knistoff. The technique of automatic drawing was transferred to painting, has been adapted to other media. Pablo Picasso was thought to have expressed a type of automatic drawing in his work, in his etchings and lithographic suites of the 1960s. Automatic drawing was developed as a means of expressing the subconscious. In automatic drawing, the hand is allowed to move "randomly" across the paper. In applying chance and accident to mark-making, drawing is to a large extent freed of rational control. Hence the drawing produced may be attributed in part to the subconscious and may reveal something of the psyche, which would otherwise be repressed. Examples of automatic drawing were produced by practitioners of the psychic arts, it was thought by some Spiritualists to be a spirit control, producing the drawing while physically taking control of the medium's body.

Most of the surrealists' automatic drawings were illusionistic, or more they developed into such drawings when representational forms seemed to suggest themselves. In the 1940s and 1950s the French-Canadian group called Les Automatistes pursued creative work based on surrealist principles, they abandoned any trace of representation in their use of automatic drawing. This is a more pure form of automatic drawing since it can be entirely involuntary – to develop a representational form requires the conscious mind to take over the process of drawing, unless it is accidental and thus incidental; these artists, led by Paul-Émile Borduas, sought to proclaim an entity of universal values and ethics proclaimed in their manifesto Refus Global. As alluded to above, surrealist artists found that their use of "automatic drawing" was not automatic, rather it involved some form of conscious intervention to make the image or painting visually acceptable or comprehensible, "... Masson admitted that his'automatic' imagery involved a two-fold process of unconscious and conscious activity...."

Some Romanian surrealists invented a number of surrealist techniques that purported to take automatism to an absurd point, the name given, "surautomatism", implies that the methods "go beyond" automatism, but this position is controversial. The notion of automatism is rooted in the artistic movement of the same name founded by Montreal artist Paul-Emile Borduas in 1942. He, as well as a dozen other artists from Quebec's artistic scene much under restrictive and authoritarian rule in that period, signed the Global Refusal manifesto, in which the artists called upon North American society, to take notice and act upon the societal evolution projected by these new cultural paradigms opened by the Automatist movement as well as other influences in the 1940s; the computer, like the typewriter, can be used to produce automatic poetry. The practice of automatic drawing performed with pencil or pen and paper, has been adapted to mouse and monitor, other automatic methods have been either adapted from non-digital media, or invented for the computer.

For instance, filters have been automatically run in some bitmap editor programs such as Photoshop and GIMP, computer-controlled brushes have been used to "simulate" automatism. Grandview — a software application created in 2011 for the Mac — displays one word at a time across the entire screen as a user types, facilitating automatic writing. Asemic writing Automatic writing Cut-up technique Free improvisation Intuitive music Scribbling Pareidolia Surrealist music Pseudohallucination An automatic drawing by Jean Arp What is an automatic drawing? Automatic Drawing


The Hebrew term pilpul refers to a method of studying the Talmud through intense textual analysis in attempts to either explain conceptual differences between various halakhic rulings or to reconcile any apparent contradictions presented from various readings of different texts. Pilpul has entered English as a colloquialism used by some to indicate extreme disputation or casuistic hairsplitting; the requirement for close derivation of the conceptual structures underlying various Jewish laws, as a regular part of one's Torah study, is described by Maimonides as follows: Other sources include Avot, the Babylonian Talmud, Rashi commenting on Tractate Kiddushin of the Babylonian Talmud, 30a, s.v. "Talmud". In the narrower sense, pilpul refers to a method of conceptual extrapolation from texts in efforts to reconcile various texts or to explain fundamental differences of approach between various earlier authorities, which became popular in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries: its founders are considered to be Jacob Pollak and Shalom Shachna.

Pilpul was defined by Heinrich Graetz as "the astonishing facility of ingenious disquisition on the basis of the Talmud." Many leading rabbinic authorities have harshly criticized this method as being unreliable and a waste of time, it is regarded by some as having been discredited by the time of the Vilna Gaon. A common criticism is that those who used this method were motivated by the prospect of impressing others with the sophistication of their analysis, rather than by a disinterested pursuit of truth; as such, pilpul has been derogatorily called bilbul, Hebrew for "confusion". The Maharal of Prague, in a famous polemic against pilpul, wrote: "It would be better to learn carpentry or another trade, or to sharpen the mind by playing chess. At least they would not engage in falsehood, which spills over from theory and into practice..." In the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, pilpul in this narrow sense was superseded by the analytic methods pioneered by the Lithuanian school, in particular the Brisker derech.

