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Surrey

Surrey is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, East Sussex to the southeast, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, Greater London to the northeast. With about 1.2 million people, Surrey is the twelfth most populous English county, the third most populous home county, after Kent and Essex, the third most populous in the Southeast, after Hampshire and Kent. Surrey is a wealthy county, it has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner London, the highest cost of living outside the capital. It has the highest proportion of woodland of counties in England, it has four horse racing courses, golf courses including the international competition venue at Wentworth. Guildford is popularly regarded as the county town, although Surrey County Council is based extraterritorially at Kingston upon Thames. Surrey is divided into eleven districts. Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs.

The ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey and Mole, tributaries of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county before modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county. To the north of the Downs the land is flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames; the geology of this area is dominated by London Clay in the east, Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low Weald, rising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald; the Downs and the area to the south form part of a concentric pattern of geological deposits which extends across southern Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden Clay, Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs. Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt, it contains valued reserves of mature woodland. Among its many notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill, Frensham Ponds, Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons.

Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland in one of the oldest in Europe. Surrey contains England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in the west of the county. Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms; the highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Dorking. It is 294 m above sea level and is the second highest point in southeastern England after Walbury Hill in West Berkshire, 297 m. Surrey has a population of 1.1 million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057.

They are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Farnham and Redhill. Guildford is the historic county town, although the county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston upon Thames in 1893; the county council's headquarters have been outside the county's boundaries since 1 April 1965, when Kingston and other areas were included within Greater London by the London Government Act 1963. The council abandoned plans in the latter part of the 2000s decade to move its headquarters to Woking. Due to its proximity to London there are many commuter towns and villages in Surrey, the population density is medium to high on residentially developed land and the area is one of the richest parts of the UK. Much of the north of the county is an urban area contiguous to Greater London. In the west, there is a conurbation straddling the Hampshire/Surrey border, including in Surrey Camberley and Farnham. Before Roman times the area today known as Surrey was largely occupied by the Atrebates tribe, centred at Calleva Atrebatum, in the modern county of Hampshire, but eastern parts of it may have been held by the Cantiaci, based in Kent.

The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from Roman texts describing the tribal relations between them and the powerful Catuvellauni on the north bank. In about AD 42 King Cunobelinus of the Catuvellauni died and war broke out between his sons and King Verica of the Atrebates; the Atrebates were defeated, their capital captured and their lands made subject to Togodumnus, king of the Catuvellauni, ruling from Camulodunum. Verica appealed for Roman aid; the Atrebates were allied with Rome during the invasion of Britain in AD 43. During the Roman era, the only important settlement within the historic area of Surrey was the London suburb of Southwark, but there were small towns at Staines, Dorking and Kingston upon Thames. Remains of Roman rural temples have been excavated on Farley Heath and near Wanborough and Titsey, possible temple sites at Chiddingfold and Godstone; the area was traversed by other Roman roads. During the 5th and 6th centuries Surrey was settled by Saxons.

The names of possible tribes inhabiting the area have been conjectured on the basis of place names. T

Australian Service Medal

The Australian Service Medal is an Australian military decoration. It was authorised 13 September 1988 to recognise prescribed service in peacekeeping and non-warlike operations, it is awarded with a clasp to denote the prescribed operation and subsequent awards of the medal are made in the form of additional clasps. The Australian Service Medal 1945–1975 recognises non-warlike service prior to February 1975; the Australian Service Medal is a nickel-silver medal ensigned with the Crown of St Edward. The obverse features a modified shield of the Commonwealth Coat of Arms surmounted by the Australian Defence Force Joint Service emblem superimposed on meridians of longitude; the reverse of the medal shows clusters of mimosa blossoms surrounding a Federation Star with the inscription ‘FOR SERVICE’. The medal ribbon has a central brown stripe symbolising the earth, it is flanked by two stripes of dark green which in turn are flanked by stripes of light green and silver-green. A nickel-silver clasp with the name of the theatre or action for which the award is made is presented with the medal.

Personnel who receive this medal may be entitled to receive a service or campaign medal from an international organisation or the host country, if they meet the eligibility criteria for those medals. These are treated as foreign medals in the Australian system, if approved for wear on service uniforms, are worn after Australian medals in the order they are received. Recipients of the ASM may be authorised to wear up to two further medals from an international organisation and a host nation for the same period of service; some of these medals have been granted a blanket authority for all recipients to wear. Others are approved on an individual basis. Note: Those eligible for the Australian Service Medal 1945–75 with Clasp SE ASIA or Australian Service Medal 1945–75 with Clasp FESR are not eligible for the Australian Service Medal with Clasp SE ASIA. 30 days service with the United Nations or North Atlantic Treaty Organisation in the Balkans region with effect from 25 January 1997 – Present 30 days service with the Truce Monitoring Group in Bougainville with effect from 20 November 1997 – 26 August 2003 30 days service in Cambodia with the United Nations Military Liaison Team/Cambodian Mine Action Centre from 8 October 1993 – 4 October 1999 60 days continuous service in a Tactical Assault Group or Recovery Force with effect from 31 August 1979.