However, many people consider these methods too to be a form of pilpul, though the practitioners of the analytic method reject the term. Before World War II, both the old and the new kinds of pilpul were popular among Lithuanian and Polish Jews. Since they have become prominent in most Ashkenazi and many Chassidic yeshivas. Aaron ben Meir of Brest "Pilpul", an article from the Jewish Encyclopedia

Francis John Fox

Francis John Fox was a New Zealand soldier and farmer. Born in Ireland into a family with a military tradition, he was commissioned in the British Army in 1876. An artillery officer, he served in British India, the First Boer War in Egypt. After holding a series of staff positions, he was appointed Commandant of the New Zealand Permanent Militia in 1892, he soon came into conflict with the New Zealand Prime Minister, Richard Seddon, over implementation of a number of recommendations, made to improve the state of New Zealand's defences. His position changed to an advisory role which ended in 1896. Having retired from the army, he turned to farming in Canterbury. Attempts in 1899 to join New Zealand military units being raised for service in the Second Boer War were rebuffed, he died in 1902 of a haemorrhage. Francis John Fox was born in County Westmeath, Ireland on 20 September 1857, to a British Army officer and his wife, he attended the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich and followed his father into the British Army.

Fox was commissioned a lieutenant in the Royal Regiment of Artillery in February 1876. He spent most of the next ten years abroad, serving in British India from 1877 to 1880 during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Following the outbreak of the First Boer War he was posted to South Africa in 1881, he held staff positions from 1882 to 1885 and served in Egypt after which he was aide-de-camp to the inspector general of artillery from 1886 to 1889. He was aide-de-camp to the General Officer, Commanding, of firstly the North Western District and the Thames District. Following a request by the New Zealand Government for a suitable officer to lead its defence force, the New Zealand Permanent Militia, supported by a favourable reference from a former commander, was nominated by the War Office as a suitable candidate. Promoted to lieutenant colonel for the role, he arrived in New Zealand to commence his new post as Commandant of the New Zealand Permanent Militia in May 1892. Before arriving in the country, he had taken the time to bring himself up to date with both the guns used by New Zealand's military and current developments in mine and torpedo technology.

Fox began his work by preparing a report on the state of New Zealand's Volunteer Force for the New Zealand Minister of Defence Richard Seddon. The Volunteer Force was important to New Zealand's defence, for it was to supplement the small New Zealand Militia in times of military need, but it had been criticised in the past for its organisation and its equipment. Fox took much longer than expected to complete his report, which proved critical of a significant portion of the officers of the Volunteer Force, he made several recommendations. He wanted simpler firearms provided which would ease training demands. Crucially, he wanted a guarantee that his recommendations would be met and he wanted his powers increased to include control of the Volunteer Force, his undiplomatic approach put him offside with Seddon, now the New Zealand Prime Minister, who clashed with Fox over the appropriate action to take to remedy the country's defences. New Zealand's Defence Act did not confer the position of commandant with the wide-ranging responsibilities that were enjoyed by the appointees serving in the equivalent position elsewhere in the British Empire, a point not appreciated by Fox.

He attempted to have the Defence Act amended to provide the desired scope of responsibilities but Seddon, still indignant at Fox's forthright demands for more responsibility, refused to do this. Seddon vetoed the possibility of Fox taking the position of Under-Secretary for Defence; this was an administrative position in the New Zealand government that had some of the powers that Fox sought. Fox's relationship with Seddon soon deteriorated to the point where he attempted to resign in March 1894; this was refused by Seddon, angered when a list of grievances listed in Fox's resignation letter was subsequently leaked to the press. Seddon under pressure from W. R. Russell, a political opponent, was further put on the defensive when the Governor of New Zealand, Lord Glasgow, began to query the state of the country's defences. Seddon suspected Fox, courting and would marry Russell's daughter Cara, of agitating with both men. After some negotiation, Fox accepted a position as advisor to the government on defence matters with the title of Inspector of Volunteers and Military Advisor.

That year Fox retired from the British Army but remained in his advisory role until November 1896. In his new role, he did implement some of the recommendations that he made in his report on the Volunteer Forces and in 1895 he reported to Seddon that he considered the country's defences much improved. After his advisory role with the government ended, Fox had intended to return to England. However, he decided to settle in the Canterbury Region. In late 1896, he took over a farm that he had purchased in partnership with his brother and the following year purchased another farm nearby. On these two properties he ran a herd of over 6,000 sheep; as well as his farming, he retained his rank of a colonel in the New Zealand Permanent Militia. When the Second Boer War broke out in 1899, he attempted to join the New Zealand Contingents being raised for service in South Africa but was thwarted by Seddon's refusal to grant him a suitable commission. Unhappy with his treatment, he resigned from the militia.