30 days service for: Humanitarian 30 August 1975 – 30 October 1975 United Nations Assistance Mission in East Timor 19 June 1999 – 15 September 1999 Operation SPITFIRE air bridge evacuation 6 September 1999 – 19 September 1999 Defence Cooperation Program 1 January 2001 – 11 May 2006 Operation CITADEL UN missions UNMISET and UNOTIL 18 August 2003 – 11 May 2006 Operation SPIRE 20 May 2004 – 11 May 2006 Operation CHIRON service with UN Special Political Mission to Timor-Leste. 20 May 2005 – 11 May 2006 For service after 11 May 2006 see Timor-Leste clasp 30 days service with Operation POMELO, United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea from 15 January 2001 – Present 30 days service with the United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala with effect from 15 February 1997 – 14 May 1997 30 days service with the Royal Australian Navy activity in the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman between 17 November 1986 and 31 October 1988. Service with the Multinational Military Force in the Persian Gulf, from 2 August 1990 – Present. for:14 days service with Operation RAMP from 20 July 2006 to 25 August 2006 30 days service with Operation RAMP II from 13 November 2007 to 5 December 2008 (members of the ADF who rendered service in the area comprising Lebanon

The White Company

The White Company is a historical adventure by British writer Arthur Conan Doyle, set during the Hundred Years' War. The story is set in England and Spain, in the years 1366 and 1367, against the background of the campaign of Edward, the Black Prince to restore Peter of Castile to the throne of the Kingdom of Castile; the climax of the book occurs before the Battle of Nájera. Doyle became inspired to write the novel after attending a lecture on the Middle Ages in 1889. After extensive research, The White Company was published in serialized form in 1891 in Cornhill Magazine. Additionally, the book is considered a companion to Doyle's work Sir Nigel, which explores the early campaigns of Sir Nigel Loring and Samkin Aylward; the novel is unknown today, though it was popular up through the Second World War. In fact, Doyle himself regarded this and his other historical novels more than the Sherlock Holmes adventures for which he is remembered; the "White Company" of the title is a free company of archers, led by one of the main characters.

The name is taken from a real-life 14th-century Italian mercenary company, led by John Hawkwood. At the age of twenty, young Alleyne, son of Edric, leaves the Catholic abbey where he has been raised—intelligent and well-liked, though sheltered and naive—and goes out to see the world, in accordance with the terms of his father's will; the same day, the abbot banishes John of Hordle for worldly behavior: great appetite and flirting. They meet at the Pied Merlin inn as they each rest for the night. There, they make friends with veteran archer Sam Aylward who has returned to England from France to recruit for the White Company of mercenaries. Aylward has brought a request for Sir Nigel Loring of Christchurch to take command of the company. Aylward and John continue to Christchurch, while Alleyne detours to visit his older brother, the socman or landlord of Minstead, whose fierce reputation has grown to wickedness; the brothers meet for the first time since Alleyne was an infant and Alleyne finds that his brother is still furious their father gave three hides of land to the monastery for the boy's support.

The socman threatens a lovely maiden, who escapes with Alleyne's aid and they flee on foot to find her horse. Maude makes a striking impression on the abbey-raised young man; when she hears that Alleyne intends to rejoin his friends to approach Sir Nigel Loring, Maude laughs and leaves him. Alleyne meets up again with Aylward and Hordle John, the three friends meet Sir Nigel and his formidable wife Mary. There, he learns. Alleyne is taken on as squire to Sir Nigel and as tutor to Maude; when the men depart for France, the young couple admit their love, but only to each other. En route to Gascony, our heroes destroy pirates report to the court of the Prince of Wales in Bordeaux. After adventures fearful and funny, the valiant fighters lead the White Company to join the Prince. A letter arrives to Sir Nigel declaring that Alleyne's brother, the Socman of Minstead, had attacked Sir Nigel's castle. During the siege, the socman died; this news means that Alleyne is the new socman and emboldens him to declare his love for Maude to Sir Nigel.

Sir Nigel is startled by the news and Alleyne's declaration, but indicates that he prefers that Alleyne should be a full knight before he approaches Maude again with talk of love. The Spanish and French attack them in a narrow ravine, where the mighty warriors are all destroyed and the Company must disband -- only seven bowmen remain, including John. Alleyne was badly wounded. Sir Nigel and Aylward are missing and presumed dead; the English go on to win the Battle of Nájera. The Prince knights Alleyne in his sick bed. Alleyne returns to England victorious with John as his squire, only to learn from a lady on the road that Maude and her mother had news that none of the White Company had survived; the lady said that love of a "golden-haired squire", presumed dead with the fighters, had caused Maude to decide to join a nunnery. The lady had left. Alleyne rushes to he and Maude embrace, they marry. Alleyn and John prepare to return to find out what happened to Sir Aylward; as Alleyne rides to see if the boat is ready to take them, he meets Sir Nigel.

They have a tale of adventure describing what occurred after they were captured by the Spanish, but escaped to return to England. And everyone lives ever after. Alleyne Edricson: through the wishes of his father, he has been raised by monks of Beaulieu. Upon reaching the age of twenty he goes into the world. During the next two years, Alleyne becomes a squire to Sir Nigel Loring, travels to France to join the White Company, a band of archers; when Alleyne performs a great feat of valour, he himself becomes a knight. Upon returning to England, he weds Sir Nigel's daughter. Sir Nigel Loring: based loosely on the real life figure Sir Neil Loring, he is a valiant but baldheaded little knight and admired by every lord and soldier on both sides of the English Channel, he hopes to engage in jousts and sword fights for honor and glory. He is famed for his deeds at several battles including those of Poitiers, he is the Constable of Twynham Castle. Lady Maude: Sir Nigel's daughter and Alleyne's love, she has a mind of her own and is a modern character.

Sir Nigel knows better than to thwart her when her mind is set such as loving Alleyne. He indicates that Alleyne should be a full knight before Alleyne proposes. Samkin Aylward: An elite arch