Fox's health began to decline in 1900 and he was diagnosed with consumption. In 1901, he went to a sanatorium in New South Wales in an attempt to restore his health. Still unwell, h

Home (Procol Harum album)

Home is Procol Harum's fourth album, released in 1970. With the departure of organist Matthew Fisher and bassist David Knights and the addition of the remaining musicians' former bandmate bassist/organist Chris Copping from The Paramounts, Procol Harum was, for all intents and purposes, The Paramounts again in all but name; the purpose of bringing in Copping was to return some of the R&B sound to the band that they had with their previous incarnation. The initial sessions were performed in London at Trident Studios under the supervision of former organist Matthew Fisher who had produced the band's previous album. Unhappy with the sound and performances, the band scrapped the Trident sessions and began again with producer Chris Thomas and engineer Jeff Jarratt at Abbey Road Studios. Once the album was completed it was decided that the cover would be a parody of the British board game Snakes and Ladders featuring members of the band; when the album was released in June 1970 it charted at No. 34 in the United States and No. 49 in the United Kingdom, making the Danish Top 10 peaking at #6.

The album was preceded by the single "Whiskey Train" written by guitarist Robin Trower with lyricist Keith Reid. All songs written by Gary Brooker and Keith Reid except where noted In 2009 Salvo reissued the Procol Harum catalogue and included bonus tracks for each album. "Home" included two bonus tracks selected and approved by Gary Brooker and Keith Reid "Whaling Stories" and "Still There'll Be More". The two bonus tracks were work-in-progress mixes that didn't have the final overdubs from the final versions. Gary Brooker – piano, vocals Robin Trower – guitar Chris Copping – bass, organ B. J. Wilsondrums Keith Reid – lyricsTechnicalJeff Jarratt - recording engineer Helmut Hastenteufel - sleeve design –'s page on this album

Beam Me Up Scotty (mixtape)

Beam Me Up Scotty is the third mixtape by Trinidadian-born American rapper Nicki Minaj. It features guest verses from rappers Bobby V, Birdman, Busta Rhymes, Gucci Mane, Mack Maine, Gudda Gudda, Lil Twist, Jae Millz, Lil Wayne, Red Café, Lil Chuckee, Ricky Blaze, Ron Browz, Shanell, its production was overseen by The Trapaholics. Beam Me Up Scotty received favorable reviews from contemporary music critics, is largely credited with establishing Minaj's fan base. One of its tracks, "I Get Crazy" charted at numbers 20 and 37 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Rap Songs and Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs component charts. Beam Me Up Scotty was recorded after Lil Wayne noticed Minaj's appearance on Queens-based underground rap label Dirty Money Records on "The Come Up" DVD series, he is credited with mentoring Minaj as she recorded Beam Me Up Scotty, two years after her appearance on "Don't Stop, Won't Stop", a track from Wayne's acclaimed 2007 mixtape Da Drought 3 that sampled "Can't Stop, Won't Stop" by Young Gunz.

Minaj says of her time on tour with Lil Wayne: "It made me hungry. That's what inspired me and the music for the Beam Me Up Scotty tape — the I Am Music Tour."Minaj credits Beam Me Up Scotty with re-focusing her on her music at a time when much of her career efforts were associated with her image: I was OK, but I wasn't focusing on the music. I was doing pictures and stuff like that, so people knew me more for pictures than my music, but with the Beam Me Up Scotty mixtape, they have to take me as an artist. So, I would say maybe a year ago, I started sharpening my skills. I've been singing more. Now it's official – it's going down like'Town Julie Brown. "I Get Crazy", featuring Lil Wayne, charted on the U. S. R&B charts due to heavy airplay. A music video for the song "Itty Bitty Piggy" was released for the song due to popular demand; the video is shots of Nicki performing the song live at a club concert and behind the scenes of the Beam Me Up Scotty photo shoot. The video was premiered on Hoodaffairs on Demand who had a part in shooting the clip.

"Go Hard", featuring Lil Wayne, was promoted with a music video shot by director Koach K. Rich. Beam Me Up Scotty was well received by critics and fans alike receiving an average score of 78. MTV's Mixtape Daily chose Beam Me Up Scotty as its weekly pick on May 4, 2009, giving the album positive reviews: "Yeah, you are going to hear a bunch of more-than-just-friendly shout-outs to the ladies – Nicki says she loves the girls and has no problem surrounding herself with "bad bitches." Mixtape Daily favored tracks such as "I Get Crazy", "Kill the DJ" & "Envy". Beam Me Up Scotty is credited with helping distinguish Minaj as a popular female figure in a male-dominated genre.'s SoundOff TV gave Minaj a positive review on her mixtape while commenting on impressions of Minaj herself: "I’m not going to front, when Nicki first hit my'new rapper radar' I hit the'I’ll pass' button since the parallels between her and Lil' Kim were similar. Dark skin thick girl rapping about explicit issues we only talk about behind closed doors – yeah, I’d say she was a carbon copy.

But after removing the stubborn sticker from my forehead, I sat down and dissected shorty’s material and the parallels didn’t exist like I once thought."In his consumer guide for MSN Music, critic Robert Christgau gave Beam Me Up Scotty an A- rating, indicating "the kind of garden-variety good record, the great luxury of musical micromarketing and overproduction. Anyone open to its aesthetic will enjoy more than half its tracks". According to Rob Molster of The Cavalier Daily, Beam Me Up Scotty "garnered a reputation for delivering vicious lyrics with a fresh style... revealed Minaj to have a knack for invoking alternative personalities, adding another layer to her complex persona." The recording is credited with helping to create Minaj's fanbase. Shortly after its release, along with other Cash Money/Young Money artists, appeared on's Mixtape Daily to discuss the recording. Sample credits"Itty Bitty Piggy" contains a sample of "Donk" performed by Soulja Boy Tellem. "Mind on My Money" contains a sample of "Live Your Life" performed by T.

I. "Go Hard" contains a sample of "Go Hard" performed by DJ Khaled. "Get Silly" contains a sample of "Get Silly" performed by V. I. C. "Still I Rise" contains a sample of "No Matter What" performed by T. I. "Beam Me Up Scotty" contains a sample of "Kill the Bitch" performed by Sasha

Cahir GAA

Cahir GAA is a Gaelic Athletic Association club in the parish of Cahir, County Tipperary, Ireland. It's a dual club, with more success in football. Cahir has fielded GAA teams since 1885. Cahir fields Gaelic Football teams at both Junior b level, their greatest and only real success at senior level came in 2003 when they defeated Ardfinnan to claim the County Championship. Liam CaseyFormer Tipp senior football captain Robbie Costigan Former Tipp & Waterford senior hurler Andy Maloney Tipperary Senior Football Championship 2003 South Tipperary Senior Football Championship 1959, 2001, 2003 Tipperary Intermediate Football Championship 1979, 1998 South Tipperary Intermediate Football Championship 1979, 1998 Tipperary Junior A Football Championship: 1952, 1955, 1958 South Tipperary Junior A Football Championship: 1944, 1952, 1955, 1958, 2000 Tipperary Junior B Football Championship 1995 South Tipperary Junior B Football Championship 1995 South Tipperary Under-21 Football Championship 1974 (with Moyle Rovers, 1996, 2019 Tipperary Under-21 B Football Championship 1989, 2014, 2016, South Tipperary Under-21 B Football Championship 1989, 1995, 2014, 2016,2017 South Tipperary Minor A Football Championship 2018 Tipperary Minor B Football Championship 2004, 2008 South Tipperary Minor B Football Championship 1992, 2004, 2008, 2012 Cahir fields Junior Hurling teams.

Past players of note include, Richie Quirke. South Tipperary Intermediate Hurling Championship 1969, 1987, 1988, 1995, 1996 South Tipperary Junior A Hurling Championship 1967, 1977 South Tipperary Junior B Hurling Championship 1995, 2012 South Tipperary Under-21 A Hurling Championship 1969, 1984 Tipperary Under-21 B Hurling Championship 2000, South Tipperary Under-21 B Hurling Championship 1996, 2000,2017 South Tipperary Minor Hurling Championship 1944 South Tipperary Minor B Hurling Championship 1984, 1995, 2000 The Ladies Football Club in Cahir is one of the most successful in Tipperary, fielding teams in U12, U14, U16, Minor and Intermediate. In 2004 the Cahir U14 Girls won the Féile Peil Na nÓg Division 3 final. In 2007 the Cahir U12 Girls won the Health Service Executive sponsored Community Games national final. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 the Cahir U14 Ladies have reached the Féile Final for three years in a row, narrowly missing out on the All-Ireland title each year. In 2010, the U14 girls won the Division 3 final, meeting Shane O’Neill's of Camlough, County Armagh in the final.

The Cahir Ladies have received county titles in the'A' division in every age group. Throughout the years, they have fielded many county players at U16, Minor and Senior levels. In 2010, there were four U14 county players, seven U16 county players, two Minor county player and four Senior county players; the Camogie Club in Cahir holds many County Titles. The U12 and U14 teams have been brought up to the'A' division; the U12 have the U14 narrowly missing out. The Club has three U14 county players. In 2009 the U14 girls team won the HSE Community Games County Title, they got to the Munster Final which they lost by one point to Doughlas of Cork who went on to win the National Title. In 2010 the U14 girls team won the Munster final, they went on to the national finals where they defeated Claregalway in the semi-final and Lucan Sarsfields in the final, becoming All-Ireland Champions. Official Cahir GAA club website